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Full text of "Narrative of the United States exploring expedition, during the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842"

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Ipresenteo to 
ttbe 'dniY?ersit of Toronto OLtbrarp 

bB 
Ifoume Blafee, Bsq. 

from tbe boofts of 
late Ibonourable B^warD Blafce 

Cbancellor of tbe 1Dlniv>ersft^ of (Toronto 

(1876=1900) 






THE EXPLORING EXPEDITION. 
LEA AND BLANCHARD, 

PHILADELPHIA, 

HAVE JUST PUBLISHED, 

THE NARRATIVE OF THE 

UNITED STATES 

EXPLORING EXPEDITION, 

DURING THE YEARS 

1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, AND 1842. 
BY CHARLES WILKES, U.S.N., 

COMMANDER OF THE EXPEDITION, ETC., ETC. 

IN FIVE MAGNIFICENT LARGE IMPERIAL OCTAVO VOLUMES, 
WITH AN ATLAS OF LARGE AND EXTENDED MAPS, 

Price Twenty-five Dollars to Subscribers, done up in beautiful 
Extra Cloth Binding. 



This great and truly national work is issued in a style of superior magnificence and 
beauty, containing 

SIXTY- FOUR LARGE AND FINISHED LINE ENGRAVINGS, 

EMBRACING SCENERY, PORTRAITS, MANNERS, CUSTOMS, ETC. ETC. 

FORTY-SEVEN EXQUISITE STEEL VIGNETTES, WORKED AMONG THE LETTER-PRESS; 

ABOUT 

TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTY FINELY-EXECUTED WOOD-CUT ILLUSTRATIONS ; 
FOURTEEN LARGE AND SMALL MAPS AND CHARTS; 

AND NEARLY 
TWENTY-SIX HUNDRED PAGES OF LETTER -PRES S 

No pains or expense have been spared to render these volumes worthy of the theme they 
illustrate, and to make them equal, if not superior, to anything of the kind ever produced 
in any country. The whole work may be regarded as a truly national one. Nothing has 
been used in its preparation that is not STRICTLY AMERICAN, and the design of the 
Author and Publishers has been to produce a book worthy of the country. 

A specimen of the Plates, Cuts, and general execution of the work can be seen, and the 
names of the persons wanting copies may be left with the Publishers, or any of the principal 
Booksellers throughout the Union. 



NOTICE OF THE PUBLISHEBS. 



THE reader will perceive that this edition of the " Narrative 
of the Exploring Expedition" contains precisely the same 
type, page and reading matter, as the one in Imperial Octavo ; 
the difference between them being in the quality and size of 
the paper ; the substitution of forty-seven wood-cuts for that 
number of steel vignettes in the other ; the omission of the 
sixty-four plates, and the use of ten of the fourteen maps, 
three of which are on a reduced scale. 

The number of Wood Illustrations in this Edition is nearly 
Three Hundred. A volume will be published about every 
two weeks, until the whole work shall be completed. 

Philadelphia, April, 1845. 



UNITED STATES 



EXPLORING EXPEDITION, 



NARRATIVE 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES 



EXPLORING EXPEDITION. 



DURING THE YEARS 



1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842. 



BY 



CHARLES WILKES, U. S. N. 

COMMANDER OP THE EXPEDITION. 

MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, ETC. 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS. 



IN FIVE VOLUMES, 
VOL. I. 




PHILADELPH1 A: 

LEA AND BLANCHARD. 
1845. 



ENTERED, ACCORDING TO THE ACT OF CONGRESS, IN THE YEAR 1844, 

BY CHARLES WILKES, U. S. N., 
IN THE CLERK'S OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OB- COLUMBIA. 



o 



f/5 



STEREOTYPED BY J. FAGAN 
PRINTED BY C. SHERMAN. 



h II 



CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 



CHAPTER I. 

DEPARTURE FROM THE UNITED STATES VOYAGE TO MADEIRA - ARRIVAL AT 
FUNCHAL- APPEARANCE OF MADEIRA FROM THE SEA -LANDING AT FUNCHAL - 
VISIT TO THE CIVIL AND MILITARY GOVERNORS - STREETS AND MODE OF TRANS- 
PORTATIONCRIMINALS AND PRISONS VILLA OF CARVALHAL CONVENT 
RIDES IN MADEIRA-CURRAL-VISIT OF SCIENTIFIC GENTLEMEN TO SAN VIN- 
CENTE EXCURSION TOWARDS THE EAST END OF THE ISLAND STORY OF ITS 
DISCOVERY POPULATION OF MADEIRA -WINE -GOVERNMENT- CHARACTER OF 
THE INHABITANTS DRESS DWELLINGS MODE OF TRAVELLING EMPLOYMENTS 
OF THE PEOPLE WINE -MAKING LOWER CLASSES ASCENT OF PICO RUIVO 
NATURAL HISTORY-QUINTA OF MR. BEAN-SCHOONER STAR SAVED FROM WRECK 
-DEPARTURE FROM MADEIRA... 3-24 



CHAPTER II. 

SaUADRON SAILS FROM MADEIRA CURRENTS SEARCH FOR SHOALS AND VIGIAS 
ARRIVAL AT ST. JAGO -APPEARANCE OF THE ISLAND -TOWN OF PORTO PRAYA- 
ITS POPULATION LANGUAGE VISIT TO THE GOVERNOR PUBLIC FOUNTAIN 
MARKET DRILL OF RECRUITS DROUGHTS CLIMATE SLAVES DRESS DEPAR- 
TURE FROM PORTO PRAYA FURTHER SEARCH FOR SHOALS, ETC. ARRIVAL AT 
RIO JANEIRO... 27-41 



vi CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER III. 

CITY OF SAN SALVADOR ITS IMPROVEMENT ITS PRESENT CONDITION CHURCHES 
THE MISERICORDIA FUNERALS EMPEROR'S BIRTHDAY AQUEDUCTS GEOLOGICAL 
CHARACTER OF THE COUNTRY PUBLIC GARDEN MUSEUM BAY AND HARBOUR- 
VEGETATION BOTANIC GARDEN SLAVE POPULATION COFFEE CARRIERS RE- 
SEARCHES INTO THE NATIONS OF AFRICA TREATMENT OF SLAVES STREETS OF 
THE CITY SOCIETY WHITE- JACKET BALL ARRIVAL OF THE RELIEF ASCENT 
OF THE SUGAR-LOAFSURVEYSDEFECTS IN THE EQUIPMENT OF THE SQUADRON 
TRIP TO THE ORGAN MOUNTAINS - JAUNT TO PIEDADE - CONCLUSION OFJTHE 
SURVEYS AND OBSERVATIONS ASCENT OF THE CORCOVADO 4575 



CHAPTER IV. 

CHARACTER OF THE BRAZILIANS CONSTITUTION OF THE EMPIRE RULING PARTY- 
ELECTIVE REGENCY ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE ELECTIVE FRANCHISE ARMY 
NAVY SCHOOLS SLAVERY FEELING TOWARDS FOREIGNERS POPULATION 
NATIONAL DEBT, REVENUE, AND EXPENDITURES COMMERCE EVENTS IN THE 
SQUADRON-DEPARTURE FROM RIO .. 79-S9 



CHAPTER V. 

PASSAGE TO RIO NEGRO ARRIVAL THERE GUACHOS EXCURSION OF THE NATU- 
RALISTSSALT AND SALT LAKES GOVERNMENT AND POPULATION PRODUCTIONS- 
TARIFF INDIANS WANT OF ENTERPRISE DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY RIVER 
AND TIDES -CLIMATE -VEGETATION TRADE -HARBOUR-SQUADRON DRIVEN TO 
SEA DANGERS IN SURVEYING CONVICT SETTLEMENT COMMUNICATION WITH 
BUENOS AYRES DEPARTURE FROM RIO NEGRO STATEN LAND STRAITS OF LE 
MAIRE APPEARANCE OF TERRA DEL FUEGO ITS HARBOUR PARHELION MIRAGE 
MEETING WITH THE RELIEF-HER DEPARTURE FROM RIO-CURRENT-RIO PLATA 
-CAPE RASA-CAPE ST. JOSEPH-CAPE THREE POINTS-DREDGING-BELLACO ROCKS 
CAPE ST. DIEGO GOOD SUCCESS BAY CAPTAIN KING'S SAILING DIRECTIONS- 
NATIVES - INTERCOURSE WITH THEM -BOTANY -GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION NEW 
ISLAND-ITS POSITION-ARRIVAL AT ORANGE HARBOUR-EMPLOYMENTS 93-1W 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VI. 

ORANGE HARBOUR -PLAN OF THE SQUADRON'S OPERATIONS -NATIVES -THEIR AP- 
PEARANCE-THEIR HUTS - ARRIVAL OP MORE NATIVES THEIR TALENT FOR 
MIMICKRY VISIT TO THEIR HUTS THEIR FOOD -SOIL NEAR ORANGE HARBOUR 
TIDES WHALES 1 19129 



CHAPTER VII. 



DEPARTURE OF PORPOISE WHALE-SHIP-HEIGHT OF WAVES -KING GEORGE'S IS- 
LAND O'BRIEN'S AND ASPLAND'S ISLANDS PALMER'S LAND ADVENTURE ISLETS- 
GALE SEA-GULL ORDERED TO RETURN - RETURN OF THE PORPOISE - ELEPHANT 
ISLAND GOOD SUCCESS BAY BOAT DETAINED ATTEMPT TO RELIEVE ACCIDENT 
LIEUTENANT HARTSTEIN GALE FURTHER ATTEMPT TO RELIEVE THE PARTY- 
PORPOISE COMPELLED TO PUT TO SEA CAPE ST. DIEGO ANCHOR OFF IT RETURN 
TO GOOD SUCCESS BAY PARTY JOIN THEIR TRANSACTIONS LEAVE GOOD SUC- 
CESS BAY-NASSAU BAY-DARK NIGHT-FIND OURSELVES AMONG KELP-ANCHOR- 
NATIVESREACH ORANGE HARBOUR ALL WELL SEA-GULL DECEPTION ISLAND 
PENGUINS-SEA LEOPARD-TEMPERATURE-VISIT TO CRATER-FORCE OF WIND- 
CAPTAIN SMILEY DEPARTURE ARRIVAL AT ORANGE HARBOUR SENT IN SEARCH 
OF LAUNCH LOSS OF THAT BOAT RETURN OF SEA-GULL AGAIN SAILS FOR WOL- 
LASTON'S ISLAND -BAILY ISLAND SEA-GULL HARBOUR ARRIVAL OF FLYING- 
FISH.. ................................................. 13^-145 



CHAPTER VIII. 

DEPARTURE OF PEACOCK AND FLYING-FISH GALE RETURN TO ANCHOR FINAL 
DEPARTURE-DIEGO RAMIERES-GALE-SEPARATION-DEFECTIVE OUTFITS OF PEA- 
COCK-CURRENT-GALE-ACCIDENT TO WILLIAM STEWART-HIS RESCUE-DEATH- 
FIRST ICEBERG DIP OBSERVATIONS WEATHER ICEBERGS AND SNOW GALE 
SITUATION OF PEACOCK BIRDS AURORA AUSTRALIS DEEP SEA SOUNDING FOG- 
PETRELS BREAKING ASUNDER OF ICEBERGS DENSE FOG D ANGERS-SNOW-STOR M 
OBSERVATIONS FLYING-FISH REJOINS LIEUTENANT WALKER'S REPORT SITUA- 
TION OF VESSELS COUNCIL OF OFFICERS CAPTAIN HUDSON RESOLVES TO RE- 
TURN- WEATHER- AURORA-GALE-SHIP ON FIRE-FLYING-FISH DESPATCHED FOR 



Jii CONTENTS. 

ORANGE HARBOUR GALE ACCIDENT TO ROYAL HOPE PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SEA 
WHALE SHIP-ARRIVAL OF PEACOCK AT VALPARAISO-FIND THE RELIEF-LIEU 
TENANT-COMMANDANT LONG'S INSTRUCTIONS DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED 
GALE TOWER ROCKS ANCHOR UNDER NOIR ISLAND DANGEROUS POSITION LOSS 
OF ANCHORS AWFUL NIGHT PART CABLES NARROW ESCAPE CONDUCT OF COM- 
MANDANT AND OFFICERS-COUNCIL-DETERMINATION OF IT-PROCEED TO VALPA- 
RAISOARRIVAL OFF THE PORT COMMANDANT LOCKE, H. B. M. SHIP FLY RELIEF 
ANCHORS ARRIVAL OF FLYING-FISH AT ORANGE HARBOUR PREPARATIONS FOR 
DEPARTURE WINDS TEMPERATURE BAROMETRICAL RANGE CLIMATE ANIMALS 
WOLF BIRDS ORANGE HARBOUR VINCENNES AND PORPOISE TAKE THEIR DE- 
PARTURESEA-GULL AND FLYING-FISH TO AWAIT THE RELIEF ANCHOR IN SCA- 
PENHAM BAY GALE ORANGE BAY FINAL DEPARTURE VINCENNES AND POR- 
POISE PART COMPANY ALBATROSS DYSENTERY ISLAND OF MOCHA TRADE 
WINDS- VINCENNES' ARRIVAL AT VALPARAISO-ARRIVAL OF PORPOISE AND FLY- 
ING-FISHHEAVY GALE SEA-GULL LAST SEEN WHALER 149161 



CHAPTER IX. 

APPROACH THE COAST-CORDILLERAS-VISIT TO AUTHORITIES OF VALPARAISO - 
LANDING OF INSTRUMENTS CUSTOM-HOUSE OFFICERS MR. GOOD OBSERVATORY 
G. G. HOBSON, ESQ,. NORTHERS PERCEPTIBLE CHANGE IN THE BAY VALPARAISO 
DESCRIPTION OF IT ITS ORDER AND GOVERNMENT TRAIT OF CHILIANS POLICE 
THEIR SIGNAL SHOPS AMUSEMENTS CHINGANO DANCES SAMACUECA HIGHER 
CLASSES DRESS TASTE FOR MUSIC FONDNESS FOR FLOWERS-GENERAL PRIETO 
HONOURS PAID HIM BALL- DESCRIPTION OF IT 165173 



CHAPTER X. 



JOURNEY INTO THE INTERIOR BILOCHES TRAVELLING CASA BLANCA GEOLOGI- 
CAL FORMATION CURACOVI HEATH ABOVE THE SEA CUESTA DE ZAP ATA 
CUESTA DEL PR ADA ROADS - TRANSPORTATION OF GOODS -BEGGARS -PLAIN OF 
MAYPO CORDILLERAS ST. JAGO MINT LIBRARY AMUSEMENTS FASHIONS- 
MARKET CLIMATE EXCURSION TO THE CORDILLERAS MOUNTAIN SCENERY- 
SNOW GUANACOES HEAT RETURN TO ST. JAGO MAYPOCHO JOURNEY TO SAN 
FELIPE dUILLOTA TUPONG ATI PEAK DIKES E VANGELISTO CELIDONO FARM- 
HOUSE CATCHING WILD HORSES RANCHO ENTERTAINMENT ARRIVAL AT SAN 
FELIPE DE ACONCAGUA MR. NEWMAN'S MR. CHASE TOWN OF SAN FELIPE 
CHICHA AND AGUARDIENTE-THEIR MANUFACTURE AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS 



CONTENTS. i x 

VISIT THE COPPER MINES MODES OP WORKING THEM THEIR SITUATION 
TRANSPORTATION OP ORES WAGES TEMPERANCE REGULATIONS LAKE ON THE 
HIGH CORDILLERAS COPPER ORES RETURN TO SAN FELIPE KINDNESS OF MR. 
NEWMAN AND LADY-CELIDONO-QUILLOTA-RETURN TO VALPARAISO-EARTH- 
QUAKESPROTESTANT CHURCH LIBERALITY OF PRIESTHOOD OR ACION COM- 
MERCE EXPORTS IMPORTS FOREIGN VESSELS POPULATION COLLEGES CON- 
GRESSIMPROVEMENTS IN PROGRESS REVENUE NATIONAL DEBT CLIMATE- 
FRUITS ADMINISTRATION EXECUTIVE SENATE HOUSE OF DEPUTIES MILITIA- 
ARMY NAVY G. G. HOBSON, ESQ., U. S. CONSUL LIEUTENANT CRAVEN HIS GAL- 
LANT CONDUCT-CAPTAIN ISAAC M'KEEVER-U. S. SHIP FALMOUTH-FLYING-FISH 
GALE SEA-GULL LAST SEEN HER LOSS PASSED MIDSHIPMAN JAMES W. E. REID- 
PASSED MIDSHIPMAN FREDERICK A. BACON-ADMINISTRATION OP GOVERNMENT 
OF CHILI - 177208 



CHAPTER XL 

WANT OF CORRECT HISTORICAL RECORDS O'HIGGINS DECLARED SUPREME DICTA- 
TORRESIGNS IN 1823 COUNCIL OF STATE APPOINTED GENERAL FREYRE LANDS 
AT VALPARAISO-ARREST OF O'HIGGINS-HIS RELEASE-GENERAL RAMON FREYRE 
ASSUMES THE GOVERNMENT RETIRES TO PRIVATE LIFE ADMIRAL BLANCO PRE- 
SD3ENT BLANCO RESIGNS SUCCEEDED BY VICE-PRESIDENT HIS RESIGNATION 
FREYRE AGAIN CHOSEN PRESIDENT FREYRE RESIGNS PRIETO BECOMES PRESI- 
DENTRESIGNSPRESIDENT OF THE SENATE ACTS ELECTION HELD PRIETO 
ELECTED -REFUSES TO SERVE VICUNEA PRESIDENT OF SENATE - TROUBLES - 
JUNTA APPOINTED -CIVIL WAR- ABANDONMENT OF THE CAPITAL -FREYRE 
CALLED IN JOINS THE PRESIDENT'S PARTY BATTLE OF LIRCAI, APRIL, 1830 DE- 
FEAT OF FREYRE HIS BANISHMENT TO PERU NEW ELECTION DON FRANCISCO 
TAGLE RETURNED AS PRESIDENT-OVALLE AS VICE-PRESIDENT-BOTH RESIGN- 
PRESIDENT OF SENATE AGAIN ACTS NEW ELECTION GENERAL PRIETO ELECTED, 
JULY, 1831 STATE OF THE COUNTRY HIS ADMINISTRATION DIEGO PORTALE8 
SYSTEM OF REFORM MILITIA SYSTEM ESTABLISHES PUBLIC CREDIT CIVIL 
RULE-TRANSACTIONS WITH PERU-RATIFICATION OF TREATY, AND RECEPTION 
OP MINISTER-CIVIL WAR IN PERU-DEFEAT OF SALAVERRY-NEW ORGANIZATION 
OP PERUVIAN GOVERNMENT-RUPTURE BETWEEN CHILI AND PERU-SECRET EXPE- 
DITION UNDER GENERAL FREYRE-INTELLIGENCE OF IT RECEIVED IN CHILI-AC- 
TIVITY OP GOVERNMENT-CAPTURE OP FREYRE HIS SECOND BANISHMENT-POPU- 
LARITY OF THE ADMINISTRATION SEIZURE OF PERUVIAN VESSELS SUSPENSION 
OF HOSTILITIES CONVENTION CHILI REFUSES TO RATIFY THE PROCEEDINGS 
CHILI SENDS HER FLEET CHILI DECLARES WAR EXPEDITION ORGANIZED DE- 
CREE OF PRESIDENT PRIETO EXPEDITION FITTED OUT UNDER ADMIRAL BLANCO 
TROOPS QUARTERED AT QUILLOTA PORTALES' INSPECTION OF TROOPS HIS AR- 
REST-VIDAURRE'S MUTINY-ACTA OF OFFICERS-NEWS REACHES VALPARAISO- 
VOL. I. B 



r CONTENTS. 

CONSTERNATION - CONDUCT OP MILITIA - VIDAURRE'S DEMANDS - PORTALES* 
NOBLE CONDUCT-VIDAURRE'S ATTACK ON VALPARAISO-HIS DEFEAT AND PLIGHT 
PORTALES' DEATH VIDAURRE CAPTURED AND BROUGHT TO VALPARAISO TRIAL 
AND EXECUTION-EXPEDITION SAILS TO PERU-ITS FAILURE-TREATY OP PAUCAR- 
PATA EXPEDITION RETURNS BLANCO DEPRIVED OF HIS COMMAND BULNES 
NEW EXPEDITION-ITS DEPARTURE 211-225 



CHAPTER XII. 



PORPOISE SAILS-ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS-DIFFICULTIES OF LEAVING THE 
BAY REGULATIONS OF PORT BADLY OBSERVED CONDUCT OF THE CAPTAIN OF 
HAMBURG VESSEL DEPARTURE PART COMPANY WITH PEACOCK AND TENDER- 
EVENTS ON PASSAGE TO CALLAO ZODIACAL LIGHTS MAKE THE COAST OF PERU 
TEMPERATURE OF WATER ENTER BOUdUERON PASSAGE ANCHOR AT SAN LO- 
RENZO-GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OP ISLAND-BURYING-GROUND ARRIVAL OF FAL- 
MOUTH CAPTAIN M'KEEVER HIS KINDNESS DESERTERS CONDUCT OF CREW OP 
RELIEF-PUNISHMENT-EFFECTUAL SUPPRESSION OF SUCH CONDUCT-COURT-MAR. 
TI A L- JUSTIFICATION-CHANGE OF ANCHORAGE TO CALLAO-HEIGHT OF LIMA 
MOLE CALLAO VESSELS IN PORT CASTLE DESCRIPTION OF HOUSES RELIGIOUS 
PRACTICES MARKET REVIEW OF TROOPS OLD CALLAO EFFECTS OP EARTH- 
QUAKE-VAULTS FOR DEPOSITING THE DEAD-POPULATION OF CALLAO-FOURTH 
OP JULY-ROAD TO LIMA-DEVASTATIONS-BELLA VISTA-APPROACH TO LIMA-EN- 
TRANCE AND APPEARANCE ITS PLAN - AMUSEMENTS-SAY A AND MANTA-ITS 
PRIVILEGES -DESCRIPTION OF IT HOUSES PORTALES OR ARCADES-PALACE 
FOUNTAIN CATHEDRAL -CRYPT NOVEL HEARSE MARKET -CONVENT OF SAN 
FRANCISCO-LIBRARY-SIGNATURE OF PIZARRO-FOUNDING OF LIMA-THEATRE- 
NAVAL SCHOOL CLASSES OF NATIVES POPULATION NEWSPAPERS HANDBILLS- 
FESTIVAL CORPUS CHRISTI MR. MATHEWS MANUFACTORIES FESTIVAL OF ST. 
JOHN'S AMANCAES CELEBRATION EARTHQUAKES EFFECTS PRODUCED GATE- 
WAY OF NAVAL SCHOOL CLIMATE RAIN MEAN TEMPERATURE HEALTH RIMAC 
IRRIGATION HARVEST CHILIAN ARMY STATE OF THE COUNTRY MANNER OF 
RECRUITING THE ARMY-TREATMENT OP SLAVES-DEATH OF BENJAMIN HOLDEN 
-SMALL-POX-PRECAUTIONS ADOPTED 229-250 



CHAPTER XIII. 

A PARTY FOR THE INTERIOR-PREPARATIONS FOR THE JOURNEY-PASSPORTS-MR. 
BIGGS-DEPARTURE-EFFECT OF OFFICIAL PAPERS-FACE OF COUNTRY-RUINS OF 
INCA TOWNS-PONCHORUA-CABALLEROS-CONVOY OF SILVER-ACCOMMODATIONS 



CONTENTS. x i 

-EARTHQUAKE-ROUTE UP THE VALLEY OF CAXAVILLO-FACE OF COUNTRY-ST. 
ROSA DE Q.UIVI YASO OBRAJILLO DIFFICULTIES IN PROCURING MULES-BEAUTY 
OF SITUATION-LLAMAS-RIOTERSPLUNDERING OF INHABITANTS-CULNAI - LA 
VINDA VEGETATION MULETEERS ENCOUNTERED REACH THE CREST OF THE 
CORDILLERAS-CASA CANCHA-ITS ACCOMMODATIONS-COOKING RANGE-STCKNESS 
OF PARTY SNOW-STORM ALPAMARCA COMPANY OF PERUVIANS THEIR ATTEN- 
TIONSPROCESS OF AMALGAMATION OF ORE MR. SEVAN VISIT TO THE MINE- 
FACE OF THE MOUNTAIN ROAD BANGS HOT SPRING BEAUTY OF VALLEY VE- 
GETATION THREATENED ATTACK OF A CONDOR PORTRAIT INCIDENTS RELATING 
TO IT DESCRIPTION OF BANGS ITS HABITATIONS STATE OF HORSES RETURN TO 
CA8A CANCH A CHILIAN CONVOY FROM PASCO PASCO MINES VEINS OF ORE- 
NUMBER OF MINES IN OPERATION LAWS IN RELATION TO SILVER MINED DUTIES 
HILL OF RACO NEW SPECULATIONS IN 1840 DIFFICULTIES IN PURCHASING 
MINES THE POLITICAL STATE OF THE COUNTRY ADVERSE TO THIS BUSINESS- 
TEMPERATURE BEAUTY OF SITUATION OF CASA CANCHA THEIR DEPARTURE ON 
THEIR RETURN-LINE OF PERPETUAL SNOW-AMMONITE-CHICRINE-TRAVELLING 
PARTIES FRENCHMAN HIS COMPLIMENTS CULNAI CULTIVATION HOSPITALITY 
OBRAJILLO ACCOMMODATIONS WANT OF GALLANTRY GUIDES SETTLEMENT- 
BRIDAL PARTY YASO ROBBERY YANGA HOSTESS ANGELITA CABALLEROS-RE- 
TURN TO LIMA BOTANICAL REVIEW GEOLOGICAL CHARACTER OF THE COUNTRY 
FLYING-FISH SENT TO PACHACAMAC-LANDING-TEMPLE-TOWN-TOMBS-THEIR 
CONTENTS EMBARKATION-RETURN TO CALLAO 253-281 



CHAPTER XIV. 

SELF-AGGRANDIZEMENT THE OBJECT OF RULERS END OF REVOLUTIONARY WAR- 
GENERAL BOLIVAR DICTATOR HIS AUTHORITY CEASES GENERAL LA MAR ELECTED 
GAMARR^'S TREACHERY LA MAR ARRESTED AND BANISHED GAMARRA AND 
LAFUENTE ELECTED-ATTEMPTS TO SEIZE LAFUENTE-HIS ESCAPE-EXECUTION 
OF MAJOR ROSEL CONVENTION CONVOKED GAMARRA RESIGNS ORBEJOSO 
ELECTED REVOLUTION BY BERMUDEZ AND GAMARRA BERMUDEZ CAPTURED 
ORBEJOSO'S AUTHORITY RESTORED - SALAVERRY REVOLTS - DECLARES HIMSELF 
SUPREME DICTATOR-UNITES WITH GAMARRA-GAMARRA DEFEATED-ARRESTED 
BY SALAVERRY AND BANISHED-SALAVERRY MARCHES AGAINST SANTA CRUZ- 
BATTLE OF SOCAB AY A SALAVERRY DEFEATED TAKEN PRISONER TRIED AND 
SHOT ORBEJOSO REINSTATED TREATY WITH CHILI NULLIFIED SANTA CRUZ'S 
INTRIGUES -DISMEMBERMENT OF PERU - ASSEMBLY OF SICUANI - SANTA CRUZ 
NAMED SUPREME PROTECTOR-CONVENTION OF HUARA-GENERAL FREYRE FITS 
OUT AN EXPEDITION CHILIAN CONSUL-GENERAL EVADES THE EMBARGO SEI- 

, ZURE OF PERUVIAN VESSELS NEGOTIATION CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES INVA- 
SION OF ALTA PERU-DISASTROUS CAMPAIGN-TREATY OF PEACE-RETURN OF 

2 



L ji CONTENTS. 

CHILIAN ARMY CHILIAN GOVERNMENT REFUSES TO RATIFY THE TREATY LE- 
GION OF HONOUR -DISCONTENT AT SANTA CRUZ'S POLICY -WAR AGAIN COM- 
MENCED-EXPEDITION FROM CHILI-INVASION OF PERU-BATTLE OF LIMA-LIMA 
TAKEN - ORBEJOSO ESCAPES - GAMARRA NAMED PRESIDENT SANTA CRUZ 
MARCHES UPON LIMA-CHILIANS EMBARK-LAND AT HUARA-PURSUED BY SANTA 
CRUZ BATTLE OF YUNGAI SANTA CRUZ TOTALLY DEFEATED ESCAPES TO LIMA 
THENCE TO AREQUIPA SEEKS REFUGE ON BOARD A BRITISH SHIP OF WAR 
BULNES SAILS AGAIN FOR CALLAO-DISEMBARKS HIS TROOPS TAKES POSSESSION 
OF LIMA -CONGRESS CONVOKED - GAM ARR A ELECTED PRESIDENT -RESULTS OF 
BATTLE OF YUNGAI-BULNES WITH HIS ARMY RETURNS TO CHILI-GAMARRA GOES 
TO AID BOLIVIA-HIS FORCES ROUTED, AND HIMSELF KILLED-CHARACTER OF 
BOLIVAR LA MAR-GAMARRA-LAFUENTE-ORBEJOSO-SALAVERRY-SANTA CRUZ 
HIS ACTS-COMMERCE-PERU AND CHILI-IMPORTS-EXPORTS-TRADE WITH THE 
UNITED STATES 285-304 



CHAPTER XV. 

STORE-SHIP RELIEF EDWIN BARTLETT, ESQ. EDWARD M'CALL, ESQ. DEPARTURE 
CAPTAIN M'KEEVER PERUVIAN BRIG SMALL-POX GENERAL ORDER PROPOSED 
ROUTE CURRENTS EXPERIMENTS TEMPERATURE [ALEXANDER OGLE CLER- 
MONT DE TONNERRE APPEARANCE OF IT SURVEY NATIVES JOHN SAC DIFFI- 
CULTIES WITH NATIVES-LANDING-SERLE ISLAND HONDEN SURVEYS- CORAL 
ISLANDS VEGETATION-BIRDS, ETC.-DIS APPOINTMENT ISLANDS-INHABITANTS 
WYTOOHEE-OTOOHO-TAIARO-RARAKA-LANDING-ONE-HANDEDCHIEF-HIS VISIT 
TO THE SHIP-INHABITANTS-CATCHING FISH -LEAVE-TAKING -GALE-NARROW 
ESCAPE OF PEACOCK-PORPOISE DESPATCHED-VINCENNES ISLAND-CRITICAL PO- 
SITION OF TENDER LANDING ARATICA ISLAND COMMUNICATION WITH ITS IN- 
HABITANTSLANDINGVILLAGEDESCRIPTION OF ISLAND FRESH WATER FOOD 
TENDER DESPATCHED TO KING GEORGE'S GROUP VINCENNES AND PEACOCK DIS- 
COVER MANHII AND AHII ISLANDS SURVEY LANDING OBSERVATIONS NATIVES- 
DESERTER - ECLIPSE - PEACOCK DESPATCHED TO RURICK ISLAND - VINCENNES 
PASSES TO NAIRSA-INHABITANTS-KRUSENSTERN'S ISLAND-METIA ISLAND-ITS 
APPEARANCE-SURVEYLANDING-NATIVES-MISSIONARIES' KINDNESS - COSTUMES 
ASCEND THE ISLAND-VEGETATIONAPPEARANCE OF THE ISLAND-DEPARTURE 
ARRIVAL AT TAHITI ANCHOR IN MATAVAI BAY OBSERVATIONS ON POINT 
VENUS PROCEEDINGS OF PORPOISE PROCEEDINGS OF PEACOCK ARUTUA SURVEY 
NAIRSA OR DEAN'S ISLAND CORAL BLOCKS METIA ISLAND OBSERVATIONS 
TETUAROA-FLYING-FISH-TIOKEA AND OURA-HISTORY OF PAUMOTU GROUP-CHA- 
RACTER OF ITS INHABITANTSPOPULATION - 307345 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE Expedition, a narrative of the operations of which is now laid before 
the public, was the first, and is still the only one fitted out by national munifi- 
cence for scientific objects, that has ever left our shores. It would, therefore, 
appear proper that a more minute account of its outfit should be given, than 
could be expected of one despatched by an older nation. This is more particu- 
larly the case, as a great part of the difficulties it had to encounter, occurred 
previously to its sailing. I would not, however, have the reader to believe that 
I intend to enter into details of transactions of which, perhaps, no one knows the 
origin, or to speculate on the causes that operated to prevent its sailing within a 
reasonable time after the passage of the Act of Congress directing it to be under- 
taken. 

The command of the Exploring Expedition devolved upon me, by orders from 
the Hon. Mahlon Dickerson, then Secretary of the Navy, on the 20th March, 
1838. At that time, great confusion existed in its organization. It is unneces- 
sary, and would be out of place here, to enter into its previous history. It is 
sufficient to refer to the fact, that it had already been denounced as an entire and 
complete failure, and that I was instructed to organize it anew. 

Whatever others are disposed to think, I am inclined to believe, that the 
originating, getting up, and getting off a first National Expedition, is a work of 
no small difficulty, and this is much increased by the public thinking, talking of, 
2 * ( xi ) 



x i v INTRODUCTION. 

and interfering too much with it. I felt this myself, although it did not cause 
me much difficulty. The successive resignations of the different officers who 
had been appointed to the command, led every body to look upon it with dis- 
gust, and, in consequence, my road was clear, or comparatively unembarrassed. 
The very state of things that brought the Expedition into general disrepute, was 
of great advantage to me, for I was left to perform my duties unmolested. One 
of the difficulties I had to encounter, was to make a selection from the numerous 
articles provided, and this was a work of no ordinary kind. They may have 
been all useful, and perhaps necessary for a larger Squadron; but if all had 
been embarked, every vessel of the Squadron would have been filled. Every 
expense that could be lavished on its equipment had been incurred. One rule of 
action soon brought me to dispose of the whole : this was the capacity to stow 
them ; and parts of each were accordingly selected for the new order of things. 

On the 20th of April, I was informed that the vessels appointed for this ser- 
vice were the sloops of war Vincennes and Peacock, the brig Porpoise, and 
store-ship Relief. The tenders Sea-Gull and Flying-Fish were subsequently 
added. 

The Relief was the only one of the vessels that had belonged to the original 
Squadron. 

On this reduction of force, it became necessary to change the organization, 
not only in point of numbers, but also to bring the officers into more intimate 
connexion with the scientific duties. 

This was done by placing all those departments that in any way appertained 
or belonged to our profession under my direction, with officers of the navy for 
assistants. The size and accommodation of the vessels naturally led to the 
reduction of those departments that were placed under the corps of civilians, 
including naturalists as well as artists. As many of these were taken as could 
be accommodated. The selection was made with much deliberation, and with 
great impartiality. Reference was had to the departments in which results were 
most to be expected, and most desired by the country. The only new one 
added was the Horticulturist and Assistant-Botanist, Mr. Brackenridge. 

After the 20th of April, every exertion was made to forward the various out- 
fits. By the 7th July, the Vincennes and Peacock were taken charge of, and 
dropped down between the forts at Norfolk, and it was determined that the 
Squadron should rendezvous in Hampton Roads. On the following day, the 
seamen were transferred from the Macedonian, which had been the flag-ship 
under the original organization. I felt some solicitude about the crews. They 



INTRODUCTION. xv 

had been a long time shipped, and had manifested their discontent in a letter 
addressed to the Secretary of the Navy, in which they objected to being trans- 
ferred to a younger and new set of officers. The plan I adopted was at once to 
send them on shore on liberty, and thus show entire confidence in them. To 
my great surprise, they returned, to a man, showing that no disposition adverse 
to the service existed among them, and that the bad feeling was nothing more 
than what might naturally be expected to result from a long confinement on 
board of a ship, in sight of their homes, and the constant disappointment they 
had met with in a delayed departure. From this circumstance, and the pros- 
pect of no further detention, their spirits revived, and great activity prevailed in 
all the departments to forward the preparations. All the instruments had been 
Brought from New York in the Macedonian, under care of Lieutenant Carr. 
Part of them, including the Chronometers, had been landed at the Naval 
Asylum, where a Portable Transit had been put up, for rating them. The 
instruments appertaining to Magnetism and the Pendulums were carried to 
Washington, to make the necessary experiments. 

The depot of charts and instruments on Capitol Hill, was selected to make 
the series of observations at. These occupied my own time until sailing. 

On the 26th of July, Martin Van Buren, the President of the United States, 
accompanied by Mr. Paulding, Secretary of the Navy, and Mr. Poinsett, Secre- 
tary of War, did us the honour to visit the Vincennes. On this occasion, and 
the only one during the continuance of my command, a salute was fired, (none 
of the instruments had then been embarked,) by all the vessels, and the yards 
were manned. This produced a good effect on all, for it showed us that a 
watchful eye was kept over us, and that much interest was felt in the under- 
taking. This visit formed an epoch to which I often heard reference made 
during the cruise. Few are able to estimate the feelings of satisfaction that such 
acts occasion to those engaged in undertakings like this. 

I shall now proceed to give a description of the vessels that composed the 
Squadron. 

The Vincennes was a sloop of war, of seven hundred and eighty tons, origi- 
nally single-decked, but in consequence of the intended cruise, a light deck was 
put on her for the protection of the men, and to afford more room. The accom- 
modations thus became those of a small frigate. 

The Peacock was of smaller size, a sloop of war of six hundred and fifty 
tons, originally built for this service in 1828, with a deck like that of the Vin- 
cennes. She had made two cruises previous to her sailing in 1838. 



xvi INTRODUCTION. 

The Porpoise, a gun-brig of two hundred and thirty tons. The experience I 
had had in this vessel induced me to ask for an alteration, which was made, and 
added much to her safety, as well as increased her accommodations. This was 
to build a poop-cabin and a forecastle on her deck. 

The tenders Sea- Gull and Flying- Fish were New York pilot-boats. The 
former had been known as the New Jersey, of one hundred and ten tons ; the 
latter as the Independence, of ninety-six tons. They were purchased on the 3d 
of August. Their masts, sails, &c., were reduced, and their outfits completed 
in the short space of three days, by those enterprising shipwrights, Messrs. 
Webb and Allen of New York, to whom much credit is due. They joined the 
Squadron on the 12th of August, in Hampton Roads. 

The Relief was a new vessel, originally intended for a store-ship for the* 
Navy, but had been transferred to the Expedition on being launched. She was 
built for carrying, and her slow rate of sailing made her ill adapted for the 
cruise. 

The Expedition is much indebted to Commodore Ridgely and the officers of 
the Brooklyn Navy- Yard. To Commodore Downes and Captain Percival, of 
the Boston Navy- Yard, we are also under great obligations. The boats pre- 
pared under the direction of the last named officers, were found to be well 
adapted for the service. They were all clinker-built, with the exception of the 
launches, and of the description used by whalers and sealers. 

After the Peacock's return in 1837, she had undergone little or no repairs. 
Her bottom was indeed sound, being built of live-oak, but her upper- works were 
worn and much decayed, as the sequel proved. After this vessel left the Navy- 
Yard at Norfolk, her fore and cross-jackyards were found by her commander to 
be rotten. On its being reported to the commandant of the yard, they were 
ordered to be replaced, and all the other defects partially remedied. 

The carpenter of the Washington Navy- Yard, Mr. J. H. Smoot, built for me, 
under order of the Commissioners of the Navy, a very convenient portable pen- 
dulum-house and observatory, which answered every purpose for which it was 
intended. 

The organization of this Expedition has frequently been a subject of remark. 
I have therefore obtained all the papers that passed between the government and 
Captain Hudson, in relation to it, prior to his accepting the position he occupied. 
They form, with a few remarks, the first pages of the Appendix to this volume, 
and will place the whole in its true light. 

The Narrative will fully show the part he has taken in carrying out the 



INTRODUCTION. xvl j 

instructions of the Department, and I must acknowledge and return my thanks 
to him for the aid he afforded me in the arduous duties that devolved upon me. 

To Lieutenant Cadwalader Ringgold, the commander of the Porpoise, I am 
indebted, for his hearty co-operation in the duties that devolved upon the Expe- 
dition. The efficient manner in which he at all times held his command, and 
the promptness with which he carried out the duties assigned him, merit my 
warmest acknowledgments and thanks. 

The best encomium I can bestow on the united efforts of the officers and men, 
is to refer the reader to the Hydrographical Atlas, and the details in the Narra- 
tive of the duties which have been performed. 

In the observatory duties and pendulum observations, I was principally 
assisted by Lieutenant Carr, Passed Midshipmen Eld and Blunt, and Mr. Howi- 
son. I deem it my duty to speak of the devotedness of Assistant-Surgeons Fox 
and Holmes, who, besides attending to their engrossing medical duties and 
meteorological observations, manifested the utmost zeal in collecting and making 
researches in the various departments of natural history. They also frequently 
assisted in the surveys, and I found them ever ready to engage in any thing that 
could promote the success of the Expedition. 

It gives me great pleasure to acknowledge the credit that is due, and the obli- 
gations I feel under to Mr. R. R. Waldron and Mr. William Spieden, Pursers 
attached to the Expedition, for their promptness in procuring the supplies, and at 
all times forwarding the business of the Expedition; none of the departments of 
the service were more efficient than that over which they had control. 

Since our return, Lieutenants Carr, Budd, Totten, and Eld, with Mr. F. D. 
Stuart, who were attached to the Expedition, have been engaged under my 
direction in recalculating and revising our numerous surveys, previous to their 
being engraved. 

To Messrs. Drayton and Agate, the Artists of the Expedition, I feel it due to 
make known how constantly and faithfully they have performed their duties. 
The illustrations of these volumes will bear ample testimony to the amount of 
their labours, and the accuracy with which they have been executed. 

Mr. Drayton has had the management of the whole engraving department 
assigned him by the Committee of the Library, and has accomplished what very 
few believed could be done in this country. The distribution of the work among 
the engravers has given general satisfaction, not only to the Committee, but to 
the artists themselves, and has afforded a national encouragement to this 
description of art, the benefit of which it will long continue to feel. 

VOL. i. c 



Xviii INTRODUCTION. 

To Mr. Drayton I owe many acknowledgments for his constant and untiring 
zeal in all the departments of the Expedition, not only during the continuance of 
the Expedition, but since its return, while acting in concert with me in pre- 
paring the illustrations of the Narrative for the press. I cannot but congratulate 
myself that we should have been so fortunate in having one attached to the 
Expedition so well adapted to encounter and from his former experience to 
overcome, the difficulties we have had to contend with in the progress of the pub- 
lication. 

The country is particularly indebted to the Joint Committees of two successive 
Congresses* who have had the execution of the law for the publication of the 
results of the Exploring Expedition entrusted to them. They have afforded me 
all the assistance I could desire; and through the facilities obtained, I have been 
enabled to bring the Narrative to completion at a much earlier day than I at first 
anticipated. 

To the Hon. Benjamin Tappan especially, I feel under obligations for the 
great interest he has ever taken in the Expedition. The law for the publication 
was originally reported by him ; he was at an early day appointed the Agent of 
the Committee to superintend the whole work in its progress ; and it has afforded 
me great pleasure, as well as satisfaction, to co-operate with one so competent to 
the task. 

I am aware that some dissatisfaction was occasionally felt at the outset by a 
few of the naturalists, because they were not allowed all the opportunities 

* Members of the Joint Committee on the Library of Congress, at the Second Session of 
the Twenty-seventh Congress : 

SENATORS. REPRESENTATIVES. 

Hon. William C. Preston, Chairman, Hon. Joseph L. Tillinghast, 
Benjamin Tappan, John B. Aycrigg, 

Rufus Choate. Thomas D. Sumter. 

At the Third Session of the Twenty-seventh Congress: 

SENATORS. REPRESENTATIVES. 

Hon. William Woodbridge, Chairman, Hon. Joseph L. Tillinghast, 
Benjamin Tappan, John B. Aycrigg, 

Ruftis Choate. Thomas D. Sumter. 

At the First Session of the Twenty-eighth Congress. 

SENATORS. REPRESENTATIVES. 

Hon. Ruftis Choate, Chairman, Hon. Edmund Burke, 

Benjamin Tappan, George P. Marsh, 

John M. Berrien. William B. Maclay. 



INTRODUCTION. x i x 

they desired of making investigations. It was not to be supposed, from the 
many interests, and their inexperience in naval duties, that all could agree that 
the particular objects of their several departments received the proper considera- 
tion. Each would naturally look upon his own as the most important. They 
were not aware of my instructions, and of the duties that were enjoined upon 
me ; and I think did not take into consideration the loss of time I had met with 
from various causes, and that my intentions were at times unexpectedly frus- 
trated. Besides, it was my duty to look to the essential objects of the Expedi- 
tion, which were entirely unknown to them. They are now, after the cruise has 
passed, I believe fully satisfied that it was not possible, without sacrificing the 
greater interests, to give more attention than I did to subordinate parts. 

I cannot avoid bearing testimony to their perseverance, industry, zeal, and 
strict conformity to the rules and regulations laid down for the government of 
us all. The result of their labours will shortly be before the public, and will 
show the manner in which they have performed their duties. They messed 
with the ward-room officers, and received all the privileges, respect, and atten- 
tion due to that rank. 

In the following Narrative, it may perhaps be necessary to state, that although 
our time was limited to a few days at some of the places we visited, yet the 
number of officers and gentlemen engaged under my command, enabled me to 
have every thing worthy of notice examined. The result of our observations, 
I am satisfied, will give a faithful representation of the countries and islands, 
during the period of our visit. 

I received every facility for obtaining information from our consuls, as well as 
from missionaries and American residents abroad. Some of them furnished me 
with interesting documents, connected with the past and present state of the 
countries where they reside, and procured from the different governments many 
valuable official papers. Indeed, the facilities met with have evinced a desire in 
all to further the undertaking with which I was charged. 

To the Governor of New South Wales, Sir George Gipps, my acknowledg- 
ments are particularly due, for his generous liberality in ordering me to be fur- 
nished by the Colonial Secretary, E. Deas Thompson, Esq., with all the docu- 
ments published, not only at the time of our visit, but since. The latter have 
been kindly forwarded by our consul, J. H. Williams, Esq., to whom the Expe- 
dition is also greatly indebted. From all these documents I have been enabled 
to draw much valuable information, which I hope will be interesting to the gene- 
ral reader, as well as useful to our interests abroad. 



xx INTRODUCTION. 

The reader who shall look to this Narrative for my version of the develope- 
ments which were elicited by the proceedings of the courts-martial, will be dis- 
appointed, as I shall make no allusions that I can possibly avoid, to any of the 
subjects of a personal character that came before those tribunals, that occurred 
after the return of the Expedition ; nor will the following Narrative embrace any 
personal matters or difficulties that may have taken place with the officers, for 
the reason that I do not regard such details as relevant or interesting to the gene- 
ral reader. The attempts to throw impediments in my way were unsuccessful, 
and I fully believe, that from whatever motive they may have arisen, those who 
caused them are now desirous that they should be forgotten. My countrymen 
will see that my duties were sufficiently arduous without having other difficulties 
to contend with, and I have the gratification of feeling that those duties have 
been performed, and the results fairly obtained. 

The performance of these duties is the best refutation that can be given to the 
many misstatements that have been circulated to the prejudice of the Expedition, 
but which, I trust, will now be set at rest. I have never had any personal feel- 
ing in the matter, except that which naturally arises from the wish to overcome 
all impediments, of whatever nature they might be. I can, therefore, have no 
desire but to give the true version of every circumstance of a public nature thai 
/nay concern the Expedition, and I hope that I shall be able to do it with impar- 
tiality and justice, touching as lightly as possible on the faults of individuals, and 
bestowing praise wherever it is justly due. 

The objects intended to be accomplished by the Expedition, were such as to 
require not merely the usual obedience to the orders of its commander, but 
demanded, in addition, a zeal, that could only be inspired by a strong interest in 
its success, and intelligence of a higher character than is called into action in the 
ordinary routine of the duty of an officer. Deficiency in either quality was to 
oppose an obstacle to the success of the enterprise; in a word, we were placed 
in circumstances in which it became necessary for us to perform more than our 
ordinary duties. Those who felt and appreciated our situation, are entitled to 
the highest praise; while some apology may be made for others, who, perhaps, 
were unconscious of any failure in discipline, or actual dereliction of duty, and 
may have thought that they had cause to be aggrieved, when they found that I 
was not satisfied with the manner in which their services were rendered; yet, it 
was as incumbent on me to see that our work was not retarded by their want of 
zeal and knowledge, as to shorten sail on the approach of the tempest. 

The instruments I was supplied with, were procured by myself in Europe; 



INTRODUCTION. xx j 

they were made by the best English, French, and German artists. A descrip- 
tion of these will be given in the volume on Physics. 

The longitudes of our principal stations have been determined by series of 
moon culminating stars, and meridian distances have been measured from them 
to other points by chronometers. 

The latitudes of the important places were obtained by a number of sets of 
circum-meridian observations of sun and stars. 

The chronometers used were by the best English makers, and most of them 
performed very satisfactorily. But two out of the twenty-nine became defective, 
and stopped ; these will be more particularly noticed hereafter, in the volume 
pertaining to this subject. To it I must also refer for the manner in which our 
surveys were executed. 

The magnetical instruments were by both English and French makers. 
Results have been had throughout the cruise, and will serve to give a magnetic 
chart of the world ; these will be published in the volume on Physics. Those 
observations of more immediate interest in the high southern latitudes, will be 
embraced in these volumes. 

In the Appendix will be found all the official documents relating to the opera- 
tions of the Squadron. These I have thought it necessary to lay before the 
public, in order that it may have a full view of the whole of the operations in 
which the Squadron was employed, and may be able to examine and compare 
the orders under which we acted, with the duties which have been performed. 
The Narrative will embody all those which we executed, and will thus enable 
all to judge how the work was conducted. I have a strong desire also that the 
whole should appear, in order that the Expedition may stand before the country 
and the world, in its true merits. When they become aware of all the facts, 
they will be able to see the injustice that has been done it, will wonder at the 
extraordinary reception that awaited its return, and the persecutions I met with, 
as the reward of the arduous labours of four years. These I cannot but feel 
were unjust, particularly as they were carried on without any hearing whatever, 
and even without any examination of the results, or any inquiry relative to the 
extent of the duties, or the manner in which they had been performed. This, 
however, is not the place to speak of these things. 

I had, at an early day after my appointment, assigned the 10th of August 
as the time for our departure, and had assured the President that at that time 
I should be ready, and would sail ; but that it was entirely impossible for me to 
3 



XXII 



INTRODUCTION. 



fix an earlier day. I feel much satisfaction in reflecting on the confidence the 
President and Secretary placed in me. It was fully appreciated. The exertions 
of all were bent to fulfil this pledge, although almost all those connected with the 
enterprise doubted the possibility of getting off so soon. Every thing, however, 
was completed, and I left Washington on the 10th of August. 

On my arrival at Norfolk, I found every thing in a state of forwardness, and 
the Squadron in Hampton Roads, whither they had dropped down on the 8th of 
August. The names of the pilot-boats were now changed to the Sea- Gull ana 
Flying-Fish, as had been agreed upon with Mr. Paulding ; and they were placed 
under command of Passed Midshipmen Reid and Knox. 

I was well aware, from my own observations and the reports made to me, 
that we were any thing but well equipped for such a cruise. But whatever our 
defects were, it was now entirely too late to remedy them. The great anxiety 
of the government to have us get to sea, after the vexatious delays that had 
before occurred in the sailing of the Expedition, disappointing the honest expec- 
tations of the whole country, and particularly the depressing effect any further 
delay would produce on the spirits and ardour of the officers and men, made me 
come to the resolution to put to sea at all hazards, and endeavour to remedy the 

defects as much as possible within our own means, or on our arrival at places 


where it could be done effectually. 

Before sailing from Hampton Roads, the internal rules and regulations for the 
government of the Squadron were issued, in order to make the terms of duties 
more uniform, and that in case of transfer of men and officers during the cruise, 
from one vessel to another, no one could be at a loss to know the duties he had 
to perform. These continued without any material change to be rigidly enforced 
throughout the cruise. Signal-books were also arranged to supply the defective 
ones that are furnished the navy. 

I was called upon, in a few cases, to exercise the means in my possession to 
punish aggressions. Yet my aim has been throughout the cruise, so to conduct 
the duties devolving upon the Squadron, that it would carry with it the force of 
moral principle. All the regulations and operations were made to tend to this 
end. I considered this as one of my first duties, and in it I have been well sup- 
ported by Captain Hudson and Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold, and by most 
of the officers of the Expedition. I feel great satisfaction in having received 
testimonials from the different missionaries, that my course has been fully appre- 
ciated by them. Indeed, I have reason to rejoice that I have been enabled 



INTRODUCTION. xx iii 

to carry the moral influence of our country to every quarter of the globe 

where our flag has waved, and I trust that the Expedition will compare 

advantageously with any other that has preceded it, in its moral and correct 
deportment. 

CHARLES WILKES. 

WASHINGTON CITY, 

November, 1844. 



INSTRUCTIONS. 



Navy Department, 

August llth, 1838. 
SIR, 

The Congress of the United States, having in view the important interests of 
our commerce embarked in the whale-fisheries, and other adventures in the great 
Southern Ocean, by an act of the 18th of May, 1836, authorized an Expedition 
to be fitted out for the purpose of exploring and surveying that sea, as well to 
determine the existence of all doubtful islands and shoals, as to discover and 
accurately fix the position of those which lie in or near the track of our vessels 
in that quarter, and may have escaped the observation of scientific navigators. 
Liberal appropriations have been made for the attainment of these objects, and 
the President, reposing great confidence in your courage, capacity, and zeal, has 
appointed you to the command of the Expedition, requiring you to proceed to 
the performance of the duties of that station with the vessels placed under your 
orders, consisting of the sloops of war Vincennes and Peacock, the ship Relief, 
the brig Porpoise, and tenders Sea-Gull and Flying-Fish. 

As soon as these vessels are in every respect ready, you will accordingly 
take your departure from Norfolk, and shape your course to Rio Janeiro, cross- 
ing the line between longitude 18 and 22 W., and keeping within those meri- 
dians to about latitude 10 S., with a view to determine the existence of certain 
mgias or shoals laid down in the charts as doubtful, and whose position, should 
they be found to exist, it is deemed useful to the interests of our commerce to 
ascertain. 

At Rio Janeiro, you will replenish your supplies, taking special care to 
furnish yourself with a sufficiency of all those articles which are considered the 

VOL. i. 3* D (xxv) 



X xvi INSTRUCTIONS. 

best preventives and remedies for the scurvy. You will determine the longitude 
of that place, as well as of Cape Frio ; after which, you will either detach a 
vessel, or proceed with your whole squadron, to make a particular examination 
of Rio Negro, which falls into the South Atlantic about latitude 41 S., with a 
view to ascertain its resources and facilities for trade. 

Having completed this survey, you will proceed to a safe port or ports in 
Terra del Fuego, where the members of the scientific corps may have favoura- 
ble opportunities of prosecuting their researches. Leaving the larger vessels 
securely moored, and the officers and crews occupied in their respective duties, 
you will proceed with the brig Porpoise, and the tenders, to explore the southern 
Antarctic, to the southward of Powell's Group, and between it and Sandwich 
Land, following the track of Weddell as closely as practicable, and endeavour- 
ing to reach a high southern latitude; taking care, however, not to be obliged to 
pass the winter there, and to rejoin the other vessels between the middle of 
February and beginning of March. The attention of the officers left at Terra del 
Fuego, will, in the mean time, be specially directed to making such accurate and 
particular examinations and surveys of the bays, ports, inlets, and sounds, in 
that region, as may verify or extend those of Captain King, and be serviceable 
in future to vessels engaged in the whale-fisheries, in their outward and home- 
ward-bound passages. 

You will then, on rejoining the vessels at Terra del Fuego, with all your 
squadron, stretch towards the southward and westward as far as the Ne Plus 
Ultra of Cook, or longitude 105 W., and return northward to Valparaiso, 
where a store-ship will meet you in the month of March, 1839. Proceeding 
once more from that port, you will direct your course to the Navigator's Group, 
keeping to the southward of the place of departure, in order to verify, if possi- 
ble, the existence of certain islands and shoals, laid down in the charts as doubt- 
ful, and if they exist, to determine their precise position, as well as that of all 
others which may be discovered in this unfrequented track. When you arrive 
in those latitudes where discoveries may be reasonably anticipated, you will so 
dispose your vessels as that they shall sweep the broadest expanse of the ocean 
that may be practicable, without danger of parting company, lying-to at night 
in order to avoid the chance of passing any small island or shoal without detec- 
tion. 

It is presumed you will reach the Navigator's Group some time in June, 1889. 
You will survey this group, and its harbours, with all .due care and attention. 
If time will permit, it will be well to visit the Society Islands, and examine 
Eimeo, which, it is stated, possesses a convenient harbour. 

From the Navigator's Group, you will proceed to the Feejee Islands, which 
you will examine with particular attention, with the view to the selection of a 
safe harbour, easy of access, and in every respect adapted to the reception of 
vessels of the United States engaged in the whale-fishery, and the general 
commerce of these seas ; it being the intention of the government to keep one 
of the squadron of the Pacific cruising near these islands in future. 



INSTRUCTIONS. xxv ij 

After selecting the island and harbour best adapted to the purposes in view, 
you will use your endeavours to make such arrangements as will insure a 
supply of fruits, vegetables, and fresh provisions, to vessels visiting it hereafter, 
teaching the natives the modes of cultivation, and encouraging them to raise 
hogs in greater abundance. 

These objects will, it is presumed, occupy you until the latter end of October ; 
and when attained as far as may be possible, you will proceed to the port of 
Sydney, where adequate supplies may be obtained. From thence you will 
make a second attempt to penetrate within the Antarctic region, south of Van 
Diemen's Land, and as far west as longitude 45 E., or to Enderby's Land, 
making your rendezvous on your return at Kerguelen's Land, or the Isle of 
Desolation, as it is now usually denominated, and where you will probably 
arrive by the latter end of March, 1840. 

From the Isle of Desolation you will proceed to the Sandwich Islands, by 
such route as you may judge best, from the information you may acquire from 
such sources as fall in your way. 

A store-ship from the United States will meet you there, with a supply of 
provisions, in the month of April, 1840. 

Thence you will direct your course to the Northwest Coast of America, 
making such surveys and examinations, first of the territory of the United 
States on the seaboard, and of the Columbia river, and afterwards along the 
coast of California, with special reference to the Bay of St. Francisco, as you 
can accomplish by the month of October following your arrival. 

You will then proceed to the coast of Japan, taking in your route as many 
doubtful islands as possible; and you have permission to pass through the 
Straits of Sangar into the Sea of Japan, where you may spend as much time as 
is compatible with your arrival at the proper season in the Sea of Sooloo or 
Mindoro. 

Of this sea you will make a particular examination, with a view to ascertain 
whether there is any safe route through it, which will shorten the passage of 
our vessels to and from China. 

It is enjoined on you to pay very particular attention to this object, in order 
that you may be enabled to furnish sailing instructions to navigators. It may 
be also advisable to ascertain the disposition of the inhabitants of the islands of 
this archipelago for commerce, their productions and resources. 

Having completed this survey, you will proceed to the Straits of Sunda, pass 
through the Straits of Billiton, which you will examine, and thence to the port 
of Singapore, where it is probable you may arrive about the beginning of April, 
1841, and where you will meet, a store-ship from the United States. 

Having completed this service, it is presumed the objects of your enterprise 
will be accomplished, and you will accordingly, after receiving your supplies at 
Singapore, return to the United States by the Cape of Good Hope, taking such 
a course as may be most likely to further the great purposes of the Expedition. 

During your stay in the southern latitudes, should the dysentery or any 



xxviii INSTRUCTIONS. 

other fatal epidemic make its appearance among your crews, you have leave to 
proceed to the northward, until the disease shall either disappear, or be so miti- 
gated, as to admit of the resumption of your surveys. 

The Department does not feel the necessity of giving any special directions 
for preserving the health of those under your command, confiding in your own 
experience, the care and precautions of the able surgeons with whom you are 
provided, and in the conviction you must feel, that on the health of your crews 
must depend the success of the enterprise. 

In the prosecution of these long and devious voyages, you will necessarily 
be placed in situations which cannot be anticipated, and in which, sometimes 
your own judgment and discretion, at others, necessity, must be your guide. 
Among savage nations, unacquainted with, or possessing but vague ideas of the 
rights of property, the most common cause of collision with civilized visiters, is 
the offence and the punishment of theft. You will therefore adopt every possible 
precaution against this practice, and in the recovery of the stolen property, as 
well as in punishing the offender, use all due moderation and forbearance. 

You will permit no trade to be carried on by the squadron, with the countries 
you may visit, either civilized or savage, except for necessaries or curiosities, 
and that under express regulations established by yourself, in which the rights 
of the natives must be scrupulously respected and carefully guarded. 

You will neither interfere, nor permit any wanton interference with the 
customs, habits, manners, or prejudices, of the natives of such countries or 
islands as you may visit ; nor take part in their disputes, except as a mediator ; 
nor commit any act of hostility, unless in self-defence, or to protect or secure 
the property of those under your command, or whom circumstances may have 
placed within reach of your protection. 

You will carefully inculcate on all the officers and men under your command, 
that courtesy and kindness towards the natives, which is understood and felt by 
all classes of mankind ; to display neither arrogance nor contempt, and to 
appeal to their good-will rather than their fears, until it shall become apparent 
that they can only be restrained from violence by fear or force. 

You will, on all occasions, avoid risking the officers and men unnecessarily 
on shore at the mercy of the natives. Treachery is one of the invariable 
characteristics of savages and barbarians ; and very many of the fatal disasters 
which have befallen preceding navigators, have arisen from too great a reliance 
on savage professions of friendship, or overweening confidence in themselves. 

Much of the character of our future intercourse with the natives of the lands 
you may visit, will depend on the impressions made on their minds by their 
first intercourse with your vessels. 

It is the nature of the savage, long to remember benefits, and never to forget 
injuries ; and you will use your best endeavours wherever you may go, to leave 
behind a favourable impression of your country and countrymen. The Expe- 
dition is not for conquest, but discovery. Its objects are all peaceful ; they are 
to extend the empire of commerce and science ; to diminish the hazards of the 



INSTRUCTIONS. xx i x 

ocean, and point out to future navigators a course by which they may avoid 
dangers and find safety. 

An Expedition so constituted, and for such purposes, armed for defence, not 
conquest, and engaged in pursuits in which all enlightened nations are equally 
interested, has a right to expect the good-will and good offices of the whole 
civilized world. Should our country, therefore, be unhappily involved in war 
during your absence, you will refrain from all acts of hostility whatever, as it 
is confidently believed none will be committed against you. So far from this 
being the case, it is not to be doubted that even hostile nations will respect your 
purposes, and afford every facility to their accomplishment. 

Finally, you will recollect, that though you may frequently be carried beyond 
the sphere of social life, and the restraints of law, yet that the obligations of 
justice and humanity are always and every where equally imperative in our 
intercourse with men, and most especially savages ; that we seek them, not they 
us ; and that if we expect to derive advantages from the intercourse, we should 
endeavour to confer benefits in return. 

Although the primary object of the Expedition is the promotion of the great 
interests of commerce and navigation, yet you will take all occasions, not 
incompatible with the great purposes of your undertaking, to extend the bounds 
of science, and promote the acquisition of knowledge. For the more successful 
attainment of these, a corps of scientific gentlemen, consisting of the following 
persons, will accompany the Expedition, and are placed under your direction. 

MR. HALE, Philologist. 

MR. PICKERING, ) 

MR. PEALE, ^Naturalists. 

MR. COUTHOUY, Conchologist. 

MR. DANA, Mineralogist. 

MR. RICH, Botanist. 

MR. DRAYTON, } 

MR. AGATE, Draughtsmen. 

MR. BRACKENRIDGE, Horticulturist. 

The hydrography and geography of the various seas and countries you may 
visit in the route pointed out to you in the preceding instructions, will occupy 
your special attention ; and all the researches connected with them, as well as 
with astronomy, terrestrial magnetism, and meteorology, are confided exclu- 
sively to the officers of the navy, on whose zeal and talents the Department 
confidently relies for such results as will enable future navigators to pass over 
the track traversed by your vessels, without fear and without danger. 

No special directions are thought necessary in regard to the mode of con- 
ducting the scientific researches and experiments which you are enjoined to 
prosecute, nor is it intended to limit the members of the corps each to his own 
particular service. All are expected to co-operate harmoniously in those 



xxx INSTRUCTIONS. 

kindred pursuits, whose equal dignity and usefulness should insure equal ardour 
and industry in extending their bounds and verifying their principles. 

As guides to yourself and to the scientific corps, the Department would, 
however, direct your particular attention to the learned and comprehensive 
Reports of a committee of the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, 
the Report of a Committee of the East India Marine Society, of Salem, Massa- 
chusetts ; and to a communication, from the Naval Lyceum of New York, 
which accompany, and are to be regarded as forming a part of these instruc- 
tions, so far as they may accord with the primary objects of the Expedition, 
and its present organization. You will, therefore, allow the gentlemen of the 
scientific corps the free perusal of these valuable documents, and permit them to 
copy such portions as they may think proper. 

The Russian Vice-Admiral Krusenstern, has transmitted to the Department 
memorandums relating to the objects of this Expedition, together with the most 
improved charts of his atlas of the Pacific Ocean, with explanations, in three 
volumes. These are also confided to your care ; and it is not doubted that the 
friendly contributions of this distinguished navigator will essentially contribute 
to the success of an enterprise in which he takes so deep an interest. 

You will prohibit all those under your command from furnishing any persons 
not belonging to the Expedition, with copies of any journal, charts, plan, memo- 
randum, specimen, drawing, painting, or information of any kind, which has 
reference to the objects or proceedings of the Expedition. 

It being considered highly important that no journal of these voyages, either 
partial or complete, should be published, without the authority and under the 
supervision of the government of the United States, at whose expense this 
Expedition is undertaken, you will, before you reach the waters of the United 
States, require from every person under your command the surrender of all 
journals, memorandums, remarks, writings, drawings, sketches, and paintings, 
as well as all specimens of every kind, collected or prepared during your 
absence from the United States. 

After causing correct inventories of these to be made and signed by two 
commissioned officers, and by the parties by whom they were collected or 
prepared, you will cause them to be carefully sealed by the said officers, and 
reserved for such disposition as the Department may direct. 

You will adopt the most effectual measures to prepare and preserve all 
specimens of natural history that may be collected, and should any opportuni- 
ties occur for sending home by a vessel of war of the United States, copies of 
information, or duplicates of -specimens, or any other material you may deem 
it important to .preserve from the reach of future accident, you will avail your- 
self of the occasion, forwarding as frequently as may be done with safety, 
details of your voyage and its most material events, at the same time strictly 
prohibiting all communications except to this Department, from any person 
attached to the Expedition, referring to discoveries, or any circumstances 
connected with the progress of your enterprise. 



INSTRUCTIONS. xxxi 

It is believed that the officers under your command require no special advicfe 
or direction from this Department. Bearing in mind, as they no doubt will, 
that the undertaking which they are about assisting to accomplish, is one that 
necessarily attracts the attention of the civilized world, and that the honour and 
interests of their country are equally involved in its results, it is not for a 
moment doubted that in this, as on all other occasions, they will so conduct 
themselves, as to add to the reputation our navy has so justly acquired at home 
and abroad. 

With the best wishes for the success of the Expedition, and the safe return of 
yourself and your companions, 

I am, very respectfully, 

(Signed) J. K. PAULDING. 
To LIEUTENANT CHARLES WILKES, 

Commanding the Exploring and Surveying Expedition, &c. 

P. S. The accompanying printed list of English words, drawn up by Mr. 
Gallatin, and received from the War Department since these instructions were 
prepared, are intended for Indian vocabularies, which can be filled up as 
circumstances permit, taking care that the same words be used in all of them. 

(Signed) J. K. PAULDING. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN 



ATTACHED TO 



THE UNITED STATES EXPLORING EXPEDITION, 



UNITED STATES SHIP VINCENNES. 



CHARLES WILKES, ESQ. 
THOMAS T. CRAVEN, 

OVERTON CARR, 
ROBERT E. JOHNSON, 

JAMES ALDEN, 
WILLIAM L. MAURY, 

JAMES H. NORTH, 
EDWARD GILCHRIST, 
R. R. WALDRON, 
J. L. ELLIOTT, 
J. L. Fox, 

J. S. WHITTLE, 
GEORGE M. TOTTEN, 
WILLIAM REYNOLDS, 

WILLIAM MAY, 
VOL. 1. 



Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

Lieutenant. Left at Valparaiso June 6th, 1839, to take 

command of the Sea-Gull. 
Lieutenant. Took command of brig Oregon, at San 

Francisco, October, 1841. 

Lieutenant. Commanded Sea-Gull on her Southern 

Cruise, detached at Honolulu, Novem- 
ber, 1841. 
Lieutenant. Joined brig Porpoise at San Francisco, 

October, 1841. 

Lieutenant. Joined Peacock at Orange Bay, and Por- 

poise at Callao. 

Acting Master. Joined Porpoise at Callao. 
Acting Surgeon. Detached at Sydney, March, 1840. 
Purser. 

Chaplain. Detached at San Francisco, October, 1841. 

Assistant Surg. Joined Porpoise at San Francisco, October, 

1841. 
Assistant Surg. Joined Peacock at Honolulu, and Vin- 

cennes again at San Francisco. 
Passed Mid. Joined Porpoise at Callao, and Vincennes 

at Honolulu. 

Passed Mid. Joined Peacock, 1839, and Flying-Fish at 

Honolulu, 1840, and Porpoise at Singa- 
pore. 

Passed Mid. Joined Flying-Fish on a cruise south, 

1839-'40, and Vincennes again, May, 
1840. 
E (33) 



XXXIV 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



JOSEPH P. SANDFORD, 



GEORGE W. CLARK, 

SAMUEL ELLIOTT, 
WILLIAM SMITH, 
WASHINGTON BRIGHT, 
WILLIAM M. LAIGHTON, 
SAMUEL N. HAWKINS, 
BENJ. VANDERFORD, 
R. P. ROBINSON, 
JOHN G. WILLIAMSON, 



Passed Mid. 



Midshipman. 

Midshipman. 

Boatswain. 

Gunner. 

Carpenter. 

Sailmaker. 

Pilot. 

Purser's Steward. 

Gunner. 



Joined Porpoise at Tahiti, schooner Fly. 

ing- Fish at San Francisco, and Porpoise 

at Singapore. 
Joined Peacock at Tahiti, and Vincennes 

again at San Francisco. 



Joined Relief at Callao. 
Joined Relief at Callao. 

Died, April, 1842. 



CHARLES PICKERING, 
JOSEPH DRAYTON, 
J. D. BRACKENRIDGE, 
JOHN G. BROWN, 
JOHN W. W. DYES, 
JOSEPH P. COUTHOUY, 



SCIENTIFIC CORPS. 

Naturalist. 
Artist. 

Assistant Botanist. 
Mathematical Instrument Maker. 
Assistant Taxidermist. 

Naturalist. Left at Sydney, and detached at Hono- 

lulu, November, 1840. 



UNITED STATES SHIP PEACOCK. 

WRECKED JULY 18TH, 1841. 



WILLIAM L. HUDSON, ESQ., Commanding. 
SAMUEL P. LEE, Lieutenant. 

W. M. WALKER, Lieutenant. 



GEORGE F. EMMONS, 
O. H. PERRY, 
THOMAS A. BUDD, 
J. F. SICKLES, 
WILLIAM SPIEDEN, 
SILAS HOLMES, 

JAMES B. LEWIS, 

HENRY GANSEVOORT, 

HENRY ELD, 

GEORGE W. HARRISON, 



WILKES HENRY, 
WILLIAM H. HUDSON 



Lieutenant. 
Lieutenant. 
Acting Master. 
Surgeon. 
Purser. 
Assistant Surg. 

Passed Mid. 

Passed Mid. 
Passed Mid. 
Passed Mid. 



Midshipman. 
Midshipman. 



Joined Vincennes at San Francisco. 
Detached at Orange Bay, Feb. 1839. 
Commanded Flying-Fish first cruise, 

joined Porpoise at Columbia river, and 

Vincennes at San Francisco. 
Joined Vincennes at San Francisco. 
Joined Vincennes at San Francisco. 
Joined Vincennes at Feejee. 
Joined Relief at Callao. 
Joined Oregon at Columbia River. 
Joined Porpoise at Sydney, and Oregon at 

San Francisco. 
Joined Flying-Fish at Feejee, returned 

home from Oahu sick. 
Detached at Callao, 1839. 
Joined Vincennes at Feejee. 
Joined Flying-Fish on cruise south, Pea- 
cock at Feejee, and Oregon at Columbia 

River. 
Joined Vincennes at Callao, killed, July 

24th, 1840, at Malolo. 
Joined Vincennes at Columbia river. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 
FREDERICK D. STUART, 
THOMAS G. BELL, 



XXXV 



JOHN D. ANDERSON, 
JONAS DIBBLE, 
J. D. FREEMAN, 
WILLIAM H. INSLEY, 



Captain's Clerk. Joined Porpoise at Columbia river, and 
Vincennes at San Francisco. 

Boatswain. Joined Porpoise at Columbia river, and 

Oregon at San Francisco. 

Gunner. Detached at Callao. 

Carpenter. Joined Oregon at Columbia river. 

Sailmaker. Joined Porpoise at Columbia river. 

Purser's Steward. Detached at Callao. 



SCIENTIFIC CORPS. 

JAMES D. DANA, Mineralogist. Joined Vincennes at San Francisco. 

T. R. PEALE, Naturalist. Joined Vincennes at San Francisco. 

HORATIO HALE, Philologist. Joined Vincennes at New Zealand, Peacock 

at Honolulu, and was left at Oregon to 
cross the country. 

F. L. DAVENPORT, Interpreter. Detached at Rio. 



UNITED STATES SHIP RELIEF. 

SENT HOME FROM CALLAO, BY WAY OF SANDWICH ISLANDS AND SYDNEY. 



A. K. LONG, 

R. F. PlNKNEY, 



A. L. CASE, 

JOSEPH A. UNDERWOOD, 

GEORGE T. SINCLAIR, 



J. C. PALMER, 



ALONZO B. DAVIS, 



THOMAS W. CUMMINGS, 
JAMES L. BLAIR, 



JAMES R. HOWISON, 
J. BLACK, 
THOMAS LEWIS, 



Lieutenant-Commandant. 

Lieutenant. Joined Peacock at Orange Bay, Flying- 

Fish at Callao, and detached at Hono- 
lulu, 1840. 

Lieutenant. Joined Vincennes at Callao. 

Lieutenant. Joined Vincennes at Callao, and killed at 

Malolo, July 24th, 1840. 

Acting Master. Joined Porpoise at Callao; Commander 
Flying-Fish at Feejee; joined Porpoise 
again at Honolulu, November, 1840. 

Acting Surgeon. Joined Peacock at Callao, and Oregon at 
Columbia river, and Vincennes at San 
Francisco. 

Passed Mid. Joined Peacock at Callao, and Vincennes 

at Columbia river, and Oregon at San 
Francisco. 

Passed Mid. Left sick at Rio. 

Midshipman. Joined Peacock at Rio, schooner Flying- 

Fish at Columbia river, and Vincennes 
at Honolulu. 

Captain's Clerk. Joined Vincennes at Callao. 

Boatswain. 

Gunner. Joined Peacock at Callao, and Oregon at 

Columbia river. 



WILLIAM RICH, 



SCIENTIFIC CORPS. 



Botanist 



Joined Peacock at Callao, and Vincennes 
at San Francisco. 



XXXvi LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 

ALFRED T. AGATE, Artist 



Joined Peacock at Callao, and Vincennes 
at San Francisco. 



UNITED STATES BRIG PORPOISE. 



CADWALADER RINGGOLD, 
M. G. L. CLAIBORNE, 
H. J. HARTSTEIN, 
JOHN B. DALE, 
A. S. BALDWIN, 

C. F. B. GUILLOU, 



SIMON F. BLUNT, 

GEO. W. COLVOCORESSIS, 

THOMAS W. WALDRON, 
O. NELSON, 
AMOS CHICK, 
JOHN JOINES, 
WILLIAM H. MORSE, 
JOHN FROST, 



Lieutenant-Commandant. 

Lieutenant. Joined Relief at Orange Bay. 

Lieutenant. Joined Relief at Callao. 

Lieutenant. Joined Relief at Callao. 

Acting Master. Joined Peacock at Callao, and Oregon at 
Columbia river. 

Assistant Surg. Joined Peacock at Sydney, Flying-Fish at 
Columbia river, and detached at Hono- 
lulu, November, 1841. 

Passed Mid. Joined Vincennes at Orange Bay, and 

left sick at Honolulu, in April, 1841. 

Passed Mid. Joined Peacock at Rio, Vincennes at Fee- 

jee, and Oregon at San Francisco. 

Captain's Clerk. 

Boatswain. Detached at Rio. 

Carpenter. Joined Vincennes at Callao. 

Sailmaker. Detached at Callao; joined Relief. 

Purser's Steward. 

Boatswain. 



JAMES W. E. REID, 
FREDERICK A. BACON, 
ISAAC PERCIVAL, 



TENDER SEA-GULL. 

LOST ABOUT MAY 1ST, 1839. 

Passed Midshipman, Commandant. 

Passed Mid. 

Pilot. Joined Relief at Callao. 



SAMUEL R. KNOX, 
GEORGE W. HAMMERSLY, 

RICHARD ELLICE, 
H. A. CLEMSON, 

EGBERT THOMPSON, 

A. M. CESNEY, 
E. H. DE HAVEN, 

JAMES S. POWER, 



TENDER FLYING-FISH. 

SOLD AT SINGAPORE. 

Commandant. Commanding schooner most of the cruise ; 

joined Vincennes at Singapore. 
Midshipman. Joined Peacock at Callao, and Vincennes 

at Feejee. 

Ac. Master's Mate. Detached; joined Relief at Rio. 
Midshipman. Joined the Vincennes at Rio; detached at 

Callao. 
Midshipman. Joined Vincennes at Rio, Peacock at Feejee, 

and Vincennes again at Columbia river. 
Master's Mate. Detached at Honolulu. 
Acting Master. Joined Vincennes at Callao, Peacock at 

Feejee, and Oregon at Columbia river. 
Purser's Steward. Joined Peacock at Callao, and Oregon at 

Columbia river. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



xxxvn 



JOHN ANDERSON, 
JOSEPH R. ATKINS, 
CHARLES ALLEN, 

STEPHEN F. ANGELL, 
JOSEPH C. ALLEN, 
JEAN ANTONIA, 

JOSEPH ALLSHOUSE, 

JAMES ANDERSON, 
JOHN ANDERSON, 

JAMES ALLMAN, 
SILAS ATKINS, 
PETER ACKERMAN, 

JOHN AYRES, 
CHARLES ADAMS, 
JOHN BROWN, 1st, 

ROBERT BOYLE, 
HENRY BUCKETT, 

JOHN BROOKS, 
HENRY BATCHELOR, 
JOHN BLACK, 
HENRY BLACKSTONE, 
FRANKLIN BROWN, 
DAVID BANKS, 
PETER BROWN, 

DAVID BARTLETT, 
JOHN BROWN, 2d, 

JOHN L. BLAKE, 
JOHN BREMOT, 



Seaman. Joined in the United States; returned, 

expiration of cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; served to end of the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu; served to the end of the 

cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Oahu; run at Oahu. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu; run at Hawaii. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Cape Town; served to the end of 

the cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; died October 

30th, 1841. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Callao; killed by the natives at 

Drummond Island. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Landsman. Joined at Callao ; run at Sydney. 

Cooper. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Seaman, Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Sydney. 

Quarter Master. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. ' ^ * 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Rio, Dec. 31st, 1838. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Upolu, Nov. 10th, 

1839. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

1st Class Boy. Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney, Dec. 31st, 

1839. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; discharged June 30th, 

1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Callao, July 13th, 

1839. 



XXXV111 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



JOHN BUCKLEY, 

FREDERICK BEALE, 
ANDREW A. BROWN, 
SHELDEN BENEDICT, 
JOHN BARTHOLOMEW, 

JOHN A. BROWN, 
EBENEZER BARTHOLOMEW, 
DERBY BATCHELOR, 

DAVID BATEMAN, 
RICHARD BROTHERS, 
JAMES BROWN, 
JOSEPH BASS, 

JAMES BERRY, 
JOHN BAPTISTE, 
JOHN W. BOYSON, 

JOHN F. BROWN, 
ROBERT C. BERNARD, 
ALEXANDER BOWMAN, 
SAMUEL BROWN, 

WILLIAM BROWN, 2d, 
ALEXANDER BARRON, 

PETER BOWEN, 
WALSTON BRADLEY, 
WILLIAM BRUCE, 
DAVY BEAL, 

JOHN BROOKINS, 
ARTIMEUS W. BEALS, 
WILLIAM BOSTWICK, 

THEODORE BETON, 
ROBERT BROWN, 

WILLIAM BRISCO, 
CHARLES BERRY, 
DAVID BURNS, 



Officers' Steward. Joined at Valparaiso ; discharged at Cal- 

lao, June, 1839. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at New Zealand. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at New Zealand ; served the cruise. 
Qr. Gunner. Joined at New Zealand ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu; run at Oahu, Nov. 26th, 

1841. 

Landsman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Maui ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Maui ; run at Oahu, Nov. 26th, 

1841. 
Private. Joined in the United States ; died at Fee- 

jee Islands, June 30th, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; sent home 

from Rio, sick. 
Carpenter's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 

1st Class Boy. Joined at the Feejee Islands; run at 

Oahu. 

Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Quarter Master. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at Singapore. 

Capt. Forecastle. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Valparaiso. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Callao. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Sydney. 
Landsman. Joined at Callao; left sick in charge of 

Consul at Sydney. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Upolu ; served the cruise. 
Capt. Hold. Joined at Upolu ; served the cruise. 

Capt. Cook. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 
Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Armourer. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Mast. Arms. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

Relief. 
Officers' Cook. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

Relief. 



LIS 


T OF OFFIC 


JOHN B. BROWN, 


Seaman. 


JOSEPH BRIMBLECOMB, 


Seaman. 


PATRICK BOYLE, 
THOMAS BURKE, 


1st Class Boy. 
Private. 


PHILIP BABB, 


Private. 


GEORGE BUTTER, 


Officers' Cook. 


DAVID BLODGET, 


Officers' Cook. 


JACOB BOLIN, 


Capt. Forecastle. 


FRANCIS BAKER, 


Ord'y Seaman. 


HENRY BINGHAM, 
GARRET COLE, 


Ord'y Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 


W. H. CUMMINGS, 


Boatsn's Mate. 


MASON CROWELL, 


Landsman. 


JOHN COOPER, 


Armourer. 


JAMES CUMMINGS, 


Seaman. 


ISAAC CARNEY, 


1st Class Boy. 


CHARLES J. COLSON, 


Hosp. Steward. 


DANIEL CLUTE, 


Quarter-Master. 


ROSWELL CANN, 


1st Class Boy. 


JAMES CORSE, 
WILLIAM CLARK, 
EZEKIEL COOPER, 
JASPER CROPSEY, 
TOM COFFIN, 
GEORGE CROKER, 
DAVID CROPSEY, 
GEORGE CASE, 
EPHRAIM COFFIN, 
JOSEPH CLARK, 


Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Corp'l Marines. 



ROBERT CAMPBELL, 



Private. 



& JK. A IN u mm mi xxxix 

Joined in the United States ; returned in 

Relief. 
Joined in the United States; returned in 

Relief. 

Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Joined in the United States ; died at Navi- 
gator's Islands, Nov. 6th, 1839. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Joined in the United States; lost in the 

Sea-Gull. 
Joined in the United States; lost in the 

Sea-Gull. 

Joined at Rio ; sent home in Relief. 
Joined at Sydney ; served out the cruise. 
Joined at Oahu ; run, same place. 
Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Joined at Oahu ; run at Hawaii. 
Joined at Hawaii ; run at Oahu. 
Joined at Maui ; served the cruise. 
Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Joined at Oahu ; discharged at California. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 



xl LIST 

LAWRENCE CAVENAUGH, 
JOSEPH CLARK, 
ISAAC COOK, 
JOHN H. COLE, 
CHARLES CLIFFORD, 

PAUL CAMELL, 
CHARLES CHANCY, 
JAMES CUNNINGHAM, 
RICHARD COOPER, 
LEVIN CLARK, 

GAYLORD P. CHURCHILL, 
JOSHUA GARY, 
JAMES CRONTU, 

JOSEPH CROSBY, 

ALFRED CASSEDY, 
WILLIAM CLEGG, 

JOHN COOK, 
WILLIAM CARTER, 
JOHN COOK, 

CHARLES CHAPMAN, 
JAMES COBURN, 
GEORGE COOK, 

VALENTINE DISTER, 
JEROME DAVIS, 
JOHN DOUGHTY, 
JOHN DEMOCK, 
JOHN DISMOND, 
JAMES DUNN, 
ALEXANDER DUNN, 



OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 

Private. 

Seaman. 

Ord'y Seaman. 

Capt. Top. 

Capt. Top. 



Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, 2d November, 1840. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, 2d November, 1840. 

Officers' Steward. Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Sydney. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; run at Sydney. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; run at Tahiti. . 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Upolu ; run at Sydney. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at 

Sydney. 
Carpenter's Mate. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

Relief. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Callao. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

Relief. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Capt. Top. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at New Zealand; served the cruise. 
2d Class Boy. Joined at Oahu ; discharged same place, 

November 19th, 1841. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; transferred 

to Independence, at Rio. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Officers' Steward. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Cockswain. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Rio, November 30th, 1838. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



JOHN W. DIVIN, 
CHRISTIAN DOBLEMAN, 

JAMES DANIELS, 
JAMES DOWLING, 1st, 
JOHN N. DEAN, 
JOHN E. DAY, 

JOHN DAVIS, 1st, 
HARVEY DEAN, 
JOHN DAVIS, 2d, 
JAMES DOWLING, 2d, 
CHARLES DUEGEN, 
JOHN DISBROW, 

ADDISON DUNBAR, 

WILLIAM DAMMON, 
GEORGE DAILY, 
WILLIAM DAILY, 
STEPHEN W. DAYS, 

SOLOMON DISNEY, 

JOSEPH DOLEVAR, 
THOMAS DEWEES, 

THOMAS DERLING, 
SAMUEL DINSMAN, 

JOSEPH DE SILVA, 
SAMUEL DINSMAN, 
DAVID DALTON, 
THOMAS DICKENSON, 

WILLIAM DILLON, 
JAMES DERLEY, 
CHARLES ERSKIN, 

GEORGE ELLIOTT, 
W. H. ELDRIDGE, 
HENRY EVANS, 

SAMUEL EASTMAN, 
VOL. 1. 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney. 
Master-at-Arms. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at New Zealand. 
Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at New Zealand. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; served the cruise. 
Landsman. Joined at New Zealand; served out the 

cruise. 

1st Class Boy. Joined at New Zealand ; run at Oahu. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at Singapore. 
Seaman, Joined at Oahu ; run at Hawaii. 

Landsman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; returned in Relief. 

Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Hosp. Steward. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Sailmaker's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 

Corporal. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Oahu. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at Rio ; transferred to Falmouth at 

Callao. 
Corp'l Marines. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Officers' Steward. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Carpenter's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at Oahu. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

1st Class Boy. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Cape Town ; served the cruise. 
Officers' Cook. Joined in the United States ; run at Fort 

George, Columbia River. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; discharged at 

Oahu, October 31st, 1840. 



xlii 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



WILLIAM EASTWOOD, 
JAMES ELLIOTTE, 

WILLIAM FRAZIER, 
JOHN FENNO, 

HENRY A. FELSON, 
WILLIAM FORSDICK, 

JOHN FISK, 
THOMAS FORD, 
WILLIAM FRAZIER, 2d, 
EDWARD Fox, 
FREDERICK FRIENDS, 
MATTHEW FRANCISCO, 
ALEXANDER C. FOWLER, 

JOHN FRANCIS, 
JAMES FRITZ, 
STEPHEN FOSDICK, 

ROBERT FURMAN, 
THEODORE FRENCH, 
KINNARD FOREMAN, 
ISAAC FRIETUS, 
ROBERT FLETCHER, 

VINCENT FRIETUS, 
WILLIAM FINNEY, 
JOSEPH FRANCIS," 
HENRY GROSS, 
LYMAN GAYLARD, 

WILLIAM GILLAN, 
MATTHEW GARRIGAN, 
JAMES H. GIBSON, 

JAMES H. GREY, 
JAMES GRAHAM, 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Gunner's Mate. Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 

Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Sydney. 

Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served out 

the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served out 

the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Oahu, 

Oct. 31st, 1840. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served out the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served out the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; lost in the Sea-Gull. 
Officers' Steward. Joined at Sydney ; discharged at Oahu. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served out the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; discharged same place. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served out 

the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Qr. Gunner. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

Gunner's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, 31st Oct. 1840. 
Ship's Cook. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

5th August, 1839. 
Sailmaker's Mate. Joined at Callao; returned to United States 

in the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Madeira ; discharged March 

31st, 1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 

2d Class Boy. Joined at Rio ; run at Valparaiso. 

Landsman. Joined at Callao ; run at Oahu. 

Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; discharged at same place. 

Officers' Cook. Joined in the United States ; run at Oahu. 
Carpenter's Mate. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Landsman. Joined in the United States; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Cockswain. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Oahu. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



xliii 



JOHN GRIEM, 
JAMES GREEN, 

BARNEY GIBBONS, 
FRANCIS GARRISON, 
MADISON GREEN, 
JOSEPH M'GOMEY, 

HENRY GREENFIELD, 
DANIEL GREEN, 
THOMAS GREEN, 
NATHANIEL GOODHUE, 
JOHN P. GRIFFEN, 

LUDWIG GRAVES, 
ROBERT GOODWIN, 
THOMAS GORDEN, 
GRIFFITH GRIFFITH, 

FERGUS GALLAGHER, 
JOHN GAUNT, 

DOMINGO GONZALEZ, 
JOHN A. GARDNER, 
MOSES GALCHELL, 
JOHN GORDEN, 

JOHN GILLIN, 
EZRA GREEN, 
JOSEPH GUNDY, 
JOHN GREEN, 

WILLIAM GOODMAX, 
JOHN GLOVER, 
MANUEL GUIDO, 

JAMES GREY, 
EDWIN HUBBARD, 



Seaman. Joined in the United States ; transferred 

to the Independence. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Landsman. Joined at Rio ; run at Valparaiso. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run, April 9th, 1840. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; discharged at Oahu, 

Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Gunner's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Fore-top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; run at Syd- 

ney. 
Cooper. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; sent home 

sick from Madeira. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; returned in the Relief, 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; run at Oahu. 
Seaman. Joined at Callao ; run at Tahiti. 

Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Yeoman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Rio, Dec. 31st, 1838. 
Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Capt. Top. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 

2d Class Boy. Joined at Madeira ; returned to United 

States in the Relief. 
Pilot. Joined at Tongataboo; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 

Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 



xliv LIST 


OF OFFIC: 


THOMAS HARDEN, 


Officers' Cook. 


JAMES HARRISON, 


Officers' Steward. 


JOHN HARMON, 


Capt. Forecastle. 


JOHN HARMON, 


Seaman. 


WILLIAM HYDE, 


Carpenter's Mate. 


LEWIS HERRON, 


Cooper. 


JAMES HENDERSON, 


Quarter-Master. 


LYRANUS HATCH, 


Seaman. 


HENRY HUGHES, 


Ord'y Seaman. 


HENRY R. HEYER, 


Quarter-Master. 


HENRY HUDSON, 


Seaman. 


LAWRENCE HUFFORD, 


Seaman. 


JAMES HASKINS, 


1st Class Boy. 


JAMES HAGGERTY, 


Ord'y Seaman. 


WILLIAM H. HICKS, 


Ord'y Seaman. 


ROYAL HOPE, 
JOHN HARRIS, 
CHAS. E. HORNISTON, 
DAVID HAINING, 
ANTONIO HERNANDEZ, 
WM. HUTCHINSON, 

WlNSLOW F. HlGGINS, 

JOHN HALL, 
JOHN HELLENDER, 
GEORGE HUSTED, 


Landsman. 
Landsman. 
Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Officers' Steward. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Seaman. 
Quarter-Master. 


JACOB HARRID, 


Seaman. 


SAMUEL HOBSEN, 


Armourer. 


EDWARD HILL, 


Seaman. 


ROBINSON HICKS, 
JOHN HUGHES, 


Ord'y Seaman. 
2d Class Boy. 



ERS AND MEN. 

Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Madeira. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; discharged 

at New Zealand. 
Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; sent home 

in the Relief. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Joined in the United States; sent home in 

the Relief. 

Joined at Rio ; run at Oahu. 
Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney. 
Joined at Rio ; run at Valparaiso. 
Joined at Rio ; lost in the Sea-Gull. 
Joined at Callao ; discharged at California. 
Joined at Hawaii ; served the cruise. 
Joined at Maui ; served the cruise. 
Joined at Cape Town ; served the cruise. 
Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 
Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 
Joined in the United States; run at 

Callao. 
Joined in the United States; returned in 

the Relief. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 

Joined in the United States; run at Sydney. 
Joined at Callao ; run at Oahu. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



xlv 



JOHN HAGGERTY, 
JOHN HARRISON, 
ASA HART, 

EMANUEL HOWARD, 
JOHN HARMAN, 
ARTHUR HUGHES, 
AMOS HOWELL, 
JOHN C. HEAD, 
WM. P. HEFFERMAN, 
JAMES G. HANBURY, 
SANTO HERCULES, 
SAMUEL B. HOLT, 
JAMES HUNT, 
BENJAMIN HOLDEN, 
ALVIN HARRIS, 
NATHANIEL HARRIS, 
WILLIAM HAYES, 
JAMES HAYES, m 
HENRY HAMMOND, 
LEWIS HANSON, 

THOMAS HINES, 
FRANCIS G. HUGGINS, 

WILLIAM JARRETT, 
WILLIAM JOHNSON, 
ARCHIBALD JACKSON, 
FRANCIS JOSEPH, 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Upolu ; run at Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at Singapore. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. ,* 

Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Hold. Joined in the United States ; sent home 

from Rio, sick. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Hosp. Steward. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged in 

New Zealand. 
Capt. Hold. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, October 31st, 1840. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States ; died at Cal- 

lao, July 8th, 1839. 
Sailmaker's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

New Zealand, 31st March, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; discharged at Sydney, 

Dec. 16th, 1839. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the* cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Sandwich Islands; served the 

cruise. 
Master-at-Arms. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, October 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; sent home in 

the Relief. 
1st Class Boy. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 



xlvi 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



THOMAS JONES, 

FRANCIS JOHNSON, 
ROBERT JOHNSON, 
WILLIAM JONES, 1st, 
JOHN JOSEPH, 
WILLIAM JONES, 
CHARLES JORFF, 9 . 
DAVID JONES, 
WILLIAM JEWELL, 

WILLIAM JEFFRIES, 
SAMUEL J. JORDON, 
A. JACQUINOT, 
WARREN JOHNSON, 

JOHN JONES, 
THOMAS JEFFERSON, 

DANIEL JEFFERSON, 



HENRY JOHNSON, 
ELIJAH KING, 

THOMAS KENNEDY, 
STEPHEN KNIGHT, 


Ord'y Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 

Seaman. 
Ship's Cook. 



CHARLES KNOWLES, 

RICHARD KING, 
WM. H. KING, 

CHARLES KINGSLAND, 
ALLEN W. KIRBY, 

JOHN KELLUM, 
SAMUEL KEENAN, 
JOHN KEDD, 
JOHN KING, 
JOSEPH LIMONT, 
FRANCIS LINTHICUM, 
GODFREY LETOURNO, 



Seaman. Joined in the United States ; sent home 

in the Relief. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio; sent home in the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; lost in the Sea-Gull. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at the same place. 

Capt.'s Steward. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at same place. 
Ass't Sc. Corps. Joined at Rio ; run at Callao. 
Officers' Steward. Joined at Oahu ; run at Fort George, 

Oregon. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 

Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Joined at Rio ; run at the same place. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, ] 840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Maui ; served the cruise. 
Corp. Marines. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Upolu ; served the cruise. 
Capt. Hold. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 

Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Syd- 

ney. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Cockswain. Joined in the United States; discharged at 

Oahu, October 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



xlvii 



PETER LEWIS, 
JOHN LATTY, 
WM. J. LESTER, 
WM. LAWRENCE, 
DAVID LEAVITT, 
CHARLES LEAR, 
LAWRENCE LITTLEYEAR, 

CHARLES LOWE, 
WILLIAM LLOYD, 

WILLIAM LOWE, 
JOHN LEWIS, 
WASHINGTON LYNER, 
HENRY LUTHER, 
JOHN LENNARD, 

WILLIAM LEE, 
JAMES LEAVETT, 

PETER LINES, 
WM. S. LONGLEY, 
BERNARD LOGAN, 
HORACE LAMSON, 
JAMES LOWELL, 
JOHN LOYD, 
WILLIAM LOYD, 
LAURENCE M'GiLL, 
WM. M'DONALD, 
HENRY MABEE, 
DANIEL M'CARTY, 
FRANCIS MONTSERAT, 
JAMES MORAN, 
JOHN M'KEEN, 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served out the cruise. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at Rio ; served out the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served out the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Sydney. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Maui ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Maui ; served the cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; discharged same place. 

Seaman, Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Valparaiso. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio; sent to the United States 

in Relief. 

Seaman. Joined at Callao ; run at Sydney. 

Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; returned in 

the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; sent to United 

States in Relief. 
Capt. Forecastle. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Syd- 
ney. 
Landsman. Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Ma- 

nilla. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Syd- 

ney. 
Quarter-Gunner. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Rio, Dec. 31st, 1838. 
Officers' Steward. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
1st Class Boy. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 
Ship's Cook. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 



xlviii 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



JOHN MYRES, 
THOMAS M'MANUS, 
WILLIAM MILLER, 1st, 

JOHN MATTOX, 
ALEXANDER M'DONALD, 

WM. MILLER, 2d, 
JUSTIN MANDON, 
ANDREW MURRAY, 
JOSEPH MEDLEY, 
EDWARD M'!NTIRE, 
JAMES M'KENZIE, 

SAMUEL MORE, 

PETER M'FEE, 
JOHN H. MYRES, 
THOMAS MIZIR, 
ARTHUR M'GiLL, 

FRANK MACKEY, 
ROBERT MUNROE, 
JOHN MUNROE, 
BERNARD M'GEE, 
LEWIS MEAKER, 

WILLIAM MIGLEY, 
JOHN MEINEY, 

GEORGE MITCHELL, 
THEODORE MATHER, 
EDWARD MOTT, 
HUGH M 1 BRIDE, 
JOHN C. MARCH, 

JAMES M'CORMICK, 
MICHAEL MILLER, 
DAVID MILLER, 
JAMES MARSHALL, 
WILLIAM MOODY, 



Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; lost in the 

Sea-Gull. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

Landsman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Callao. 
Captain's Cook. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at Oahu. 

Seaman. Joined at New Zealand ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Cape Town ; served the cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States ; served the 

oruise. 
Capt Top. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Nov. 20th, 1841. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 
2d Class Boy. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at Tahiti ; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Upolu; discharged at Oahu, 

Nov. 20th, 1841. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Sydney. 

Seaman. Joined at Callao ; run at Sydney. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; discharged at Oahu, 

25th Nov. 1840. 
Quarter-Gunner. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Master-at-Arms. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Quarter-Master. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Upolu ; served the cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; died at sea, 

15th August, 1839. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



xlix 



JOHN MORE, 
THOMAS MARTIN, 

JOHN MITCHELL, 
STEPHEN MORANT, 
EARL MILLIKIN, 
JACK MILLER, 

JAMES NOWLAND, 
WILLIAM NORTON, 

EDWARD NICHOLS, 
JOHN NEBHUT, 

HORATIO NELSON, 
NELSON NORTON, 
WILLIAM NOBLE, 

THOMAS NOBLE, 
GEORGE NICHOLS, 
JOSEPH NEALE, 
CHAS. H. NICHOLSON, 

WILLIAM NEILL, 
ANDREW NORDSTON, 
JAMES NURSE. 
BENJAMIN NORTON, 

THOMAS NISBET, 
WILLIAM ORR, 

ALEXANDER OGLE, 
JOHN ORR, 

AMBROSE W. OLIVAR, 
DANIEL OSMAND, 
DAVID B. PARK, 
THOMAS FINER, 
VOL. i. 



Seaman. 
Landsman. 

Ord'y Seaman. 
Seaman. 
Quarter-Gunner. 
Seaman. 

Capt. Top. 
Seaman. 

Ord'y Seaman. 
Private. 

Seaman. 
Capt. Top. 
Seaman. 

Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Officers' Cook. 
Seaman. 

Quarter-Master. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Officers' Steward. 
Ord'y Seaman. 

Ord'y Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 

Corp. Marines. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Seaman. 

Sailmaker's Mate. 
Quarter-Master. 



Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Rio, Dec. 31st, 1838. 
Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 
Joined at Sydney ; run at Oahu. 
Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Joined at Sandwich Islands; served the 

cruise. 

Joined in the United States ; run at Sydney. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Rio, Dec. 31st, 1838. 
Joined at Cape Town ; served the cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 
Joined in the United States ; run at Val- 
paraiso. 

Joined at Rio ; sent home in the Relief. 
Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Sydney. 
Joined at Callao ; run at Sydney. 
Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Nov. 25th, 1841. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Rio, Dec. 3d, 1838. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Joined at Singapore ; served the cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; died at sea, 

Aug. 12th, 1839. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Joined in the United States ; run at Val- 
paraiso. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 



5* 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



GEORGE PORTER, 

BENJAMIN FULMAR, 
THOMAS PARKER, 
WILLIAM PEARSON, 
CALVIN PROCTOR, 
JAMES PERRY, 
GEORGE PARKER, 

THOMAS PENNY, 
JAMES M. POTTLE, 

JAMES PATTERSON, 
SAMUEL PENSYL, 
ROBERT PULLY, 
JOHN POLNELL, 

JAMES POTTER, 
GEORGE PARMILLA, 
JAMES QUIN, 

CHARLES RAY, 
WM. ROBERTS, 
THEODORE RAMERIS, 

JOSEPH REEVES, 
WILLIAM ROBINSON, 

WILLIAM ROBBIN, 

MICHAEL RYAN, 
WILLIAM ROBB, 
JOHN RIVERS, 
JOHN ROACH, 
ABRAHAM ROBERTS, 
GEORGE ROCKET, 

JAMES ROCK, 
JOHN RADLEY, 
GEORGE ROBINSON, 
EDGAR A. RICHARDSON, 

OWEN ROBERTS, 



Seaman. Joined in the United States ; died at sea, 

March 3d, 1842. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; run at 

Sydney. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Oahu. 
Private. Joined in the United States ; run at Val- 

paraiso. 
Landsman, Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Gunner. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at New Zealand ; run at Oahu. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged at 

Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
1st Class Boy. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Val- 
paraiso. 

Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States ; run at Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 

1 st Class Boy. Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; lost in the Sea-Gull. 
Landsman. Joined at Sydney ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at New Zealand ; served the cruise. 
Landsman. Joined at New Zealand; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at California. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Maui ; served the cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



li 



GEORGE RODGERS, 
JOHN ROBINSON, 

HUMPHREY ROBERTS, 
MATTHIAS ROACH, 
MORRIS RUSSEL, 
ELIAS RUSSEL, 
JOHN RYE, 

JOHN RILEY, 
WM. RICHMOND, 
JOHN D. RICHARDSON, 

JOSEPH REBO, 
JAMES G. ROWE, 

GEORGE REYNOLDS, 



Private. 

Capt. Forecastle. 

Armourer. 
Ord'y Seaman. 
Landsman. 
Ship's Cook. 
Seaman. 

Private. 
Boatsn's Mate. 
Cooper. 

2d Class Boy. 
Seaman. 

Ord'y Seaman. 



RAYMOND REED, 
NELSON RANSOM, 


Seaman. 
Seaman. 


GEORGE SMITH, 


Seaman. 


WILLIAM J. SMITH, 


Quarter-Master. 


THOMAS SINCLAIR, 


Seaman. 


JAMES STRAHAM, 


Seaman. 


JOHN SAC, 


Seaman. 


DAVID SMITH, 


Ord'y Seaman. 


JAMES SHEAF, 


Ord'y Seaman. 


JOHN W. SMITH, 


Seaman. 


EDWARD SOUTHWORTH, 


Quarter-Master. 


ALLEN SIMONS, 


Ord'y Seaman. 


JAMES SMITH, 1st, 


Seaman. 


JOHN SMITH, 1st, 
JOHN SMITH, 2d, 


Ord'y Seaman. 
Ord'y Seaman. 



Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Joined at Sydney ; served the cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Joined in the United States ; run at Callao. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; died at sea, 

Aug. 22d, 1839. 

Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Joined at Sandwich Islands ; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Rio, Nov. 28th, 1838. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Sydney, 19th March, 1840. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Rio, Dec. 31st, 1838. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Joined in the United States; run at Val- 
paraiso, 

Joined in the United States ; run at Syd- 
ney. 

Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Joined in the United States; lost in the 

Sea-Gull. 



lii 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



JAMES SMITH, 2d, 
JOHN SMALL, 

WILLIAM SOULE, 
MOSES J. SMITH, 
WM. H. SPENCER, 
FREDERICK SEYMORE, 
GEORGE STAUNTON, 
PETER SWEENY, 

JAMES SCOTT, 
JAMES STOVER, 
THOMAS SIMMONS, 
JOSEPH SILVEY, 

MICHAEL SPINEY, 
WILLIAM SMITH, 2d, 
SIMEON STEARNS, 

WILLIAM SMITH, 
JOHN H. STEVENS, 
CHARLES C. SHERWOOD, 
ANTONIO SYLVESTER, 
WILLIAM STEWARD, 

PETER SHAW, 
WILLIAM SLATER, 
FRANCIS SALSBURY, 

FRANK SMITH, 
THOMAS SCOTT, 
BENJAMIN STEVENS, 
HENDRICK SMITH, 

SAMUEL STEWARD, 
JOHN SMITH, 
GEORGE SEABOLD, 
ROBERT STEWARD, 
JAMES SPEAR, 
JAMES SWEENEY, 
JOHN SMITH, 

SIMON SHEPHERD, 
JAMES DE SAULS, 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; lost in the 

Sea-Gull. 

Baker. Joined at Rio; discharged at New Zea- 

land. 

Landsman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at Oahu. 
Seaman. Joined at New Zealand; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 

Seaman. Joined at New Zealand ; run at Oahu. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Hawaii ; run at same place. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at Maui ; died at sea, April 19th, 

1842. 

Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

1st Class Boy. Joined at Oahu; discharged at same place. 
Orderly Sergeant. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; drowned at Feejee. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Tahiti ; run at Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at same place. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; died at sea, 

llth March, 1839. 

Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Officers' Steward. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 

Landsman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Aurora Island. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Aurora Island. 
Armourer. Joined at Valparaiso; run at Sydney. 

Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at Oahu. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Feejee Islands ; discharged at 

same place. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ship's Cook. Joined at Callao ; run at Astoria. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



liii 



. SOMERNDYKE, 

JOHN SMITH, 

GEORGE SHARROCK, 
ROBERT SPEARS, 

SAMUEL SUTTON, 

JOHN STRAFFORD, 
GEORGE SMITH, 

THOMAS SANDFORD, 
WILLIAM SMITH, 
JOHN STEWARD, 
SAMUEL STRETCH, 
DAVID M. SMITH, 
WM. SCHENCK, 

THOMAS SCARPA, 
HENRY SARES, 
JAMES STARK, 

HENRY STEPHENS, 
THOMAS SHOR, 

GEORGE SUDOR, 
RICHARD TERRY, 
HENRY TURNER, 
JAMES TOWNSEND, 
GEORGE TREBLE, 
MATTHEW THOMPSON, 
HENRY TUBOR, 
JOHN THOMPSON, 1st. 

JOHN THOMPSON, 3d, 
SAMUEL TABER, 



Carpenter's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Carpenter's Mate. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 

Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Yeoman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ship's Cook. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Gunner's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Armourer. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Carpenter's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Officers' Steward. Joined at Rio ; discharged at same place. 
Capt. Top. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; discharged at Sydney, 

Dec. 15th, 1839. 

1st Class Boy. Joined at Sydney ; run at New Zealand. 
Seaman. Joined at the Sandwich Islands; served 

the cruise. 
Quarter. Master. Joined in the United States; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; lost in the 

Sea-Gull. 
Capt. Forecastle. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Syd- 

ney. 

1st Class Boy. Joined at Sydney ; run at same place. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 



liv 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



JOHN TRACK, 
ASHTON TAYLOR, 

DAVID THOMAS, 
ABIJAH TRAVERSE, 
EEWARD TOWNSEND, 
HENRY THOMPSON, 
HUMPHREY THOMAS, 
JOHN THOMPSON, 2d, 

WM. W. TURNER, 
CHARLES THOMAS, 
EDWIN THENE, 
WILLIAM THOMPSON, 
WILLIAM TENEYCKE, 
CHARLES TRUELARE, 
JOHN UNDIETCH, 
JOHN VANCLECK, 
EDWARD VERRY, 
JOHN VANDERVEER, 

ANTONIA VINES, 
GEORGE WESSON, 

JAMES WILKINSON, 
SAMUEL WILLIAMS, 
DANIEL WRIGHT, 
EDWARD WIDDOWS, 
JAMES C. WALFE, 
BENJAMIN WEBB, 
ROBERT WILLIS, 
THOMAS WILSON, 



Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; discharged same place. 

Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. f 

Officers' Cook. Joined at Feejee Islands; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Landsman Joined in the United States ; run at Callao. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Upolu ; run at Sydney. 
Capt. Forecastle. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Gunner. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 

Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Syd- 

ney. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; sent home 

in the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso; sent home in the 

Relief. 

Officers' Steward. Joined at Callao ; sent home in the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the. 

cruise. 
Seaman, Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Gunner's Mate. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Cockswain. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Quarter-Gunner. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Rio, Dec. 31st, 1838. 
Sailmaker's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



Iv 



HORACE WISTER, 
HENRY WALTHAM, 
MARK WIDDEN, 
PHILIP WILLIAMS, 

NICHOLAS WHITES-TON, 
JOSIAH WEAVER, 
THOMAS WILKINS, 
CHARLES WILLIS, 
ZACCHEUS WHEELER, 
JOHN WELLER, 
MICHAEL WARD, 

JAMES WILLIAMS, 

JOHN A. WEAVER, 
WILLIAM WHITE, 
JEDEDIAH WILBER, 
JOHN WILLIAMS, 
THOMAS L. WILLIAMS, 
JOHN WHITE, 2d, 
STEPHEN WINKS, 
WILLIAM WELLS, 
GEORGE WILLIAMS, 

JAMES WHITE, 
KEMBAL WHITNEY, 
JOHN WILSON, 
AARON WALMSLEY, 
DANIEL WHITEHORN, 
NOAH WYETH, 

JOSEPH WILSON, 
PETER WELSH, 

WILLIAM WILSON, 
HENRY C. WILLIAMS, 
MICHAEL WILLIAMS, 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, March 31st, 1841. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Landsman, Joined in the United States; returned in 

the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; lost in the Sea-Gull. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at New Zealand; run at Oahu. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at Hawaii. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Cape Town ; served the cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Landsman. Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 

Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao; served the cruise. 
2d Class Boy. Joined at Sydney ; served the cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Upolu ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; run at Rio. 
Yeoman. Joined at* Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 

Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Forecastle. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Cali- 
fornia. 
Sergeant Marines. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Gunner. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Rio, Dec. 31st, 1638. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Landsman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 



IvJ LISTOFOFFICERSANDMEN. 

FRANCIS WILLIAMS, Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
THOMAS WALLACE, 1st Class Boy. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
JACK WILLIAMS, Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
WILLIAM YORK, Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 

HENRY YOUNG, 1st, Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Hawaii ; served the cruise. 

HENRY YOUNG, 2d, Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged at 

New Zealand. 



CHAPTER I. 



CONTENTS. 

DEPARTURE FROM THE UNITED STATES VOYAGE TO MADEIRA - ARRIVAL AT 
FUNCHAL APPEARANCE OF MADEIRA FROM THE SEA LANDING AT FUNCHAL 
VISIT TO THE CIVIL AND MILITARY GOVERNORS STREETS, AND MODE OF TRANS- 
PORTATIONCRIMINALS AND PRISONS VILLA OF CARVALHAL CONVENT RIDES IN 
MADEIRA CURRAL VISIT OF SCIENTIFIC GENTLEMEN TO SAN VINCENTE EXCUR- 
SION TOWARDS THE EAST END OF THE ISLAND STORY OF ITS DISCOVERY 
POPULATION OF MADEIRA WINE GOVERNMENT CHARACTER OF THE INHABI- 
TANTSDRESSDWELLINGSMODE OF TRAVELLING EMPLOYMENTS OF THE 
PEOPLE - WINE-MAKING LOWER CLASSES ASCENT OF PICO RUIVO NATURAL 
HISTORY -QUINT A OF MR. BEAN-SCHOONER STAR SAVED FROM WRECK-DEPAR- 
TURE FROM MADEIRA. 



NARRATIVE 



or 



THE EXPLORING EXPEDITION. 



CHAPTEK I. 

MADEIRA. 

1838. 

ON the 17th of August I received my sailing instructions, and final 
orders to put to sea the moment I was ready. The signal was 
accordingly made that the squadron was under sailing orders. 

At 3 o'clock p. M., on Saturday, the 18th, the signal for sailing was 
made, and we got under way with an ebb tide, and a light air from 
southwest. At 5 p. M. we anchored at the Horseshoe, in consequence 
of its falling calm and of the tide making against us ; but at 9 p. M. 
the wind freshened, when we tripped and stood down the bay.' At 
4 A. M. on the 19th, we passed Cape Henry Light; at 9 A. M. dis- 
charged our pilot and took our departure. 

At 1 1 A. M. all hands were called to muster, and divine service was 
performed. The day was beautiful, the sea smooth, the wind light* 
and the squadron around, with the land sinking from our view. I 
shall never forget the impressions that crowded on me during that 
day in the hours of service. It required all the hope I could muster 
to outweigh the intense feeling of responsibility that hung over me. 
I may compare it to that of one doomed to destruction. We were 
admonished in the discourse to repose confidence in the aid and 

(3) 



4 MADEIRA. 

protection of Him whom all hands had been called to worship, and 
the admonition was well calculated to do us good. 

Orders were now given to rendezvous, in case of separation, at 
Madeira. It was soon found, in the trial of the sailing qualities of 
the vessels, that the Relief was unsuited to act with the rest without 
great detention, and after four days I determined to part company 
with her, giving her orders to proceed to the Cape de Verdes. 

The novelty of our situation was quite enough to interest all ; free 
communications were had, and endeavours were made to excite a 
general interest in all the objects that were passing about us. It was 
amusing to see all entering into the novel occupation of dissecting 
the fish taken, and to hear scientific names bandied about between 
Jack and his shipmates. 

On the 25th I began the trial of the current with the current-log ; 
and experiments by sinking a white object to ascertain the distance 
to which the solar light penetrates the sea. Our current-log was 
formed of two small kegs with a distance-line between them of five 
fathoms, and the log-line fastened to the middle of it. One keg is 
made heavy enough to sink another air-tight, just beneath the sur- 
face of the water, so that we get the current uninfluenced by wind, 
and all the other circumstances that would affect the ship and not the 
surface current. I adopted for the other experiments the usual sea 
anchor for a boat, viz., an iron pot, painting the bottom of it white. 
The depths were noted- when it was lost sight of, and when it was 
again seen, and the mean of these depths was taken for the result. 

From our position in latitude 36 08' N., longitude 71 24' W., and 
the temperature of the water, we knew we were on the edge of the 
Gulf Stream ; and we experienced what I presume has been called the 
eddy current. It was found setting to the west and northwest, but 
ought more properly to be termed an indraught to the Stream. I am 
little disposed to believe that a southerly current exists, as has been 
reported, like the inner one. We had a fine opportunity for examining 
the temperature of the Stream, as we crossed it at right angles to its 
course, and the thermometer was observed hourly while making little 
progress through the water : the maximum temperature of the water 
was found to be 83, and width of the Stream about fifty-three miles. 
Much information might be acquired by a series of experiments in 
the Gulf Stream, which would tend to perfect the navigation and 
shorten the passage between the ports on our coast. It is to be hoped 
it will claim the attention of those engaged on the coast survey. 

On the 25th of August our winds became favourable, and we were 
enabled to lay our course towards Madeira. I continued to keep the 



MADEIRA. 5 

direction of the Gulf Stream towards the Western Islands. We felt 
its influence until we reached the longitude of 48 W., and found it to 
set for the last few days to the northward of east. The winds had 
been light and the sea smooth, indicating no other impulse than the 
flow of the Stream. The temperature gradually decreased from 83 
to 75. 

On the night of the 26th we parted company with the Peacock and 
Flying-Fish in a squall, and did not again meet them until we reached 
Madeira. The 2d September we spoke a brig from Salem on a 
whaling voyage. The 5th of September, being near the reported 
shoal of St. Anne, I determined to pass over its position. 

On the 6th we passed over it, the sea was smooth, the horizon clear, 
and the day beautiful. At 8 A. M. the look-out cried out " Rocks, or a 
wreck on the starboard bow !" which at once created an excitement 
on board. We stood for it. It had at first every appearance of a 
rock, then that of a wreck with the masts gone. It proved, however, 
to be a large tree of cotton-wood, one hundred and twenty feet in 
length, and fourteen feet in circumference at the height of five feet 
above the roots. It had been a long time in the water, was full of 
barnacles, and much eaten by the teredo navalis. Great quantities of 
fish were about it, consisting of dolphins, sharks, &c. We did not, 
however, succeed in taking any. In rough weather it might easily 
have been mistaken for a rock, particularly if passed in twilight, or at 
night. There is little doubt in my mind that many of the numerous 
vigias that appear on our charts have as little foundation. No current 
was experienced hereabouts, and I am led to the conclusion that a sort 
of eddy or still water is here found, wherein most of the wood carried 
by the Gulf Stream becomes deposited for a time. 

On the 8th, longitude 34 08' W., latitude 37 17' N., the current 
was found setting to the southward and westward. 

In consequence of the wind being from the southward and westward, 
I was compelled, after making the Peak of Pico, to go to the northward 
of St. Michael's. I am satisfied, however, it is much better to keep to 
the southward, as the wind will be found more steady and stronger. 
Besides, the current, at that season of the year, sets to the westward 
among the islands. 

As we passed St. Michael's, we amused ourselves by a view, through 
our glasses, of its villas, groves, and cultivated fields. 

On the night of the 13th we laid by, just after passing the north end 
of St. Michael's, in order to examine the position of the Tullock Reef 
by daylight. We passed within a mile and a half of its reported 

A2 



Q MADEIRA. 

position, but saw nothing of it, although the sea was running suffi- 
ciently high to have made a heavy break on it, if it did exist. 

On the 15th, as we were making sail, George Porter, one of our 
maintop-men, in loosing the top-gallant sail, was caught by the 
buntline, and dragged over the yard, where he was seen to hang, as it 
were quite lifeless, swinging to and fro by the neck. 

On the alarm being given, two men ran aloft to his assistance. It 
now became doubtful on deck whether they would not be all dragged 
over by the weight of his body, until several others gave assistance 
and relieved them. It caused a breathless anxiety to us all to see a 
fellow-being in the momentary expectation that he would be dashed to 
the deck. He was fortunately rescued and brought below yet living. 
Here he speedily came to his senses, and recollecting that the drum 
had rolled to grog just before his accident, he, sailor-like, asked for his 
portion of it. It was truly a providential escape. This young man 
died on our way home, in the China Seas, of an inflammatory fever. 

On the 16th we made the island of Madeira, and having a strong 
westerly wind, I determined to pass to Funchal, on its southern side. 
This may be done at this season, but vessels bound to that port usually 
prefer going round the eastern point of the island. When off the 
western point of Madeira we experienced a very long heavy swell, 
which gave me an opportunity of trying the velocity of the waves, 
by noting the time the same wave was passing between the vessels. 
The result gave twenty-three miles per hour, but I was not altoge- 
ther satisfied with it. It was difficult to measure the correct angle 
subtended by the Porpoise's masts for the distance, on account of the 
motion of both vessels. The measurement of the height of the waves 
I found still more difficult, and the results varied too much to place 
confidence in them, principally owing to each succeeding swell or 
wave being less than the preceding one. The different observations 
gave from twenty-five to fourteen feet ; the width of the wave, from 
the same causes, was equally variable, and each successive result 
varied from that which preceded it. 

Before sunset, we cast anchor in company with the Porpoise and 
Sea-Gull, and were the next morning joined by the Peacock and 
Flying-Fish. 

Shortly after coming to anchor, we were boarded by the health 
officer, with the captain of the port, who, on being assured of our good 
health, gave us permission to land. The United States' Consul, Henry 
John Burden, Esq., also came on board, and kindly offered us all the 
attention that lay in his power. 



MADEIRA. 7 

At night, there was a general illumination of the churches, and the 
constant ringing of the bells added much to the excitement of many on 
board, and told us we had reached foreign shores. 

The first appearance of Madeira did not come up to the idea we 
had formed of its beauties from the glowing description of travellers. 
It exhibited nothing to the distant view but a bare and broken rock, 
of huge dimensions, which, though grand and imposing, is peculiarly 
dark and gloomy, and it was not until we had made our way close 
under the land, that we could discover the green patches which are 
every where scattered over its dark red soil, even to the tops of the 
highest peaks. 

The mountain verdure was afterwards discovered to be owing to 
groves of heath and broom, which grow to an extraordinary height, 
aspiring to the stature of forest trees. In addition to these groves, the 
terraced acclivities, covered with a luxuriant tropical vegetation, 
change on a closer approach its distant barren aspect into one of 
extreme beauty and fertility. 

The most striking peculiarity in the mountain scenery, is the jagged 
outline of the ridge, the rudely shaped towers and sharp pyramids of 
rock, which appear elevated on the tops and sides of the highest peaks 
as well as on the lower elevations, and the deep precipitous gorges, 
which cut through the highest mountains almost to their very base. 

The shores of the island are mostly lofty cliffs, occasionally facing 
the water with a perpendicular front one or two thousand feet in 
height. The cliffs are interrupted by a few small bays, where a richly 
cultivated valley approaches the water between abrupt precipices, or 
surrounded by an amphitheatre of rugged hills. These narrow bays 
are the sites of the villages of Madeira. 

As we sailed along from its western end, we occasionally saw, in 
these quiet and peaceful situations, small white-walled villages, each 
with its little church at the outlet of the gorges. We were particularly 
struck with that of the Camera de Lobos, a few miles to the westward 
of Santa Cruz hill. This is the largest, and is the most interesting of 
any, from its having been the first point settled by Europeans. The 
high precipices were new to us Americans : so different from what 
we are accustomed to in the United States. The scene was still more 
striking, and our attention was more forcibly arrested, when passing 
under cliffs of some sixteen hundred feet above us. We were so 
near them that the sound of the surf was distinctly heard. The whole 
effect of the view was much heightened by a glowing sunset in one of 
the finest climates in the world. 

Off the eastern cape of the island, many isolated rocks were seen 



8 MADEIRA. 

separated from the land, with bold, abrupt sides and broken outlines. 
The character of these rocks is remarkable : they stand quite detached 
from the adjoining cliffs, and some of them rise to a great height in a 
slender form, with extremely rugged surfaces, and broken edges. 
Through some, the waters have worn arched ways of large dimensions, 
which afford a passage for the breaking surf, and would seem to 
threaten ere long their destruction. 

Similar needle-form rocks are seen off the northern Deserta, an 
island lying some miles east of Madeira. One of them is often 
mistaken for a ship under sail, to which when first seen it has a 
considerable resemblance. It stands like a slender broken column, 
several hundred feet in height, on a base scarcely larger than its 
summit. 

Funchal has a very pleasing appearance from the sea, and its 
situation in a kind of amphitheatre formed by the mountains, adds to 
its beauty. The contrast of the white buildings and villas with the 
green mountains, forms a picture which is much heightened by the 
bold quadrangular Loo Rock with its embattled summit commanding 
the harbour in the foreground. 

The island throughout is rough and mountainous, but the steeps 
are clothed with rich and luxuriant verdure. Terraces are visible 
on every side, and every spot that the ingenuity of man could make 
available has been apparently turned to advantage, and is diligently 
cultivated. These spots form an interesting scene, particularly when 
contrasted with the broken and wild background, with the white 
cottages clustered at the sea-shore, and gradually extending themselves 
upwards until the eye rests on the highest and most striking building, 
that of the convent of Nostra Senora de Monte. 

Through the western half of the island runs a central ridge, 
about five thousand feet high, on which is an extensive plain, called 
Paul de Serra, which is mostly overgrown, and is used especially 
for breeding mules and horses. The eastern portion of the island, 
though quite elevated, is less so than the western. 

The valleys usually contain a strip of land of extreme fertility, 
through which winds the bed of a streamlet, that becomes a mountain 
torrent in the rainy seasons, but is nearly or quite dry in summer. 

The landing at Funchal is on a stony beach, and is accompanied 
with some little difficulty, partly on account of the surf, but more 
from the noise, confusion, and uproar made by the native boatmen 
in their efforts to drag their boat up on the beach. This operation 
they however understand, and are well accustomed to, and those who 
desire to land dry, will be wise to employ them. 



MADEIRA. 9 

On the 17th, we paid our respects, with a large party of officers, to 
the civil governor the Baron de Lordello, field-marshal in the army, 
and administrator-general of the Province of Madeira and Porto 
Santo; and also to the military governor Jose Teixcera Rebello, 
colonel in the army, and commandant of the district. 

The civil and military governments were formerly united in the 
same person, but since the restoration after the reign of Don Miguel, 
they have been divided. The military governor is now obliged to 
consult, and is under the control of the civil governor. I was 
informed that on the appointment of the military governor this was 
expressly intimated to him, and that the arrangement was made in 
order to avoid placing too much power in the hands of any one 
man. 

His Excellency Baron Lordello resides in the government house or 
palace, which is a large quadrangular building, occupied in part as 
barracks. His suite of apartments fronts the bay, and enjoys a 
beautiful view of it; they also have the enjoyment of the inbat or 
sea-breeze. They are very large, and but meagerly furnished. 
Around the large anteroom are hung the portraits of all the civil, 
ecclesiastical, and military governors, which form an imposing array 
of hard outline, stiff figures and faces, with a variety of amusing 
costume. Those of later years which have been hung up, are not 
calculated to give very exalted ideas of the standing of the present 
Portuguese school of portrait painting. 

His Excellency the Baron Lordello received us very courteously. 
Our audience, however, was extremely formal: the whole furniture 
and appearance of the room served to make it so. We all found 
it difficult to school ourselves to ceremonies, having been ushered as 
we were through dilapidated and impoverished courts and vestibules. 
His Excellency the Baron speaks English remarkably well, which I 
understood he had acquired while acting as interpreter to the British 
staff in Portugal, during the Peninsular War. He had been no more 
than a week in charge of the government, having just arrived from 
Portugal. After a few monosyllabic questions and answers we took 
our leave, and he did us the honour to see us through the anteroom to 
the hall of entrance, where we parted with many bows. 

Our next visit was to the military governor, Senor Rebello, who 
occupied a small apartment at the opposite end of the building. 
This was not large enough to accommodate us all, and chairs were 
wanting for many. The manner and ease of the occupant made 
full amends. Ceremony and form were laid aside; he seemed to 

VOL. i. 2 



10 MADEIRA. 

enter warmly into our plans and pleasures, and evinced a great desire 
to do us service. 

Colonel Rebello was one of the proscribed during the reign of 
terror of Don Miguel, and was concealed for four years, all of which 
time our consular flag afforded him protection. During this whole 
period he did not leave the apartment he occupied, or even approach 
the window. 

The streets of the town are very narrow, without sidewalks, and 
to our view like alleys, but their narrowness produces no inconve- 
nience. They are well paved, and wheel-carriages are unknown. 
The only vehicle, if so it may be called, is a sledge, of some six 
feet in length, about twenty inches wide, and only six or eight inches 
high, on which are transported the pipes of wine. Two strips of hard 
wood are fastened together for runners. 




This sledge is dragged by two very small oxen, and slips easily 
on the pavement, which is occasionally wet with a cloth. It is no 
doubt the best mode of transportation in Funchal, for their wine, on 
account of the great steepness of their streets. Smaller burthens are 
transported on men's shoulders, or in hampers and baskets on the 
backs of donkeys. 

The middle gutters are now for the most part closed, and made 
subterranean, no longer the stranger's nuisance. Funchal may 
compare with most places for the cleanliness of its streets. Little 
improvement has as yet taken place in the cleanliness and discipline 
of its prisons. 

I was surprised to learn that all misdemeanours are referred for 
trial to Portugal, and that persons having committed small crimes are 
kept for years without any disposition being made of them by those 
in authority. They are maintained at the expense of the complainant, 
consequently crime is scarcely noticed or complained of. On the 
one hand it makes the punishment very severe, and on the other, 
persons are inclined to take the law into their own hands against 
petty thefts. It is impossible to avoid many painful sights in passing 
the prisons. Caps on sticks are thrust through the iron gratings, and 
requests are made for alms, first in beseeching tones, and afterwards, 



MADEIRA. 11 

if nothing is given, one is pained with hearing cries of execration. 
The occupants are in keeping with the premises, and did not fail to 
excite both our commiseration and disgust. 

Among the lions of Madeira is a villa once belonging to Senor 
Jose de Carvalhal, a wealthy nobleman who died about a year before 
our visit. The gardens are well taken care of, and contain many 
trees and plants from various quarters of the globe. The grounds 
embrace extensive deer parks, but I was not much struck with the 
manner in which they were laid out. The present proprietor is the 
nephew of the late Count. 

The convent is also a place to which strangers resort, and the 
fair nuns of twenty years' standing, 1 will not dwell on, lest truth 
might compel me to destroy some of the reputation of those charms 
which former visiters have done honour to. Feather-flowers continue 
to be sold here, and the nuns to jest with, and receive the homage of 
their guests. Since the overthrow of Don Miguel in 1824, monasteries 
have been abolished and liberty given to the nuns to return to the 
world, of which privilege some of them availed themselves. They 
do not now exceed eighty in number, and as none have since been 
allowed to take the veil, they will soon decrease. 

The rides in Madeira are beautiful. The roads are well made, 
easily and safely travelled on a Madeira pony, with a pony-boy or 
burroquerro. One is at a loss to which to impute the most strength 
of mind and endurance, the pony or the boy. These boys keep 
constantly near the rider, at times holding on to the tail of the pony, 
then bestowing repeated blows with their long sticks, and ever and 
anon urging him on with their singular tones of voice, so that the rider 
is compelled to allow himself to be carried along, contented with 
passing safely over so novel and (to him) apparently so impassable a 
roadway. 

On proceeding out of Funchal, fruits, flowers, and vegetables 
seem crowding upon the sight; in the lower portions, groves of orange 
and lemon trees are mingled with the vineyards, the trees are loaded 
with fruit ; then, as one mounts higher, bananas, figs, pomegranates, 
&c., are seen, and again, still higher, the fruits of the tropics are 
interspersed with those of the temperate zone, viz., apples, currants, 
pears, and peaches, while the ground is covered with melons, 
tomatoes, egg-plant, &c. Farther beyond, the highest point of culti- 
vation is reached, where the potato alone flourishes. Then the 
whole lower portion is spread before the eye. Vineyards, occupying 
every spot that is susceptible of improvement, and one rides through 
paths hedged in with geraniums, roses, myrtles, and hydrangeas. 



12 MADEIRA. 

These plants, which we had been accustomed to consider as the 
inhabitants of our parlours and green-houses, are here met with in 
gigantic forms, and as different from our small, sickly specimens as 
can well be imagined. For those unacquainted with the luxuriance 
of the tropical vegetation, it would be difficult to conceive an idea 
of this favoured spot. Many of the terraces on which the vines 
are grown are cut on the sides of the hills, and the visiter cannot 
but admire the labour expended on the stone walls that support them. 
The road at times leads through small villages, the houses of which 
are built of blocks of lava, without plaster, about six feet high, 
with a thatched roof of broom brought up to a pole in the centre for 
its support, and of a moderate pitch. 

Every one who visits Madeira should see the Curral. It is a 
very remarkable spot, and it is difficult, if not impossible, to give 
an idea of its beauty and grandeur. This place is approached by 
the usual ascent from Funchal, through the narrow roads, or paths 




DESCENT INTO THE CURRAL. 



MADEIRA. 13 

hedged with roses, &c., the view gradually extending beneath, 
over the terraced vineyards. Just before reaching it you mount a 
small ascent; you are then on the summit or edge of the Curral, 
and the whole scene suddenly bursts upon you. The eye descends 
to the depth of two thousand feet, into the immense chasm below, 
and wanders over the ragged and broken outline of the many peaks 
that rise from its very bottom; then upwards, following the gray 
precipitous rocks, till their summits are lost in the clouds, which 
are passing fitfully across it, occasionally permitting the sunbeams to 
glance to its very bottom. One feels surprised, in gazing on this 
scene, that its character of wildness should become softened, and its 
beauty increased, which is effected in part by the plants and shrubs 
which cling or have fastened themselves into the fissures of the rocks. 
These the eye gradually makes out, and is led by the small and 
narrow strips of green on the ledges downwards, until it finally rests 
on the secluded church of Nostra Senora de Livre Monte, and the 
peasants' cabins embedded in the dark and luxuriant foliage beneath, 
whose peace and quietness are in such strong contrast with the 
wildness of nature above. The whole looks more like enchantment 
than reality. The shape of the Curral and its perpendicular sides 
give the idea rather of a gorge than of a crater. 

In the descent the road winds along the sides of the precipice, 
turning around sharp and jutting projections, with a frightful gulf 
yawning below. A misstep of the horse would plunge the rider to 
destruction. At every turn new and striking views are brought out, 
almost surpassing in grandeur the first. The descent is so gradual, 
that one scarcely seems to advance downwards, and the length of 
time necessary to accomplish it (upwards of an hour) will give some 
idea of the vastness and grandeur of the scene. Continuing on, the 
gorge opens to the south, where the streamlet of the Curral, joined 
by several lateral branches, forms the river Socorridos, which empties 
itself into the sea at the ancient town of Camera de Lobos. 

A party, consisting of Messrs. Drayton, Pickering, Couthouy, and 
Brackenridge, visited San Vincente, on the north side of the island. 
They describe the road to it as passing over projecting ledges, of 
which those unacquainted with a volcanic country can form but little 
idea. The first night the party stopped at Santa Anna, where they 
were hospitably entertained by Seiior A. Accraiolis, who afforded 
them every comfort in his power. They were exceedingly well 
accommodated. The next morning they set out on their way to Pico 
Ruivo. On their road they encountered the forest of arborescent 
Heaths, some of which were found thirty feet in height and four feet 

B 



14 MADEIRA. 

in girth at a height of two feet from the ground. These have by 
former travellers been reported as pines. Mr. Drayton's illustrative 
drawing of these remarkable trees is very characteristic. 

After a fatiguing day's ramble, in which they collected many 
specimens, they returned to Santa Anna, quite wet, it having rained 
most of the day on the mountain. The next day they set out for San 
Vincente, their kind host furnishing them with a letter to Padre 
Jacinto Neri. Passing along the north side, over some of the most 
mountainous and broken parts of the island, though at the same time 
extremely beautiful, and in places well cultivated, they reached the 
pass at Estroza. This is particularly striking, winding around the 
precipitous cliff, almost overhanging the sea, several hundred feet 
below, and with its pinnacles reaching the clouds. The path around 
this bluff, which is only wide enough for one at a time, is a good 
specimen of the roads around the island. It has been worked with 
great labour, and made quite easy to travel by its zigzag direction. 
The feeling of insecurity to those who are unaccustomed to these 
mural precipices, with the extended ocean lying far beneath, serves 
to give additional interest to the scene. 

To the plate of this pass, facing page 1, the reader is referred for a 
correct representation of the same. 

They passed through several villages, all prettily situated, among 
which was Porto Delgada, and about sunset arrived at San Vincente. 
At Porto Delgada, their guides would not allow them to stop, as it 
was necessary to descend and pass along the rocky shore before the 
tide came in. They succeeded in passing safely, but were kept on 
the qui vive by the numerous stories detailed by their guides of the 
accidents that had occurred there. The road to this part of the 
island is little frequented by strangers, of whom only three are said 
to have visited San Vincente during four months. 

On their arrival they found Padre Jacinto engaged at prayers. 
After his duties were finished he received them kindly, and accommo- 
dated them for the night. San Vincente is but a small village of 
fifteen houses, a chapel, and a distillery, in which, during the season, 
they make between four and five hundred gallons of brandy a day. 
As Padre Jacinto could not speak a word of English, they had but 
little conversation with him. However, a little Spanish on both sides, 
with gesticulations, enabled them to pass the usual compliments, and 
to obtain the requisite directions for proceeding back to Funchal 
on the next day. They were kindly and hospitably entertained by 
the Padre, and left him with many thanks for his kindness. Taking 
the road or rather path across to the Curral, they passed over a most 



MADEIRA. 15 

beautiful country, meeting with the gigantic virgin forests of Laurels, 
sixty feet high and four feet in diameter, and occasionally woods of 
arborescent Heaths, of equally surprising size with those they had 
seen the day before, in their journey across the island, farther to the 
eastward. 

No traces of distinct craters were found on any part of the island 
they visited ; the rocks were composed of volcanic breccia, and the 
surface of these was much decomposed. 

The mountain-paths by which they crossed, are almost inaccessible 
in some places. The Madeira ponies were obliged to leap from rock 
to rock, frequently at an angle of 45 with the horizon. The lover of 
the picturesque will be amply gratified by pursuing the same route. 

Another party, consisting of Messrs. Hale, Eld, Dana, and Holmes, 
went towards the east end of the island, as far as Canical, beyond 
Machico, to examine a bed of fossils, said to exist there. This proved 
to be a bed or deposit of coral, which will be spoken of in the 
Geological Report. 

Passing through Machico, they saw and visited the small church or 
chapel, said to have been erected over the graves of the lovers, Anna 
d'Arfet and Robert Machim, the story of whose love and sufferings 
has long since been placed among the fabulous, though still credited in 
Madeira. 

As their adventures are supposed to have led to the discovery of this 
island, it may be as well to give the history of them a place here, as 
recorded by Alcoforado. 

It is as follows : 

"In the reign of Edward the Third of England, Robert Machim, an 
English gentleman, became the lover of the beautiful Anna d'Arfet. 
It was long before their mutual attachment was known. When it 
became so, Machim's imprisonment was procured by the influence of 
her family, for his presuming to aspire to the hand of one so much 
above his rank. During his confinement, Anna d'Arfet had been 
forced into a marriage with a nobleman, who confined her in his 
castle near Bristol. By the assistance of a friend, Machim escaped, 
and induced her to elope with him, to seek an asylum in France. 
They sailed during a storm, which prevented them from gaining their 
intended port, and after many days of anxiety and suffering, they 
found themselves in sight of land clothed with the richest vegetation, 
and wild flowers in the greatest profusion. They determined to 
disembark, and experienced a climate of surpassing beauty, with birds 
of the gayest plumage. Whilst wandering a few days about in this 
paradise, there came on a violent storm, which drove the vessel from 



16 



MADEIRA. 



the island. This was too great a shock for poor Anna, and she died 
soon after of a broken heart. Robert did not long survive her, and 
died, uttering as a last request that he might be laid in the same grave 
with his mistress, in a chapel which they had erected in commemoration 
of their deliverance from shipwreck. From the survivors, Alcoforado 
is said to have derived the story, they having left the island, (after 
many adventures,) returned to their native country, and gave accounts 
of the discovery of Madeira." 

The country along this route is much diversified in surface, and 
extremely beautiful. The road is quite good and much wider, enabling 
two to ride abreast. 

This party complained much of the inhospitality of the inhabitants. 
They could not get any accommodation whatever at Santa Cruz, 
although it contains three thousand inhabitants. They were told " that 
Santa Cruz was a very poor place," and that it would be better to ride 
on to Funchal. One of the inhabitants, of respectable appearance, 
told them there was an empty house which they could occupy, with 
permission of the owner. His offer was courteously declined, and the 
party rode back through a dark night to Funchal. 

The islands of Madeira and Porto Santo, under the new constitution, 
promulgated in 1836, were included in one district, called " Districto- 
administrativo do Funchal." It contains ten councils, in which are 
forty-five parishes. The population, according to the census taken in 
1836, is taken from the Cronica. 





PARISHES. 


FAMILIES. 


SOULS. 


HALES. 


FEMALES. 


Funchal .... 


9 


5,975 


28,653 


13,444 


15,204 


Santa Cruz . 


4 


1,450 


7,287 


3,611 


3,676 


Machico .... 


4 


1,030 


5,207 


2,655 


2,552 


Santa Anna . . . 


5 


3,972 


14,799 


7,572 


7,227 


San Vincente . . 


2 


1,972 


8,848 


4,425 


4,423 


Porto Moniz . . 


4 


1,559 


7,333 


3,606 


3,727 


Calheta . . . V 


6 


2,731 


13,133 


6,341 


6,792 


Porto do Sol . . . 


6 


3,288 


16,111 


7,852 


8,259 


Camara do Lobos . 


4 


2,323 


12,458 


6,119 


6,339 


Porto Santo . . . 


1 


374 


1,618 


883 


758 




45 


24,674 


115,447 


56,508 


58,957 



The English population amounted in 1836 to 108 families, numbering 
324 souls. 



MADEIRA. 17 

PROGRESS OF POPULATION IN 1835. 

Legitimate births, male 1807 

Illegitimate " " 222 

2029 

Legitimate births, female 1868 

Illegitimate " " 205 

2073 

4102 

Deaths, male 1383 

" female 1368 

2751 

Excess of births . . . 1351 

Marriages .... 1065 

The revenue of the island is stated to be about $210,000 per annum. 
That portion which is derived from the customs, is about one half, or 
$110,000. The remainder is from taxes and tithes. The latter are now 
collected by the government, and from it the priesthood receive salaries. 
The inhabitants are liable to pay tax for the maintenance of the small 
naval force kept on the station. The expenses of the government of Ma- 
deira, including the support of the military garrison, is about $150,000, 
leaving a surplus to the government of about $50,000 or $60,000. 

There are about five thousand proprietors of the soil, of whom no 
more than six hundred and fifty live on their rents ; and there are 
about four hundred who receive government salaries. 

Mendicants are numerous, and one is much tormented with them 
from the very moment of landing. It is surprising to find them so 
importunate in so fine an island, and where the necessaries of life 
ought to abound. 

Wine is the staple commodity: the produce during the year 1837 
was 14,150 pipes. The export the year previous to our visit amounted 
to 8,435 pipes, of which about 3,800 pipes, valued at $793,000, went to 
the United States. The imports only amounted to $105,000, in staves, 
rice, and oil. The 5,700 pipes that remain, includes that shipped 
to Europe, the home consumption, and what is stored for refining. 
The inhabitants of Madeira are much alive and justly jealous of the 
reputation of their Wines, which are generally the engrossing topic of 
conversation. An amusing excitement existed during our visit. A 
London paper (the Times) had asserted that foreign wine had frequently 
been introduced into Madeira, and afterwards exported as the genuine 
article, to the United States in particular ; and what gave more force 
to the story, it was stated as a fact, that seventy pipes had lately been 

VOL. L B2 3 



18 MADEIRA. 

entered, at the expense of $1000, and remanufactured. Every body- 
was up in arms. The commercial association of Funchal passed 
resolutions denouncing the publication in strong terms, as designed by 
certain interested persons to injure the reputation of the wine of 
Madeira. So strict are the laws to prevent frauds, that even genuine 
Madeira, after being once shipped, cannot be returned to the island. 
I heard, however, of an attempt, and but one, to smuggle in Teneriffe 
and Fayal wines, which was discovered. The casks were broken, the 
wine destroyed, the boats confiscated, and the smuggler condemned to 
be transported to the coast of Africa. 

We were informed that the industry of the inhabitants had much 
increased within a few years, and since the new order of things : this 
is shown in the increased quantity of grain which is raised, viz., wheat, 
barley, rye, and Indian corn. Sugar and coffee are also raised, and of 
superior quality. All kinds of vegetables and fruits are in abundance, 
all of very fine kinds, and not only sufficient for their own wants, bu< 
to supply the shipping that, touch there. 

There are some things relative to the organization of the present 
government, that seem to forebode any thing but harmony in its 
operations. It is too complicated for an ignorant community, that 
cannot value the elective franchise. The system is somewhat a 
caricature of our own, in the frequency of elections, and the numerous 
small magistrates who have for the most part little or no emolument. 
I was told that instances had occurred of their refusing to educate 
their children, in order that they might escape being elected to an 
office, which would bring them nothing but toil and vexation. As they 
become more enlightened this prejudice will pass away. 

The people are industrious, sober, and civil, and although ignorant, 
I should think happy. There is little, if any, mixed blood among 
them. They are of the old Arabian stock. Free negroes are seen. 
Dark hair, eyes, and complexion, are most common ; but much 
diversity in form and feature, and in the colour of the hair exists. 
The character of the features of the inhabitants is usually rather a 
broad face, high cheek bones, and pointed nose, full lips, good teeth, 
and retreating chin. The men are very muscular, rather above the 
middle height, strongly built, and capable of enduring great fatigue. 
We all agreed that the women were particularly ugly, which is to be 
imputed in part to the hard labour required of them. The two sexes 
do not appear to belong to the same race. 

The men of the lower order are dressed in a kind of loose trousers 
(cuecas), descending as far as the knee, with a shirt or jacket of a 
gaudy colour. Both sexes wear a kind of cap (carapuca), of very 

'.. 



MADEIRA. 19 

small dimensions, tied under the chin. Its use is not readily conceived, 
as it is only a few inches in diameter at its base, and terminates in a 
conical top, like an inverted funnel. 

The women wear bodices, with short petticoats of a variety of 
colours, in stripes. They have usually shoes and stockings, but they 
generally go barefooted, with these articles tied in a small bundle, to 
be put on when they wish to appear fine. The children are poorly 
clad, have but one garment, and that dirty. 

The habitations of the lower order would be called huts in our 
country. They are composed of walls of stone, about five or six feet 
high, with a roof rising on all sides to a central pole, are thatched with 
straw or broom, and contain only one room. The only aperture for 
light and smoke is the door. There is but little necessity for chimneys, 
as fire is seldom required. It is said that in the northern part of the 
island, some of the peasants make their habitation in caves or 
excavations on the hill-side. 




PEASANT'S COTTAGE. 



In the town of Funchal, there are many elegant establishments, and 
much luxury among the higher classes, but the poorer classes are 
lodged miserably. The houses are generally of one story, of which 
the exterior is well kept, being neatly whitewashed ; but the interior 
is any thing but comfortable. They have but one entrance. The 
floors are paved with round stones, and the walls are of rough stone, 
presenting no better an appearance than our wood-cellars. The 
furniture is scanty, and of the coarsest kind. Those of the peasants 
are more characteristic to the island. The wood-cut above is a good 
representation of their habitations. 

Travelling is performed in sedan-chairs. This mode is always 
considered the safest for ladies, particularly in crossing the mountains. 
Horses and mules are seldom used. On leaving Funchal for the 



20 



MADEIRA. 



country, it is one continued ascent between high stone walls, these 
forming abutments to the terraces, which are covered with vines, 
and afford protection from the sun. After reaching the hills, one 
enjoys a delightful view of the beautiful gardens. The roadsides 
are lined throughout with flowers, (to us, those of the green-house,) 
among them Fuchsias, Digitalis, Rose geraniums, Punica granata, 
Rosa indica coccinea, Hydrangea hortensis, mixed with box-trees, 
myrtles, &c. 

The valleys are covered with the Belladonna lily, and the mountain- 
passes cannot be compared to any thing more appropriate than to a 
rich flower-garden left to grow wild. Added to all this, a climate 
which resembles our finest spring weather. 

Such of the peasantry as do not gain a subsistence in the vineyards, 
have usually a small patch of ground which they cultivate, raising 
grain, corn, potatoes, and the taro (Arum esculentum), in quantities 
barely sufficient to eke out a scanty living. The cultivation is 
commonly performed by hand, although a plough of very simple 
construction is sometimes used. Many of the peasantry are em- 
ployed as carriers, and one is much struck by their numbers when 
entering Funchal, early in the morning, with sheepskins filled with 
wine on their shoulders, that look at a distance more like the live 




WINE-CARRIERS. 



animal than a filled skin. These skins are preserved as entire as 
possible, even the legs of the animal being retained. They are 
generally kept steady by a band that passes over the forehead, which 
supports a great part of the weight. About twenty-five gallons, 
weighing more than two hundred pounds, is a load. They move 



MADEIRA. 



21 



rapidly, and carry this load five miles for a mere trifle. To us, one 
of the most remarkable features in the population, was to see a 
female not only thus employed, but a stout mountain lass trudging 
up a steep path with ease, under a load that would have staggered 
one of our labourers, even for a short distance. 

The manner of expressing the juice I have no where seen particu- 
larly described, and although a description of it may not add a relish 
to the cup, yet it will show the manufacture as conducted according 
to the old custom, at the present day. A friend of our consul was 
obliging enough to show us his works, and the machinery for 
expressing the juice from the grape. It was in a rude sort of shed. 
On our approach we heard a sort of song, with a continued thumping, 
and on entering, saw six men stamping violently in a vat of six 
feet square by two feet deep, three on each side of a huge lever beam, 
their legs bare up to the thighs. On our entrance they redoubled 
their exertions till the perspiration fairly poured from them; the 
vat had been filled with grapes, and by their exertions we were 
enabled to see the whole process. After the grapes had been suffi- 




WINE-PRESS. 



ciently stamped, and the men's legs well scraped, the pulp was made 
into the shape of a large bee-hive, a rope made of the young twigs of 
the vine being wound around it. The lever was then used, which 
has a large stone or rock attached to it by a screw. Much time is 
lost in adjusting this, and much consultation and dispute had. The 
juice flows off, and is received in tubs. The produce of the press is 
on an average about fifty gallons daily. Each gallon requires about 
two bushels of grapes. The taste is very much like sweet cider. 
The process is any thing but pleasing, and endeavours have been 



22 MADEIRA. 

made by English residents to substitute machinery, but the prejudices, 
vexations, and difficulties experienced, have caused them to give up 
the attempt. The general average is from one to three pipes of wine 
per acre annually. , 

The south side of Madeira, as is well known, although not the 
most fertile, produces the finest wines. Every point which can 
be cultivated successfully is attended to, and earth is brought to 
increase the soil from other parts. The kinds of grapes are various, 
and the wines manufactured as numerous. The common Madeira 
is obtained from a mixture of Bual, Verdelho, and Negro Molle 
grapes; the Malmsey and Sercial from grapes of the same name. 
There is a great difference in the spots and peculiar exposure where 
the vine grows, and different kinds of wine are produced, according 
to the state of maturity to which the grape is allowed to arrive at 
before being gathered. After being expressed, it is put into casks, 
undergoes the process of fermentation, is clarified with gypsum or 
isinglass, and a small portion of brandy is added, two or three gallons 
to the pipe. 

The deportment of the lower classes is a mixture of politeness and 
servility. They invariably noticed us in passing by taking off the 
cap ; and on receiving any thing, kissed their hands, or made some 
other respectful salutation. 

The language spoken in Madeira is Portuguese, but with a rapid 
utterance, or rather, clipping or abbreviating of their words and 
expressions. 

The ignorance of the common people seems great. Few can read, 
and still fewer write. It is said they are acquainted with no more 
than three coins, all of which are Spanish, namely, dollars, pistareens, 
and bits, and that many kinds of Portuguese coins current at Lisbon 
will not pass in Madeira. The want of a small description of money 
is much felt. 

I directed a party of officers to make an excursion to the top of 
Pico Ruivo, in order to ascertain its height, and that of the several 
points on their way up. They remained four hours on the summit, 
during which time simultaneous observations were made at the con- 
sul's house by Lieutenant Carr and myself. They ascended by the 
Santa Anna road, which is the only one now said to be practicable. 
Punta d'Empeno, the highest point of cultivation, was found to be 
four thousand one hundred feet above the sea. The heights of other 
points measured will be found in the tables. The results of the 
observations give for the height of the peak above the American 
Consulate, six thousand one hundred and eighty-one feet. The 



MADEIRA. 23 

cistern of the barometer at the latter place, above half tide, was found 
to be by levelling fifty-six feet. Total, six thousand two hundred and 
thirty-seven feet above half tide. 

The magnetical observations for dip and intensity were also made, 
and the longitude by chronometer was found to be, 16 54' 11" W. 
Latitude by observation, 32 38' 11" N. 

The markets are well supplied with meat, poultry, fish, and all 
kinds of vegetables. 

The bat noticed by Bow r dich was the only one of the mammalia 
seen in a wild state. Of birds, two species of hawks, the linnet, the 
canary, the goldfinch, the yellow wagtail, and the swift, were all that 
were seen. Sea fish are abundant ; but not a single trace of a fresh 
water fish was seen or found in the streams. Many specimens of 
Crustacea, insects, and mollusca were added to our collections. 

The ride to the Quinta of Mr. Bean at Comancha is one of the 
prettiest the island affords. It is towards the east end, and some 
eight or ten miles from the town of Funchal. For variety of scenery 
and the beauty of its grounds it is not exceeded by any on the island, 
and it gives a good idea of the effect of English taste when applied 
to the scenery and fine climate of Madeira. The road to it is the 
same that has been before described, passing through the gorges and 
around the different spurs, which gives great variety to it, and presents 
many fine views. Having a note of introduction from our consul, we 
stopped at Mr. Bean's gate and sent the servant in, who returned, 
informing us that Mr. Bean was not at home, but a kind invitation 
to enter was sent to us from his lady. We did so, riding through 
hedges of Fuchsias and Myrtles twelve feet high, when a beautiful 
little cottage on a small level spot burst suddenly upon our view, with 
its verandahs embosomed in creeping vines, and from the notes 
of various kinds of birds, one could almost have fancied oneself in an 
aviary. All united to give the impression that it was the abode 
of contentment. Several small lakes were partially seen, their 
dimensions being ingeniously hid from view. On one of them was 
seen a tiny fleet safely moored, on another, waterfalls, &c., &c. ; the 
banks of others were surrounded with aquatic plants, among which 
was the Calla Ethiopica in full bloom. Then again we were struck 
with the dahlias, geraniums, roses, and jasmines, and the varieties of 
trees and shrubs from the tropics, besides willows, oaks, elms, &c., 
that were familiar to us. A view through the trees down the gorge 
to the distant ocean was beautiful, bringing before us all the bold 
scenery of Madeira : truly it was an enchanting spot. The grounds 
are extensive, and laid out with great taste, and each spot appeared 



24 MADEIRA. 

in keeping with the whole. The hill behind the house was found by 
the sympiesometer to be two thousand and ninety-eight feet above the 
level of the sea. The cottage had every thing to recommend it, in its 
library, &c., &c. All is enjoyed here that such a climate as that of 
Madeira, combined with taste and refinement, can give. 

After a stay of a week, we had made all our repairs and arrange- 
ments which were necessary in consequence of our defective outfits, 
recruited the officers and men, and prepared for our departure. 

Lest it should be supposed at home that I had exaggerated the state 
of the ships, I forwarded from Madeira to the Honourable Secretary 
of the Navy, as an ocular proof how defective our outfit had been, 
the iron hoops that had rusted off the pumps, and were found in the 
well-room of the Peacock. Captain Hudson's report relative thereto 
will be found in Appendix XV. 

The diarrhoea made its appearance among the crews, but in dis- 
pensing with fruit it was soon stopped. 

During our stay, the English schooner Star was seen drifting rapidly 
upon the Brazen-head, and was only saved by the timely aid of our 
boats. She was found to be without an anchor, and had been 
upwards of eighty days at sea from the coast of Africa. The garrison 
of Loo Rock, on seeing the boats proceeding to render assistance, fired 
several guns to prevent her being boarded. This would have effectually 
prevented her receiving any aid from the shore, but as our boats did 
not understand the signal, they went on, and succeeded in saving her 
from wreck, and supplying her necessary wants. 

With a favourable wind we took our departure, after experiencing 
many kindnesses and attentions from our worthy Vice-Consul, Henry 
John Burden, Esq., whose house and time were entirely given up to 
us during our stay, and to whom I would beg to tender our warmest 
thanks. 




MADEIRA BOAT. 



CHAPTER II. 



CONTENTS. 

SQ,UADRON SAILS FROM MADEIRA-CURRENTS-SEARCH FOR SHOALS AND VIGIAS 
ARRIVAL AT ST. JAGO APPEARANCE OF THE ISLAND TOWN OF PORTO PRAYA ITS 
POPULATION LANGUAGE-VISIT TO THE GOVERNOR-PUBLIC FOUNTAIN-MARKET 
DRILL OF RECRUITS DROUGHTS CLIMATE SLAVES DRESS DEPARTURE FROM 
PORTO PRAYA-FURTHER SEARCH FOR SHOALS, ETC. ARRIVAL AT RIO JANEIRO. 



(25) 



CHAPTER II. 

PASSAGE FROM MADEIRA TO RIO JANEIRO. 
1838. 

ON the 25th of September, having completed all that was deemed 
necessary, we sailed from Madeira, and stood to the southward, 
intending to pass over the localities where shoals were supposed to 
exist. 

The morning after our departure from Madeira it was reported to 
me at daylight that the squadron were not in sight ; as we had been 
making rapid progress throughout the night, I concluded that we had 
outrun the squadron, and hove to for them to come up. About eight 
o'clock they were discovered. On joining, I was informed by Captain 
Hudson that they had been becalmed for several hours, although we 
were near each other when the breeze sprang up. These veins of 
wind are frequent in this part of the ocean. 

After passing the Canary Islands we experienced a current setting 
northeast by east, of about one fourth of a mile an hour, until we 
reached the latitude of Bonavista, one of the Cape de Verde Islands. 
This somewhat surprised me, for I had formed the idea that the set of 
the current should have been in the direction of our course ; but many 
careful observations with the current-log, and the difference between 
our astronomical observations and dead reckoning, gave the same 
results. 

It was my intention on leaving the United States to pass from 
Madeira through the Sargasso Sea, in order to ascertain something 
definite in relation to this unexplored and interesting locality, and to 
gain some information relative to the Fucus natans, orjGulf-weed, the 
origin of which has remained so long in doubt. Deep soundings in this 
part of the ocean I deemed would be very interesting, and afford an 

(27) 



28 PASSAGEFROMMADEIRA 

opportunity of settling the origin of this plant, which is spread over the 
whole ocean ; but my time did not permit me to make this deviation 
from our direct course, and I hoped on my return to have ample 
leisure for its exploration. 

On the 29th of September, we passed into discoloured water, as 
green in appearance as that of fifty fathoms depth. On entering it the 
thermometer fell one and a half to two degrees. The distance run in 
it was about four hundred and fifty miles. Repeated casts of the deep 
sea lead were had in from two to three hundred fathoms, but no bottom 
found. The water was particularly examined for animalculae, but 
none were detected. On leaving it a rise of temperature took place of 
two degrees ; and much phosphorescence was seen when we had 
passed out of it. 

The first shoal searched for was the Maria Rock, said to be in 
latitude 19 45' N., and longitude 20 50' W. In its neighbourhood 
our position was carefully ascertained. The vessels were then spread 
in open order, and a course sailed to pass directly over the spot. The 
surface of the ocean visible was not less than twenty miles in latitude 
with every opportunity which clear weather could afford. Good look- 
outs were kept at the masthead, and there was a sufficient swell to 
cause breakers on any shoal within fifteen feet of the surface. We 
ran over the locality without perceiving any thing that indicated a 
shoal. 

The situation of the Bom Felix Shoal, laid down about ten leagues 
to the south of the above, was passed over in the same manner, 
sounding repeatedly for bottom with three hundred fathoms of line, 
but no appearance of a shoal was observed. 

The reported position of the Bonetta Rocks next claimed our 
attention, in latitude 16 32' N., and longitude 20 57' W. After this 
locality had been well examined, a course was steered over its sup- 
posed bearing from Bonavista, one of the Cape de Verde Islands. 
The vessels of the squadron sounding every half hour during the night, 
which was clear and bright moonlight.* 

On the night of the 6th of October, we hove to off the island of 
St. Jago. Seldom have we seen the sea exhibit so much phospho- 

* Since our examination, 1 have seen a letter from the American consul at Porto Praya, 
F. Gardiner, Esq., detailing the wreck of the British ship Charlotte in 1841, and placing 
this shoal in latitude 16 17' N., longitude 22 21' W., 84' in longitude and 15' in latitude 
from the position I searched for it in ; whence it appears that it is the same reef on which 
the Magdelaine was lost. I have no kind of doubt but that they ought all to be referred to 
the Hartwell Reefl The same gentleman was confident at the time I saw him that the 
Magdelaine had been lost on the reef of that name. 



TO RIO JANEIRO. 



29 



rescence. Its brilliancy was so great, that it might truly be said to 
have the appearance of being on fire. We made some experiments 
to ascertain the depth to which these phosphorescent animalculse 
extended. After many trials they were not found below eighteen 
fathoms. The temperature of the water at that depth was 79, at 
the surface 80, and at one hundred fathoms depth 58. The mean 
temperature of the air from Madeira until our arrival off this port, 
was found to have increased from 69 to 78, while the difference in 
the water was from 71 to 81. 

On the morning of the 7th, we anchored in Porto Praya bay. The 
island of St. Jago presents a very different appearance from Madeira, 
particularly the southeastern portion of it, though its formation is 
known to be similar. There are many high peaks and mountains 
in its centre, which afford a fine background for the barren and 
uninteresting coast scenery. 



^ 

- -X 




PORT PRAVA, CAPE DE VERDES. 



The time of our arrival was just after the rainy season, the island 
consequently presented a more verdant appearance than it does at 
other seasons of the year. 

Our Consul, F. Gardiner, Esq., came on board and made us wel- 
come to all the island afforded. An officer was despatched to call 
upon his excellency the governor, to report our arrival, who proved 
to be a black man. Knowing that the regulations required permission 

Of 



30 PASSAGE FROM MADEIRA 

for vessels to depart, the request was made during the interview, which 
he readily granted at any hour we chose. 

The town of Porto Praya is prettily situated on an elevated piece 
of table land, and looked well from the anchorage. 

The bay is an open one, but is not exposed to the prevailing winds. 
There is generally a swell setting in, which makes the landing un- 
pleasant and difficult. The only landing-place is a small rock, some 
distance from the town, and under a high bank, on which there is, 
or rather was, a fortification, for it is now entirely gone to decay. It 
commands the bay, and is situated about two hundred feet above 
the sea. The horizontal stratification of the red and yellow-coloured 
sandstone shows most conspicuously in this cliff, and forms one of the 
most remarkable objects on this part of the island. It is of tertiary 
formation, and contains many fossils. I regretted extremely that my 
time did not permit me to make a longer stay, as we left the island 
under the impression that there is much here to be found that is new 
in the various departments of natural history. Between this bluff and 
the town is an extensive valley, in which are many date-palms, cocoa- 
nuts, and a species of aloe. 

On landing, a stranger is immediately surrounded by numbers of the 
inhabitants, with fruit, vegetables, chickens, turkeys, and monkeys, all 
pressing him with bargains, and willing to take any thing for the 
purpose of obliging their customers. Many of them continue to follow 
until they meet with some new customer. 

The soil, rocks, and every thing around on the surface, show 
unequivocal marks of volcanic origin. The rock above the tertiary 
formation is a thick bed of cellular lava, with fragments of the same 
strewn in every direction over it. A thin and poor soil gives but 
little sustenance to a light herbage. Goats and asses are found in 
great numbers grazing upon it. 

The length of our visit did not permit us to make much examina- 
tion, yet the character of the vegetation was unequivocally African. 

The walk from the landing to the town is exceedingly fatiguing, 
and the road deep with sand. The first view of the town on entering 
it is any thing but striking, and all the ideas formed in its favour are 
soon dispelled. The houses are whitewashed, and in general appear- 
ance resemble those inhabited by the lower orders in Madeira, but 
they are much inferior even to them. The northeast part of the town 
is composed of rough stone houses, covered with palm leaves. The 
streets are wide, and in the centre is a large public square, the middle 
of which is occupied by a small wooden monument said to be emble- 



TORIOJANEIRO. 31 

matical of royalty! A chapel, jail, and barracks constitute the 
principal public buildings. The fort, which flanks the town, is almost 
entirely in decay. This is the case with almost every thing we saw 
here : the place is, indeed, little better than an African town. The 
houses are of stone, one story high, partly thatched, and others tiled. 
Their interior presents only a few articles of absolute necessity. Of 
comfort and cleanliness, in our sense of the words, they have no idea. 
The houses and streets are filthy in the extreme, and in both of them, 
pigs, fowls, and monkeys appear to claim, and really possess, equal 
rights with the occupants and owner. 

The population is made up of an intermixture of descendants from 
the Portuguese, natives, and negroes from the adjacent coast. The 
Negro race seems to predominate, woolly hair, flat noses, and thick 
lips being most frequently met with. The number of inhabitants in St. 
Jago is about thirty thousand. Porto Praya contains two thousand 
three hundred, of which number one hundred are native Portuguese. 

The language spoken, is a jargon formed by a mixture of the 
Portuguese and Negro dialects. Most of the blacks speak their native 
tongue. Mr. Hale, our philologist, obtained here a vocabulary of the 
Mandingo language, and found it to agree with that given by Mungo 
Park. 

The officers of this garrison were, like the governor, all black. 
The latter made a brilliant appearance, dressed in a military frock 
coat, red sash, two large silver epaulettes, and a military cross on 
his breast. He was quite good-looking, although extremely corpulent, 
and speaks both French and Spanish well. He was very civil and 
attentive. Fruit, bread, cheese, and wines were handed about. Some 
of the wine was made on the island of Fogo, and resembled the light 
Italian wines. The cheese also was made here from goats' milk, and 
resembled the Spanish cheese. After doing ample justice to his excel- 
lency's good fare, we proceeded to view the lions of the place. 

The first and greatest of these is the fountain, or common watering 
place of the town, above half a mile distant by the path, in a valley to 
the west of the town, and almost immediately under it. The fountain 
is surrounded by a variety of tropical trees, consisting of dates, cocoa- 
nuts, bananas, papayas, sugar-cane, and tamarinds, with grapes, 
oranges, limes, &c. &c., and when brought into comparison with the 
surrounding lands, may be termed an enchanting spot ; but what adds 
peculiarly to its effect on a stranger, is the novelty of the objects that 
are brought together. Over the spring is a thatched roof, and round 
about it a group of the most remarkable objects in human shape that 
can well be conceived. On one side blind beggars, dirty soldiers, and 



32 PASSAGE FROM MADEIRA 

naked children ; on another, lepers, boys with monkeys, others with 
fowls, half-dressed women, asses not bigger than sheep, and hogs of 
a mammoth breed ; to say nothing of those with cutaneous disorders, 
&c. &c., that were undergoing ablution. All conspired to form a 
scene peculiar, I should think, to this semi-African population. Here 
sailors watering and washing, chatting, talking, and laughing ; there 
a group of "far niente" natives of all sizes, shapes, and colours, half 
clothed, with turbaned heads and handkerchiefs of many and gay 
colours, tied on after a different fashion from what we had been ac- 
customed to, the shawls being reversed, their ends hanging down 
behind instead of before, completely covering the breast, and one 
fourth of the face. What portion of this group had honoured the 
place in consequence of our visit, it would be difficult to conjecture, 
all were eager, however, to derive some benefit from the meeting, 
particularly the beggars, who are equally pertinacious with those 
found elsewhere, and are certainly great objects of commiseration. 
This well barely supplies the wants of the inhabitants and shipping, 
and they are now about building a reservoir. The whole of the stone 
for it was prepared in Portugal, and made ready for putting up. It is 
to be of marble. The water for its supply is brought two miles in 
iron pipes. It is said that it will cost 8130,000, and is the only im- 
provement that has been undertaken by government for many a year. 

A market is held daily in the morning when any vessels are in 
port. The square in which it is held is quite a large one, with a cross 
in its centre. The market is not of much extent, but a great variety 
of tropical fruits, of the kinds before enumerated, are exposed for sale 
in small quantities, as well as vegetables. These consist of cabbage- 
leaves, beans, pumpkins, squashes, corn, potatoes, yams, mandioca, 
&c. All these were spread out on the large leaves of the cocoa-nut 
tree. No kind of meat was for sale. The only articles of this 
description were chickens four or five days old, tied up in bunches, 
and some eggs. In order to obtain beef, it is necessary to buy the 
cattle at the cattle-yard, where, on previous notice being given, you 
may choose those that suit for slaughter. They are in general of 
small size, and dark-coloured. Those we saw were from the interior 
of the island, where they are said to thrive well. 

The morning drill of the recruits which was witnessed, was 
amusing. They were cleanly dressed, but the rattan was freely used 
by the sergeant, and what seemed characteristic or in keeping with 
appearances around, the sergeant during the drill ordered one of his 
men from the ranks, to bring him some fire to light his cigar ! 

No trades were observed, and but one small carpenter's shop. A 



TORIOJANEIRO. 33 

few shops were supplied with cotton, hardware, &c. There were 
likewise a number of little wine shops, where they also sold fruit, which 
they usually have in great plenty, but all their crops depend much 
upon the rains, and the inhabitants have also become indifferent or 
careless about raising more than for their own supply, from the heavy 
exactions of government made upon every thing that is cultivated. 
The demand for shipping has of late years very much decreased. 
The improvement in the supplies and comforts on board of vessels on 
long voyages, now make it unnecessary to touch in port, as was 
formerly deemed unavoidable. 

Porto Praya is yet visited by whale-ships for supplies. Although 
the soil is poor, and the crops very uncertain, yet the tropical fruits 
and some vegetables can always be obtained here. They are usually, 
if time is allowed, brought from the interior. The inhabitants have 
at times suffered almost the extremes of famine, in consequence of the 
droughts that prevail for successive years, and especially during the 
one that took place in 1832. It gave me pleasure to hear that the 
timely aid sent there during its prevalence from the United States was 
remembered with gratitude. 

The exports from these islands are salt, some ordinary wine, hides, 
goats' skins, and orchilla. The latter is a government monopoly. 
Ninety thousand milrees were paid by the company for the yearly 
crop, and it is said at that price to yield a handsome profit. 

The climate of these islands is said to be healthy, though exceedingly 
warm. It is subject to fevers, which generally take place during the 
rainy months of July and August. There is an indistinctness in the 
atmosphere that I have not experienced elsewhere, which causes every 
thing to be ill defined, although the day may be fair. The same 
appearance was observed after a shower of rain as before. The 
temperature of the air was found here to be 75-7, and of the water 81. 

The seine was drawn for fish in one of the coves to the eastward 
of the anchorage, in what we understood was a place well adapted 
for the purpose, but it did not prove so. I should prefer the western 
beach, as offering better luck and being more advantageous. 

Bats were the only wild mammiferous animals seen here. For 
the short time we remained, our naturalists were actively employed, 
and many specimens were added to our collections in Ornithology, 
botany, shells, and zoophytes, with some fossils from the bank already 
spoken of. 

Slaves are imported from the coast of Africa, and settlers or heads 
of families are not allowed to bring with them more than ten slaves. 

VOL. i. 5 



34 PASSAGEFROMMADEIRA 

There was one at the consul's, recently imported from the Foolah 
district in Africa, who was purchased by him for one hundred and 
fifty dollars. 

The costumes here are so various that it scarcely can be said that 
any one of them is peculiar to the island. The men generally wear 
a white shirt and trousers, with a dark vest, principally the cast-off 
clothing of the whites. Others go quite naked, excepting a straw hai ; 
others again are in loose shirts. The women have a shawl fastened 
around them, with occasionally another thrown over them, covering 
the mouth and bust, and crossing behind. The children for the most 
part go naked. 

The Relief not having arrived, I deemed it an unnecessary deten- 
tion to await her here. There was great necessity of reaching Rio 
de Janeiro as soon as possible, in order to complete our outfits, 
and put the vessels in fit condition to meet the Antarctic cruising 
as soon as possible. I therefore determined to proceed thither forth- 
with. The store-ship did not reach Porto Praya until the 18th, 
after a passage from Hampton Roads of sixty days. Nothing more 
truly illustrates the necessity of navigating in the prevailing winds, 
than this passage of the Relief compared with that of the squadron. 
We took the route by Madeira, over one thousand miles greater in 
distance, remained there a week, and yet we arrived at Porto Praya 
eleven days sooner. The Relief, pursuing the direct route, had light 
baffling winds during her whole passage. Although something is 
undoubtedly due to her dull sailing, yet the difference is too great to be 
entirely attributed to that cause. The winds were generally found by 
her from the northward and eastward, and southward and eastward, 
whilst we, in a higher latitude, had them from the southwest, and the 
westward. 

On the 7th of October, we left Porto Praya, and stood for Patty's 
Overfalls, as laid down on the chart, in latitude 11 N., and longitude 
24 25' W. In the afternoon we spoke the Danish brig Lion, from 
Rio de Janeiro. She had crossed the line in longitude 27 W., and 
had brought the trades to 6 30' N. We lost the trade winds the day 
after we left Porto Praya, the 8th of October, in latitude 12 N., and 
longitude 23 30' W. The winds then became variable, and squalls 
of rain ensued. The upper clouds had still a quick motion to the 
westward. On the same day we spoke the Crusader, seventy-five 
days from Bombay, which vessel was in want of medical aid. I sent 
the surgeon on board, and administered to their wants every thing 
that was in our power. It afforded us no small pleasure to supply 



TORIOJANEIRO. 35 

them with some fruit and vegetables, which were very acceptable to 
the numerous passengers. The Crusader had crossed the line in 
longitude 22 W., and lost'the trades in latitude 7 30' N. 

On the 9th we reached the supposed position of Patty's Overfalls, 
and were becalmed close in their proximity for forty-eight hours. 
Nothing was seen of them. We had passed through rips trending 
east and west, but no current was found on the trials which were 
made, nor did the reckoning show any. If any had existed, we must 
have been made aware of it during the time we were becalmed, for 
we remained nearly in the same position forty-eight hours. Thence 
we stood for Warley's Shoal. The weather had the same indistinct- 
ness that we had first observed at Porto Praya. It might be termed 
a dry haze. 

In this part of the ocean we passed through spaces of water, from 
ten to thirty miles in width, in which the temperature of the water 
frequently rose three or four degrees. This increase seemed to me 
to indicate the existence of currents. I was, therefore, very particular 
in watching for them, and the only indication we had was of a very 
slight one to the southward and eastward. Our winds continued light 
and variable, and sailing in squadron, we had many opportunities 
of observing their different courses. On the 12th of October a 
remarkable one happened, in which all the squadron, while sailing 
with a brisk breeze from the southeast, were taken aback, and at one 
time all apparently had the wind from different quarters, although but 
a few cables' length distant from one another. The Peacock and 
Porpoise were very near running into each other. The whirl was in 
the direction of the hands of a watch. On the night of the 16th we 
parted company with the Peacock, and on the 17th spoke an English 
whaler, seventy days from New Zealand, by the way of Cape Horn, 
who reported he had lost the southeast trades in latitude 6 55' N., 
longitude 21 10' W. 

On the morning of the 18th, thirty falling stars were seen in as 
many minutes, shooting in all directions from the constellations 
Gemini and Taurus. On board the Peacock, some sixty miles to the 
westward of us, they were much more brilliant, and in greater 
numbers. 

On the 22d, several common European swallows were seen about 
the vessels. 

The 24th, we reached the position assigned to Warley's Shoal, in 
latitude 5 4' N., longitude 21 25' W. The vessels were spread as 
before described, in open order, covering as much space as possible. 
We passed over the supposed locality, but saw no appearance of 



36 PASSAGE FROM MADEIRA 

shoal water, or danger of any kind. Here we experienced westerly 
winds, and took advantage of them to make easting. After we had 
lost the trades, in latitude 12 N., I observed, when the upper stratum 
of clouds could be seen, that they were passing from east-northeast, 
with rapidity to the westward. 

We now ran for the French Shoal, in latitude 4 5' N., longitude 
20 35' W. Here the wind inclined to the southward, and we pro- 
ceeded as far east as longitude 13 W., passing over the two positions 
laid down by the French and English hydrographers, but saw nothing 
of it. 

We now tacked to the southward, to cross the equator in longitude 
17 W. The weather had changed, the rains which we had expe- 
rienced at night ceased, and the extremely indistinct atmosphere 
which at times had prevailed for the last fortnight, disappeared. It is 
difficult to describe the peculiar effect this haziness produced. It 
seemed to me an effect the opposite of that of looming, apparently 
diminishing all objects. Although the horizon was seen, yet the sea 
and sky were so blended together, that it was difficult for the eye to 
fix upon or define it at any moment. It was impossible- to use the dip 
sector* At the same time it was perfectly clear over head, with a 
bright sun, and the upper cirrus clouds, when seen, were in rapid 
motion to the westward. 

The quantity of rain that fell between 9 30' and 5 north latitude, 
was 6' 15 inches during ten days. The greatest fall in twenty-four 
hours was 1*95 inches. The temperature of the rain on several trials 
varied from 69 to 72, that of the air being at the time 77. 

The nights were now beautiful until near morning, when it generally 
clouded over, and remained overcast with flying clouds until evening. 
The zodiacal light was once or twice observed, but the presence of 
these clouds for the most part prevented it from being seen. 

On the 29th, in latitude 3 40' N., our observations gave a current of 
ten miles in twenty-four hours, to the north. Until the 3d of November 
we had light winds ; the upper stratum of clouds was now seen moving 
from the east. On the 4th we had a cry of breakers from the mast- 
head. We immediately changed our course and ran for the appear- 
ance, but it proved on nearing it to have been one of the many optical 
illusions seen at sea, from the effect of light and shadow. 

On board the Peacock, on the 30th of October, in latitude 1 30' N., 
longitude 18 W., they witnessed a remarkable appearance, resembling 
the aurora borealis, radiating from the northwest point of the horizon 
in different directions, and extending from southwest round by the 
north to the eastward, at an altitude of from 10 to 50; afterwards 



TORIOJANEIRO. 37 

reaching to the zenith, and passing over the moon's disk, encircling 
her with a faint halo of twenty degrees in diameter. It continued an 
hour, and although it was bright moonlight, the phenomenon was very 
distinct and beautiful. 

On the 5th, the winds drew to the south-southeast, and we crossed 
the line, as we had intended, in longitude 17 W., which enabled us to 
pass over and examine the supposed locality of the Triton Bank, in 
longitude 17 46' W., latitude 00 32' 00" S. The current was 
found this day to be setting to the northeast, fifteen miles in the 
last twenty-four hours. This night the sea was extremely brilliant, 
showing in large luminous patches. The light proved to be occasioned 
by a large species of Pyrosoma, some of which were ten inches in 
length, and two inches in diameter. Many phosphorescent animal- 
culae were taken, and some rips that were seen, exhibited long lines 
of brilliant light. Temperature of water 76-5. Our dipping-needle 
on the equator gave 23 30'. Hourly observations were made for 
forty-eight hours, to ascertain the oscillations of the barometer 
under the equator (for which see Appendix XVI.) The periods of 
oscillation were found to be as follows : the maxima at nine A. M. 
and nine p. M., and the minima at three A. M. and three p. M. The 
variation was ! of an inch, and was found to be very regular, from 
latitude 3 30' N., to 4 S. 

We had now heavy deposits of dew, on several fine and cloudless 
evenings. Indeed the sun had scarcely set before the ship was quite 
wet with it. One of the essential requisites supposed necessary by Dr. 
Wells for a deposit of dew, was certainly wanting in this case, viz., 
that " the temperature of the body on which it was deposited, should 
be considerably lower than the surrounding air ;" the temperature of 
the air and ship having remained the same for several days at about 
78: all objects, hammock-cloths, spars, sails, and rigging, so far as 
could be ascertained, showed the same. And at the time when the 
dew was observed to be most copious, we had a fine breeze. It has 
generally been supposed that dew never falls off soundings. This at 
least is an old saying among seamen : but our observations are at 
variance with this notion ; for, as far as every indication went, both by 
sounding and blue water, we certainly had no bottom. 

The supposed position of the Triton Shoal was now passed over, 
and examined carefully in the same manner as heretofore described, 
sounding at the same time with two and three hundred fathoms of 
line. Nothing of the kind was perceived, nor was there any indication 
of soundings in the discoloration of the water, or any change in its 
temperature. 



38 PASSAGEFROMMADEIRA 

We next sailed for a vigia laid down on the chart. 

On the 7th November at noon we were in longitude 18 20' W., 
and latitude 3 30' N. Here we first experienced the influence of the 
equatorial current, and found it setting west by north at the rate of 
half a mile per hour. This vigia was not seen. I then stood for 
Bouvet's Sandy Isle, or its reported position. We saw nothing of it 
whatever. I was very desirous of continuing my search farther to the 
west, from the report I had seen of various vessels having experienced 
shocks of earthquakes, and the belief having been entertained that 
shoals might have been formed by them. The equatorial current 
having been felt, I was aware that in getting farther to the west, I 
should lose the opportunity of examining the locality where that 
distinguished navigator, Admiral Krusenstern, supposed he saw a 
volcano. I therefore gave up proceeding farther to the westward in 
this latitude, and hauled up for its position. 

It was now the 9th of November ; we had delightful weather ; and 
moderate breezes from the south and east. 

An amusing circumstance occurred this night. In our course we 
passed very near a large sail, which from the night being dark, the 
officer of the deck of the Porpoise mistook for the Vincennes, although 
sailing on a different course. He immediately, agreeably to his orders, 
followed the vessel, and continued after her until morning, when, to 
his surprise, he discovered that it was a large Dutch ship. Fortu- 
nately, I had perceived the ship pass, and conjectured, when we found 
the Porpoise was not in sight at daylight, the nature of the mistake. I 
therefore retraced my steps, and in an hour or two we again came in 
sight of her, then tacked and proceeded on our course. On the next 
day, the time being very favourable, we hove-to, to get a deep-sea 
sounding with the wire line, and ran out one thousand six hundred 
fathoms of it. On reeling it up, the wire parted, and we lost nine 
hundred and sixty fathoms of line, with our sounding apparatus, 
including one of Six's self-registering thermometers. The wire was 
badly prepared and ill adapted to the purpose. 

On the llth we found ourselves near the location of Krusenstern's 
supposed shoal, ran over the position in parallel lines, and satisfied 
ourselves of its non-existence. 

Having now examined all the localities which were designated in 
my instructions, I made all sail for Rio de Janeiro. 

We now found ourselves in the equatorial current, setting us west 
twenty-five miles in twenty-four hours. 

On the nights of the llth, 12th, and 13th, we kept a watch for the 
periodical showers of stars. About thirty were seen in the mid-watch 



TORIOJANEIRO. 39 

of the 13th, proceeding from the Pleiades, and shooting in a northerly 
direction. Our position was in latitude 6 15' S*, and longitude 24 
25' W. The Peacock, whose situation was about forty miles to the 
westward of us at the time, saw a number shooting from the constel- 
lations Orion and Leo. The equatorial current was now strongest, 
setting thirty miles in a day to the westward ; the breeze had become 
very steady and strong ; the upper current was found to correspond 
with the direction of the lower. Every day the wind was observed 
to freshen as the sun was coming to the meridian, and continued so 
until the afternoon, when it died away again, freshening after dark, 
and continuing until near daylight. 

On the 16th of November we passed the magnetic equator in latitude 
13 30' S., longitude 30 18' W. The variation was found by careful 
observations to be 10 30' W. We continued to pursue our course 
rapidly, experiencing the current setting more tolhe southward, and 
upwards of twenty miles a day. * 

On the 22d we made Cape Frio ; here we fell in with and boarded 
the ship Louisiana, in fifty days from New York, and were much 
gratified by getting letters and papers. 

The progressive temperature on the passage from the Cape de Verde 
Islands to Rio, was as follows : it rose until it reached its maximum 
in 9 24' N., water 83-5, whilst the air was at 81-6 ; from thence 
to striking soundings, it decreased to 75, and on soundings 69. 

The soundings obtained off the cape were in fifty fathoms, ouze and 
shells, the water changing its colour to a deep green, and as we 
approached the harbour, to a dark olive. On the afternoon of the 23d 
of November, we took a light wind from the southeast, and with all 
sail set stood in for the magnificent harbour of Rio Janeiro. Our 
attention was drawii first to the high, fantastic, and abrupt peaks of 
Gavia, the Sugar Loaf, and Corcovado, on our left ; whilst on our 
right, we had the bold point of Santa Cruz ; then before us the city of 
San Salvador, and the towns of San Domingo, with Praya Grande 
opposite, and the islands and fleet that lay between them decking this 
beautiful expanse of water. These objects, with the pinnacles of the 
Organ Mountains for a background, form such a scene that it would 
be difficult to point out in what manner it could be improved. The 
life and stir created by the number of vessels, boats, and steamers of 
various forms and of all sizes passing to and fro, give great animation 
to the whole. 

The mountains present a very peculiar appearance. Their tops and 
sides have a rounded or worn surface, destitute of verdure, with the 
exception of here and there a yellowish patch, produced by the 



40 PASSAGE FROM MADEIRA 

Tillandsias, which in places cover the rocks. The abruptness of the 
Sugar Loaf Mountain, and those immediately behind Santa Cruz, 
strikes the spectator very forcibly. 

The shipping do not form as in other places a dense forest of masts. 
There being no wharves, they are obliged to lie at anchor, exhibiting 
their proportions and symmetry to great advantage. They are usually 
seen grouped together, with their different flags flying, forming a 
picture that a painter would delight in. 

As we proceeded up the harbour, our own flag was seen to wave 
over that magnificent specimen of naval architecture, the Indepen- 
dence ; and as we passed her, our bosoms beat to the tune of Hail 
Columbia, played by the band. 

There is a feeling of security on entering the harbour of Rio, that 
I have seldom experienced elsewhere, not even in our own waters. 
The mountains seem as it were to afford complete protection from the 
winds and ocean. We anchored near Enxados or Hospital Island, 
and found the Peacock had arrived here three days before us, and 
that she was proceeding with her repairs rapidly. The vessels being 
altogether unfit for the southern cruise, it became necessary to effect 
the requisite repairs as speedily as possible. While I could not but 
deprecate the loss of time and the shortening of the season for our 
southern operations, I felt it an imperative duty that I owed to those 
who were engaged with me on this service, not to suffer them to go 
among the many dangers of our southern cruise badly provided with 
the means to secure them against ordinary accidents, and to encounter 
the weather we must necessarily anticipate. 

On our arrival I was told it was the beginning of the hot season, 
and that rains usually prevailed during the coming months. This was 
unpleasant news, particularly as I was desirous, whilst making the 
necessary repairs on the vessels, to complete a set of astronomical 
observations, and to perform a series of experiments with the pendu- 
lums, &c. This information, however, I did not find to be correct, 
and from the examination of the meteorological tables (see Appendix 
XVII.) obligingly furnished me by John Gardner, Esq., an American 
gentleman residing at Rio, I am not disposed to credit this common 
saying. It therein appears that rain falls as often in other months as in 
December, and my experience during the time of our stay corresponds 
with these tables. The first fortnight we had occasional rains, but 
before we left the harbour our parties reported that the country was 
suffering from drought. 

Mr. Gardner has also obligingly favoured me with a table (see 
Appendix XVIII.) showing the monthly average of passages from the 



TORIOJANEIRO. 41 

United States to Rio during eight years, from 1834 to 1841. The 
shortest passage occurred in the year 1835, and the longest in 1840. 
The former by a very fast vessel in twenty-nine days ; the latter by an 
ordinary merchant-ship in ninety days. The Relief, our store-ship, 
had one hundred days in 1838 ! but this includes touching three days 
at the Cape de Verdes. 

It will be seen that the average monthly passage does not vary but 
a few days throughout the whole eight years. The winter months 
are the most favourable, in consequence of the strong westerly winds 
that prevail in the North Atlantic at that season, and also to the preva- 
lence of the northeast monsoons on the coast of Brazil. 

Our observations would point out the necessity of dull-sailing vessels 
not crossing the equator to the westward of 20 of west longitude, 
where the equatorial current begins to be felt; but vessels that sail 
well, may cross it as far as 26 W., particularly when the northeast 
monsoons prevail in their full strength, and very much shorten their 
passage by such a course. 

During the repairs, I endeavoured to employ my time and that of 
the officers and scientific gentlemen in as advantageous a manner as 
possible. We are indebted to the Hon. William Hunter, our charge 
d'affaires, and our consul, William Slacum, Esq., for many kindnesses 
and attentions received during our stay. Through their intercession, I 
obtained the use of the small island of Enxados, which was well 
adapted to our purposes. The instruments and stores were allowed to 
be landed there free of inspection, and every assistance we could desire 
was afforded us by the government and its officers. How different a 
policy and treatment from that pursued towards Captain Cook some 
seventy years before, under an ignorant and jealous colonial govern- 
ment! 




'WATERING PLACE, PORTO PRAYA. 



VOL. I. D2 



CHAPTER III. 



CONTENTS. 

CITY OF SAN SALVADOR-ITS IMPROVEMENT-ITS PRESENT CONDITION-CHURCHES- 
THE MISERICORDIA FUNERALS EMPEROR'S BIRTHD A. Y AQUEDUCTS GEOLOGIC A L 
CHARACTER OF THE COUNTRY PUBLIC GARDEN - MUSEUM-BAY AND HARBOUR 
VEGETATION BOTANIC GARDEN - SLAVE POPULATION COFFEE-CARRIERS RE- 
SEARCHES INTO THE NATIONS OF AFRICA-TREATMENT OF SLAVES-STREETS OF 
THE CITY SOCIETY WHITE-JACKET BALL ARRIVAL OF THE RELIEF ASCENT OF 
THE SUGAR LOAF SURVEYS DEFECTS IN THE EQUIPMENT OF THE SQUADRON- 
TRIP TO THE ORGAN MOUNTAINS JAUNT TO PIED A DE CONCLUSION OF THE 
SURVEYS AND OBSERVATIONS-ASCENT OF THE CORCOVADO. 



(43) 



CHAPTER III. 

RIO JANEIRO. 

1838. 

THE city of San Salvador, better known as Rio de Janeiro, has 
been often described. At the time of our visit a great change 
appeared to have taken place within a few years, as well in its 
outward appearance as in its government and institutions, thus giv- 
ing to the whole a different aspect from that it formerly wore. Under 
its former monarch, Don Pedro the First, it had all the aspect of a 
court residence ; now it is the very reverse. I shall, therefore, give 
my own impressions, and sketch a picture of its state as we found it 
in the latter part of the year 1838. 

Republican forms, habits, and customs, are gradually creeping in 
under its new and reformed constitution. It is not to be denied that 
the people now appear to be much better off than formerly, and more 
at liberty to carry on their lawful pursuits. Commerce, and inter- 
course with foreigners are every day making liberal advances. 
Every one, on his first landing at Rio, will be struck with the 
indiscriminate mingling of all classes, in every place, all appearing 
on terms of the utmost equality ; officers, soldiers, and priests, both 
black and white, mixing and performing their respective duties, 
without regard to colour or appearance. The only distinction seems 
to be that of freedom and slavery. There are many wealthy free 
blacks, highly respectable, who amalgamate with the white families, 
and are apparently received on a footing of perfect equality. The 
police, too, consisting of a national guard, has taken away those forms 
of military parade that formerly existed. An air of independence is 
creeping in even among the working-classes. Any little service that 
is required, and for which they are well paid, they appear to consider 
as a favour done you. The mechanical arts are at least half a century 

(45) 



46 RIO JANEIRO. 

behind those of our own country. The churches, which are numerous, 
are falling into decay, which gives a dilapidated look to the city ; its 
religious ceremonies are dispensed with, and to crown all, the steps of 
the churches are made a market-place for the sale of sheep, pigeons, 
fruit, &c. To judge from appearances, and the attendance on its 
services, there exists little religious feeling towards the Roman Church. 
It is true, the same constant ringing of bells occurs that is to be heard 
in all Catholic countries, and other outward signs are still kept up ; but 
the priesthood are not regarded with such awe as they formerly were, 
and society seems to be breaking through the trammels that have so 
long enslaved the female portion of it. Religion is a mere name 
among the youth of Brazil. The aged are still observant of its cere- 
monies, but little or no attention is paid to the Sabbath. The stores 
do business, and the workshops are open the same as on other days. 
A few are seen going to worship in the morning of that day, but a 
greater number attend the billiard-tables in the afternoon, and the 
theatres at night. There is an Episcopal church, and a missionary 
of the Methodist persuasion from the United States resident here. 

We saw Rio de Janeiro under its most favourable aspect, that of 
the holidays, when the church had put on all her finery and decora- 
tions, and every one, slave as well as master, seemed intent upon 
enjoying himself. The Christmas week or holidays give a respite 
from all labour, and various are the amusements. The churches 
are decked, and the services extraordinary. 

The neglect of the public walks and roads shows a want of proper 
attention, and strikes the visiter as different from the usual order of 
things around a court. So far as cleanliness goes, Rio, I should 
think, is not much improved. It has every advantage to make it 
a clean city, but the inclination appears to be wanting. Neither do I 
intend to assert that its style of building is changed. Although the 
government is doing little, one sees the spirit of enterprise among 
the citizens. Many private dwellings are being erected, and I under- 
stood that many other improvements were taking place. 

The houses of the city are strongly built of stone, cemented together 
with clay; this is used in consequence of the scarcity of lime, which 
is only obtained by burning shells fished up from the bay. The houses 
are plastered on the outside, and have a pretty appearance and colour. 
The floors, beams, and roofs, are made of the hard wood of the coun- 
try, of great size and strength, which are indeed necessary from the 
great tile roof they have to bear. Very few of the houses have yards, 
cellars, or gardens : consequently the dwellers are still greatly incom- 
moded from the want of water-closets, detrimental both to health and 



RIO JANEIRO. 47 

comfort, and not only an annoyance and inconvenience to the inhabi- 
tants themselves, but is shared by the stranger in passing through the 
streets. 

We of course saw all that was to be seen in Rio. The churches 
claimed our first attention. They are richly decorated in the interior, 
with massive gold and silver ornaments, and at this time glittering 
with gems and precious stones. On some of the altars of the saints it 
is the practice to suspend the diseased parts of the body in wax, in 
honour of the cure supposed to have been effected by the saints' inter- 
cession. The sight of these is truly disgusting, although they are far 
from being well executed. The chapel of St. Cecilia was visited on 
the saint's day, 25th November. The music was very fine, from a 
large choir, consisting, besides the organ, of flutes, hautboys, horns, 
and basses of all kinds, with about ten vocalists, two of whom were 
eunuchs, about seventy years of age. The music consisted of selec- 
tions from the best masters. The performers were about seventy in 
number. The steps of the church and the street were strewed on this 
occasion with orange-leaves. A number of females present were 
seated on the floor of the church, dressed in black, with white lace 
shawls, and wreaths of flowers round their heads. Fireworks, as 
usual in such ceremonies, were set off in front of the church at the 
beginning and end of the service. 

The Misericordia has now become much out of repair, and I 
understood had fallen off* in its charitable usefulness, but it still shows 
the remains of its former splendour. Few monks were seen about, 
and dead bodies were laid out in the Green House. At the time we 
visited it there were eight, the greater part of whom were negroes. A 
monk was seen saying a hasty prayer over the bodies, which were at 
once thrown into the trench, when they were sprinkled with lime, 
placing one layer over the other, until the hole, about six feet square 
and as many deep, is filled or level with the surface. After one of the 
trenches is filled, another is dug by the side of it. The crowded state of 
this place of interment is but too evident from the number of skulls and 
bones lying about, some still with portions of flesh adhering to them. 

On the same evening, whilst this scene was still fresh in our minds, 
and as if in strong contrast with it, we met the funeral of a person of 
distinction. A black hearse, ornamented with black plumes, was 
drawn by mules. The driver had a cocked-hat and black plume. 
The coffin was covered with a scarlet pall ornamented with silver. 
About twenty altar-boys, in their church dress, preceded the hearse, 
which was surrounded by about the same number of black servants. 



48 RIOJANEIRO. 

in livery, all carrying lighted wax candles. The body, on arriving at 
the Imperial Chapel, was removed into it, and all who entered the 
chapel were furnished with lighted tapers. Mass and the funeral 
service were performed by the priest, and some delightful music by a 
full choir. The body was then taken into the Campo Santo, a kind of 
amphitheatre, with high walls, a short distance from the church. 
About a thousand vaults are built in the wall. One of them was 
opened, the body interred, and the wall built up again. The centre of 
this sepulchre is laid out in a flower-garden, and is about one hundred 
feet in diameter. 

December 2d was the birthday of the Emperor, Don Pedro the 
Second, who then was thirteen years old. It was celebrated with all 
due pomp. Great preparations had been making for many days. He 
was to pass into the city from St. Christoval, his usual residence, in 
procession, and to hold a levee at the city palace. The streets were 
strewn with orange and other leaves, a triumphal arch erected, &c. 
But a description of his progress will give a better idea of it. 

Having left St. Christoval, he entered the city about noon, preceded 
by a large troop of horse. He rode with his sisters, one sixteen, the 
other fourteen years of age, in a splendid English carriage, with 
bronze and gold mountings, drawn by eight cream-coloured horses, 
gaily caparisoned, with silver-mounted harness, the servants in rich 
liveries. Three carriages, drawn by six horses each, followed, con- 
taining officers of state and his household, the whole surrounded by 
the Emperor's guards, and above five thousand military following. 
Great crowds of people had assembled to witness this parade. As the 
carriages passed under the balconies, garlands of flowers were thrown 
upon them. They entered the principal street through a triumphal 
arch, beautifully decorated with natural flowers, on which were placed 
two little boys, dressed in blue and pink, with wings to represent 
angels, each holding a basket of flowers, which they threw on the 
young monarch as he passed. The houses in the streets through 
which the procession moved, were hung with satin damask draperies 
of the richest tints. These I understand are kept expressly for such 
occasions. At short intervals national flags were suspended across 
the streets. On the custom-house the flags of every nation were seen, 
in the centre of which was the Brazilian, and next to it the " star- 
spangled banner." The Emperor moved on, receiving the same 
marks of affection from his subjects until he reached the great square 
and palace, where he alighted. The troops forming around the square 
soon came to order, and a general pause ensued, until the firing of the 



RIOJANEIRO. 49 

feu de joie began, one of the most deafening I ever heard. He finished 
this public exhibition by showing himself to the multitude below, from 
the balconies of the city palace, and was received with many vivas. 

He then held his levee, which the Rev. Mr. Walsh has so well 
described, and which closely resembled the one at which he was 
present, with this difference, that this was much more of a farce, in 
consequence of the boyhood of the Emperor. Nothing can be more 
ridiculous than to see all the dignitaries, and old men, the mitred 
bishop, the sage diplomatist, and the veteran soldier, ushered into the 
presence, and out again, without saying a word, or turning their backs 
on the young monarch. Mr. Walsh has, however, said nothing about 
the scene in the ante-room ; to me it was the most ridiculous of all. 
The arranging the order of entrance to the presence, with due form 
and etiquette ; the examination by each diplomatist, that he has his 
due order of precedence ; their anxiety to gather their suites around 
them, not unlike a hen with her chickens, to make the fullest show ; all 
prepares one for the ridiculous scene that is to follow. The oldest 
resident minister always takes the lead. At night the city was 
illuminated. 

Rio is now well supplied with water. Aqueducts have been finished 
within the last two years, which bring it from the Corcovado and 
Tejuca Mountains, a distance of six or seven miles. There are a 
number of public fountains in different parts of the city. All the water 
for the supply of families is transported by slaves, who are constantly 
seen about these fountains. Until the amount of toil and time occupied 
is seen, little idea can be formed of the saving of labour that hydrants 
and pipes, for the supply of this necessary article, effect. These 
fountains have numerous jets, and some have pretty edifices over them. 
During the day, there are seldom less than fifty to one hundred, both 
male and female, water-carriers around them, filling their jars, with 
which they are seen moving about poised on their heads. Near the 
large fountain called Hafariz, in the square of Santa Anna, are two 
large basins, about fifty feet long and twenty-five wide. These are 
commonly filled with about two hundred negro women, who daily 
assemble to wash. Numbers of them are half naked, standing up to 
their middle in the water, beating and thrashing the clothes against the 
stone wall, to the great destruction of buttons, &c. 

Few articles are transported in any other way than by slaves, and 
it is extremely rare to see a cart drawn by any beast of burden. 
Antique-looking carriages and two-wheeled calescas are generally 
seen. 

It is impossible to remain long at Rio without noticing the geolo- 
VOL. i. E 7 



50 RIOJANEIRO. 

gical structure of the country. It is all granitic, and occurs in vast 
blocks. Dr. Pickering and Mr. Brackenridge, who visited the Organ 
Mountains, reported that the country was of the same general cha- 
racter, but on a much grander scale. 

The garden at the water side is delightfully situated. From this 
point the bay offers amusement at all hours. I should think the people 
of Rio might be classed among the indolent, and that they are not 
fond of walking ; for the garden appears to be but little frequented. 

The museum is open twice a week : it is quite creditable to the 
city, and well worth seeing. It appears to attract more attention from 
the inhabitants of Rio than I should have been led to expect. It is 
extremely rich in its native collections, and is well taken care of. 

The theatres, of which there are three, are seldom open on week 
days, but always on Sunday. 

The sail up the bay is beautiful. The surrounding picturesque 
peaks, varying their outline with every change of position, give it 
great variety, and the objects are so interesting that one is never tired. 
The many islets that stud this bay add greatly to its beauty, and excite 
interest, covered as they are with tribes of tropical plants, all new to 
the eye. Among these are seen tufts of Bromelias and Cactus, while 
Orchidese plants were abundant on the rocks and trees. 

This bay is usually covered with small boats, passing to and fro, 
felucca rigged, without decks, and generally about twelve tons burden. 
These boats are rowed by blacks, who are seen toiling at their task. 
The oars are large, the men row in a standing posture, and thus add 
the weight of their bodies to their strength. At times, the bay seems 
alive with the number of these vessels, and of small canoes, each 
made of a single trunk, which are used in fishing. Many of these 
vessels are also engaged in the coasting trade. Foreigners are usually 
employed to take charge of the latter, which sail under the Brazilian 
flag. Steamers are beginning to be used. One plies between Rio and 
Santos, and during our stay, another left the harbour for Montevideo. 
The greater part of the vessels in the bay are under foreign flags, and 
I was much surprised to observe how few comparatively are English, 
and how many are from the north of Europe. 

The harbour of Rio may be considered as not extending farther 
than Enxados Island, above which few vessels lie. The front of the 
city is not well adapted for wharves, and none consequently exist. 
There are some stairs ; but they are not well protected from the sea, 
which at times renders landing almost impossible. 

The environs of the city were visited by many of our naturalists 
and officers, and although this ground has been so often gone over by 



RIO JANEIRO. 51 

others, it was yet found to offer many objects of interest, and we 
believe of novelty, particularly in the waters of this bay. 

In Rio, the vegetation seems to fix the attention above all other 
things, especially of those situated as we were in the harbour, having 
it continually before one's eyes ; and I can well understand the depri- 
vation Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander must have experienced in 
their visit. Our naturalists remarked that although the productions 
are still American in character, the same families prevailing, often the 
same genera, yet they were entirely distinct in species from those 
of other parts of the continent. As an example the Furcroea takes 
the place of the Mexican Agaves. The Furcro3a is a peculiar plant, 
and attracts attention by its bayonet-shaped leaves, branching up in 
every direction ; some of these are ten or twelve feet in height and ten 
inches in diameter. This plant, with the well-known Cecropia, with 
its candelabra branches, and the prevailing yellow blossoms of the 
trees, give a peculiar and lively character to the landscape and woods, 
when compared with the dull sombre hue of our own forests. 

Here, as in all tropical climates, the truth of the remark made by a 
botanist, " that every thing grows into shrubs and trees," is obvious. 
Herbaceous plants are rare, and annuals may be said to be almost 
wanting. The fruit trees were generally seen bearing fruit and flowers 
at the same time. This was the case, as observed by one of our 
party, even in the cultivated apple on the Tejuca Mountains. 

The vegetation near the coast differs considerably from that of the 
inland country. Plants are more dense and succulent, species and 
tribes have little of a local nature ; yet particular kinds of palms and 
bamboos are found in separate groups on the top of the Organ 
Mountains, but this is only a slight exception to the general rule, 
which nature seems to have adopted in the distribution of plants over 
the country. This character strikes the observer forcibly in the 
Cecropias, Caesalpinia brasiliensis, and several Melastomas, which are 
rarely seen in pairs. 

The Botanic Garden is in a flat situation, backed by a high ridge 
of mountainous land. In front, is a lake of brackish water, which 
forms a considerable bay, and communicates with the sea by a narrow 
inlet. The entrance to the garden has a mean appearance, and does 
not correspond with the broad promenades within, which are planted 
with trees on each side. The whole is laid out in the old Dutch 
style; seats, arbours, and houses are cut out of Arbor vitse (Thuja 
orientalis). Terrestrial Orchidea? are cultivated in earthen vases 
placed in rows in the herbaceous ground, which appeared to have been 
once planted after the Jussieuean, or natural system, but is now some- 



52 RIOJANEIRO. 

what out of order. In the centre of the garden was a small fountain, 
near which grew some fine specimens of the splendid Bougainvillea 
bracteatea, in full flower. There is also a fine collection of Orchidese, 
which are cultivated on decayed trunks of trees. The bread-fruit 
trees (Artocarpus incisa, and integrifolia) succeed very well. There 
were some trees of both kinds forty feet high, and the fruit of the 
latter as large as an ordinary watermelon. The rows of trees along 
the sides of the walks were principally Apeiba hispida, Theobroma 
cacao, several kinds of Lauracese and Myrtaceae, with a species of 
Casuarina, introduced from New South Wales. Several groups of 
bamboos had a good effect among the other trees, but their stems bore 
evidence of a propensity to the carving of names, as a memento of the 
distinguished persons' visit. Among them I was glad to see the 
names of many Europeans, which serves to prove that this habit does 
not exist among Americans alone. Here an attempt was made some 
years since to introduce the tea-plant, with natives of China to 
cultivate it. The plantation appeared to our botanical gentlemen in a 
sickly state. 

The great and distinctive characteristic of Rio may be said to be 
its slaves and slavery. This evil continually presents itself to the 
observer, and he cannot, if he would, divert his attention from the 
many sights which keep it before his mind. 

The slave population is stated at five times the number of that of the 
whites, and notwithstanding the existing danger of maritime capture, 
the supply still seems equal to the demand. Although many slavers 
are taken by the English cruisers, brought in and tried by the mixed 
commission, agreeably to treaty, yet means are found to introduce the 
slaves. Two slavers were lying in charge of the English squadron 
while we were there. On board of them, though quite small vessels, 
were two and three hundred negroes. It is difficult to imagine more 
emaciated, miserable, and beastly-looking creatures, and it is not a 
little surprising that they should be kept thus confined by those who 
affect to establish their freedom and ameliorate their condition. These 
vessels it is understood had obtained their victims on the eastern coast 
of Africa. 

Slaves are almost the only carriers of burdens in Rio Janeiro. They 
go almost naked, and are exceedingly numerous. They appear to work 
with cheerfulness, and go together in gangs, with a leader who carries 
a rattle made of tin, and filled with stones, (similar to a child's rattle.) 
With this he keeps time, causing them all to move on a dog-trot. 
Each one joins in the monotonous chorus, the notes seldom varying 
above a third from the key. The words they use are frequently 



RIO JANEIRO. 



53 



relative to their own country; sometimes to what they heard from 
their master, as they started with their load, but the sound is the 
same. 

Repeated several times. 








Ve na ca - a man - yan a a 



Par a can tar sen hot a. 



Another. 







ef 




COFFEE-CARRIERS. 



The coffee-carriers go along in large gangs of twenty or thirty, 
singing 



Another. 



1 



J I J 



One half take the air, with one or two keeping up a kind of a hum 
on the common chord, and the remainder finish the bar. 

These slaves are required by their masters to obtain a certain sum, 
according to their ability, say from twenty-five to fifty cents a day, 



E2 



54 RIO JANEIRO. 

and to pay it every evening. The surplus belongs to themselves. In 
default of not gaming the required sum, castigation is always inflicted. 

It is said that the liberated negroes who own slaves are particularly 
severe and cruel. The usual load carried is about two hundred 
pounds weight. 

Mr. Hale, our philologist, found here a field of some extent in his 
department, through the slave population; and it afforded more 
opportunities for its investigation than would at first appear probable. 
Vast numbers of slaves have been, and are still imported annually 
into this market; and as very many of the same nation or tribe 
associate together, they retain their own language, even after they 
have been in the country for some years. It may be seen by the 
most cursory examination that they are marked in such a manner as 
to serve to distinguish their different races. Some have little of the 
distinctive negro character, and others more of it than any human 
beings we had seen. Mr. Hale obtained from a gentleman of Rio the 
following information respecting them, with their distinctive marks; 
the accuracy of which we had an opportunity of verifying during 
our stay. The likenesses made of them by Mr. Agate are very cha- 
racteristic. 

The negroes of Brazil who have been brought from North and 
South Africa, are divided into two distinct and very dissimilar classes. 
The natives of that portion of the continent known under the general 
name of Upper Guinea, include the countries in the interior as far 
as Timbuctoo and Bornou, being the whole of that region lately 
explored by the English expeditions. The slaves from this quarter, 
though of various nations and languages, have yet a general likeness, 
which stamps them as one race. In Brazil they are known under the 
name of Minas. 




MINA. 

The Minas slaves are said to be distinguished from others by their 



RIOJANEIRO. 55 

bodily and mental qualities. They are generally above the middle 
height, and well formed. The forehead is high, and the cheek-bones 
prominent ; the nose sometimes straight and sometimes depressed ; 
the lips not very thick ; teeth small and perpendicularly set ; the hair 
is woolly, and the colour an umber or reddish brown, approaching 
to black. 

The look and bearing of the Mina blacks are expressive of intel- 
ligence and dignity, and they betray little of the levity usually ascribed 
to the negro race. 

In Brazil they occupy the highest position that slaves are allowed 
to attain, being employed as confidential servants, artisans, and small 
traders. They look down upon, and refuse to have any connexion 
with, or participation in, the employment of the other negroes. Many 
of them write and read the Arabic, and all can repeat some sentences 
of it. The greatest number of slaves who purchase their freedom 
belong to this race. 

There is one singularity which seems to be common to the inhabi- 
tants of both regions, and which may be compared with the practice 
of tattooing which prevails throughout the tribes of Polynesia, viz., 
the custom of cutting or branding certain marks upon the face and 
body, by which the individuals of one tribe may be distinguished from 
those of any other. This practice is general among all the Minas, 
and also prevails along the eastern or Mozambique coast of Southern 
Africa. Among the western or Congo tribes it does not appear to be 
universal. It will be readily understood that these marks are of great 
service to the slave-traders, and all that have much to do with native 
Africans soon learn to distinguish them ; and the price of a slave is 
depressed or enhanced accordingly. Among the Mina nations, so 
called after a port on the Slave Coast in Upper Guinea, where these 
slaves are obtained, this practice is carried to its greatest extent. 
Each province or city of importance has a distinct brand or mark, 
which is invariable for all the inhabitants. 

Of the tribes speaking the Houssa language, the Goobere, or Gu- 
beri, from the kingdom of Bornou, have three or four marks on each 
side of the mouth, converging towards the corners. 



Those from the town of Kano, inhabited by a population of traders, 
have several perpendicular and parallel marks on each cheek. 

\\\\ ,. HI! 

The same mark prevails among the people of Kashua and Labbi, 
neighbours of the foregoing. 



56 RIOJANEIRO. 

The Soccatoos, or Sakatus, on a branch of the Quorra, have several 
fine long oblique marks, converging towards the corners of the mouth. 

Dawwarra or Dawara : these have parallel oblique lines, drawn to 
the corners of the mouth, with shorter marks meeting or bordering 
them above and below. 



The men of the Nago or Yarribe nation, on the west bank of the 
Niger or Quorra, below the Houssa, have three or four longitudinal 
marks on each side of the mouth. 



Those of the women are more complicated. 



The Tacqua, otherwise called Nouffie or Nyffie, live on the eastern 
side of the Quorra, opposite the former, and have two or three oblique 
lines drawn to the corners of the mouth. 



The Fantees and Ashantees inhabit that part of the coast of Guinea 
known as the Slave Coast, and the country in the interior. The 
former have no distinguishing mark ; the latter are characterized by 
scars produced by burns on the forehead and cheeks. 




ASHANTEE. 



The Minas are held in much fear in Brazil. They are extremely 
numerous at Bahia, and it is understood, that during a late insurrec- 
tion, they had fully organized themselves, and were determined to 
institute a regular system of government. They had gone so far as 
to circulate writings in Arabic, exhorting their fellows in bondage to 
make the attempt to recover their liberty. 



RIO JANEIRO. 



57 



The Calabars, on the Gulf of Benin, near the mouth of the Quorra, 
are marked with two lozenge-shaped brands on the breast and A 
stomach. 

The Eboes live near the preceding, at the separation of the 
mouths of the Quorra. Their mark is an arrow on each 
temple. The town of Ebo is a great mart for the surrounding <S\<>>; 
country. 



The nations to the south of the equator, have the usual form of the 
negro, agreeably to our ideas. Those of the slaves at Rio de Janeiro, 
are, in general, short, badly formed, or clumsy, with narrow foreheads, 
flat noses, protruding jaws and teeth, and prominent cheek-bones, with 
the chin sloping backwards. They are indolent, thoughtless, and 
licentious. They may be seen in the streets at all hours, employed as 
carriers, earning the stipulated sum for their masters. And when this 
is gained, they are to be found stretched out on the sidewalk, under the 
porticoes, or on the steps of churches, enjoying themselves as mere 
animals, basking in the sun or sleeping in the shade. They are not 
deficient in intelligence : the defect is less in their intellectual powers 
than in their character, which appears to want energy. 

Tattooing, or marking, does not prevail among the tribes of Lower 
Guinea to such an extent. The Kambindas, who border immediately 
upon the Minas, appear to have borrowed from them the custom, but 
employ it rather for the purpose of ornament than as a mode of dis- 
tinguishing their origin. The marks or figures with which they brand 
themselves are various, and sometimes ornamental. They are called 
in Brazil, Kambindas, after the town on the river Zaire or Congo, at 
which they are procured. 




H 



IML 






Of the Sundi or Mayomba, who live immediately north of Loango, 
between latitude 3 and 4 S., some have a row or band of small 
cicatrices coming from each shoulder to the centre of the breast, like 
the ends of a pelerine ; others have various arabesque ornaments. 

VOL. i. 8 



58 



RIO JANEIRO. 



Those who come from Buali, the capital of the Loango district, in 
about latitude 4 30' S., have marks like the preceding, on the breast, 
and others on the arms. 




w 



Towards the south, tattooing is less common, and among the Goy 
or Angoya people (the Kambindas proper), few but women are so 
ornamented. Their marks are characterized in the three figures 
appended. 






The Angoyans, however, file their teeth after a peculiar fashion, 
each tooth being cut down or filed in the centre, so that only the sides 
are left standing ; the contiguous sides of the teeth form a single saw- 
like tooth. 





The inhabitants of the town of Embomma, on the north bank of the 
river Congo, are distinguished by the teeth being filed so that each 
tooth forms a point. 

The Mundjola, a savage tribe, live in the interior, beyond the 
Loango district, with whose inhabitants they are constantly engaged 
in wars, made expressly to procure slaves. They are esteemed the 
least valuable of all the blacks imported into Brazil, being stupid, 
ferocious, and intractable. In Africa they are stigmatized as man- 
eaters by the other negroes. The Mundjola have the usual negro 
features, with somewhat of a Tartar expression. Their cheeks are 
furrowed longitudinally by numerous parallel lines. 

Of the exact geographical position of the Mundjola, no definite 



RIO JANEIRO. 59 

information was known. The. part of the continent which they are 
said to inhabit is still unexplored ; the account which one of them 
gave Mr. Hale was, that he had been three days with his captors in 
canoes, from his native place, M'te, situated on the great river Muote, 
before reaching Loango, w 7 here he embarked. It is probable that M'te 
is in the interior, two or three hundred miles northeast of Loango, and 
that he was brought to the coast by the Zaire river ; but in this wild 
unexplored ground, all is yet conjecture. The next town or tribe to 
M'te he called Mudimbe. 




MUNDJOLA. 



The extensive territory, bounded on the north by the river Coanza, 
in latitude 9 20' S., on the west by the Atlantic, on the south by the 
Great Desert, which interposes between it and the country of the 
Hottentots, and reaching to an indefinite distance in the interior, is 
known under the name of Benguela, or as the natives pronounce it, 
Bengera. Over this extent of country, comprising at least half of 
Lower Guinea, the same general language is supposed to prevail, 
though subdivided into several dialects. 




BENGUELAN. 

The Benguela blacks have a much higher character as slaves than 



60 



RIO JANEIRO. 



the other nations of Lower Guinea. .They are next in estimation to 
the Minas, being steady, industrious,' and intelligent. They make 
excellent husbandmen. They are generally of good height, with 
features having less of the negro stamp than those of the Congo : the 
forehead tolerably high, the nose not much depressed, and the lips 
moderately full. 

The extent of the Congo territory is now comprised between the 
Zaire and Dande rivers, or about two hundred miles of sea-coast. 
These limits define with sufficient accuracy the extent within which 
the Congo language prevails. 




CONGO. 



The Congoes file their teeth after the fashion of the Angoyas. 
Sometimes, though not often, they have a few marks on each temple. 

oo c ? 



The Angola and the Kasanji are considered in Rio as of different 
nations, but their languages are the same, with hardly a dialectical 




KASANJI. 



RIO JANEIRO. QI 

difference, and it is extremely soft in pronunciation. Some of the 
natives found great difficulty in enunciating sounds of the Portuguese, 
saying balaba for barba, cibali for cidade. Though the Angola and 
Kasanji spoke the same language, yet there was a considerable differ- 
ence between the dialects of two Angolas, the one from Loando on 
the coast, the other from M'baka, or Ambacca, about three hundred 
miles in the interior. 

From the best information, it is believed that the only distinction 
oetween them is, that the Angolas are under the domination of the 
Portuguese government, and the Kasanji are the free natives of the 
interior. 

The former inhabit a narrow province, from sixty to eighty miles 
in width, between the two rivers Dande and Coanza, and extending 
inland something more than one hundred leagues, or as far as the 
Portuguese power can make itself felt; the latter, commencing at this 
point, are spread over a large territory in the interior of the continent. 
One of the natives stated the time it took to go from Loando (the 
Portuguese seaport) to Kasanji to be three months, and to return, 
two; the former journey, as far as it was made in boats, being against 
the stream. 

The eastern coast of Africa, from the equator to the Hottentots of 
the Cape, is occupied by two nations or races of people, which, though 
bearing marks of a common origin, are yet perfectly distinct. Each 
of them is subdivided into several minor tribes or clans. The first of 
these may be called the Mozambique or Makua, and the second the 
Caffre race. 







MAKUAN. 

The Mozambique or Makua tribe, are the people who possess all the 
country inland of the Portuguese and Arab settlements, Melinda, 
Quilao, Mozambique, Quilimane, and Sofala. They occupy the country 
which was formerly comprised in the empire of Motapa, but is now 
divided between the Portuguese and several native provinces. The 



62 RIO JANEIRO. 

southern boundary of this people appears to be the river Inhambane, 
which empties into the Indian Ocean, near Cape Corientes, under the 
southern .tropic. The negroes who inhabit the country near the Portu- 
guese settlement of Mozambique, are the Mozambique or Makuans : 
they differ little in their character or bodily conformation from the 
Congo tribes on the opposite coast. They have the negro physiog- 
nomy and qualities in their full extent, and perhaps are, if any thing, 
rather lower in the grade of intellect than their brethren of the west. 

The custom of marking prevails among all the tribes of the eastern 
coast. The Mozambique people are distinguished by a scar like a 
horseshoe in the centre of the forehead, with others somewhat different 
on each side. They have other marks of a similar nature on the chin, 
and a large brand in the shape of the letter S covers the breast ; their 
teeth are filed sharp, each tooth making a separate point. 

The Takwani dwell on the great river Zambezi, at whose mouth 
Quilimane is situated. This was formerly the line of division between 
the northern or barbarous Makuans and the territories of the Motapa. 
Although this empire is extinct, the countries south of the river still 
preserve some political connexion. All this region was formerly 
termed Mocacougua by the Portuguese. The Takwani, by way of 
marks, have several groups of dots or scars imprinted in various parts 
of the forehead, and also on the breast. 




Takwani is situated four days' journey up the river Zambezi. 

The natives of Mesena have also the same marks ; they inhabit the 
country round the Portuguese fort Sena, on the Zambezi, and were 
formerly part of the great kingdom of Motapa. 





TAKWANI. 



CAFFRE PROPER. 



RIOJANEIRO. 63 

The Caffres who are found as slaves, are generally slender and well 
made, with faces partaking slightly of the Moorish cast. Their 
colour is a yellowish brown, between that of a mulatto and true 
negro. The nose is not depressed, the lips are rather thick, the eyes 
large, black, and bright, and the hair woolly. Two divisions of the 
Caffres have been described by the various authors who have written 
of them and their dialects. These tribes they have divided into the 
Caffres proper, to the east of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope, 
extending from the Great Fish River as far east as Delagoa Bay, in 
latitude 26 S. ; and the Bechuanas, to the north, inhabiting the 
interior as far as the tropics, and the country of the Wanketsi. 

The country between Delagoa Bay and Sofala, Mr. Hale, from his 
investigation, believes to be inhabited by another race of Caffres, 
which he designates by the name of Nyambana. He remarks, that 
their language and physical traits belong to the same family with the 
Caffres proper and the Bechuanas. Their physiognomy is similar to 
that described as distinctive of the Caffres, and their language proved 
to be a sister dialect. 

The natives whom he met with, and from whom this information 
was derived, came from the town of Okankomatta, on the coast, 
between the Nyambara and Nyango rivers, in about latitude 24 S., 
and from Kamouanawankushion, the river of Nyampara, in the inte- 
rior. The distinctive personal mark of this tribe is the most extra- 
ordinary of any. It consists of a row of artificial pimples or warts, 
about the size of a pea, beginning in the middle of the upper part of 
the forehead, and descending to the tip of the nose. Of these they are 
very proud. The manner in which these singular elevations were 
produced we were not able to learn. The natives appeared to be 
averse to speaking of it. 




NYAMBANA. 




MUDJANA. 



64 RIO JANEIRO. 

The Mudjana or Mutchana are one of a number of savage tribes 
who inhabit the country inland of Makua and Mocacougua, with 
whom they carry on a continual war, for the purpose of procuring 
slaves. . The best known of these are the Mudjana, the Mananji, the 
Maravi, and the Makonde. The Mudjana dwell about three hundred 
miles from the coast, and are among the ugliest of the African tribes. 
They are short and ill-formed, with the usual negro features in their 
most exaggerated forms. They have on the face and body cicatrices 
in the shape of a double cross or star, disposed without regularity. 
The incisions are made when they are children, and some kind of 
wood is rubbed upon them to give a dark colour. 

The Mokonde, similarly located, have marks like to those of the 
Mudjana. Their teeth are filed down in the centre, the sides of each 
tooth being left like those of the Angoyas. 

All these blacks are from different parts of the coast, and having 
been hostile tribes, retain much of their antipathy to each other. In 
general they are kindly treated, and become firmly attached to their 
masters ; more, however, from a clannish feeling than from gratitude, 
of which virtue they seem to possess little. They are baptized by their 
owners as soon as purchased, and in the cities attend mass regularly, 
and go to confession, but they are never thought to become entirely 
civilized. Those who receive their freedom in reward for faithful 
services, or purchase it, conduct themselves well; their descendants 
are much superior in point of intelligence. Many of them own slaves, 
and prove much more severe masters than the whites. Male slaves 
are put to any trade or craft they may desire. Females are for the 
most part employed as mantua-makers, and almost all the finery worn 
by the higher circles at public fetes is made by slaves. Indeed, many 
masters and mistresses are dependent on the labour of their slaves for 
their daily support. There are some blacks who are priests, and 
others officers in the army ; indeed, some of the deputies would not 
pass for white men elsewhere. 

Another remarkable circumstance that strikes the visiter is the 
absence of beggars. Many disgusting objects may be seen among the 
slave population, but I do not recollect having met with a beggar. I 
have understood that they are not suffered to appear in the streets. 
This is the law in almost all cities, but here it is rigidly observed. 
Charitable institutions are extensively endowed, particularly that of 
the Misericordia. 

The streets of the city generally cross each other at right angles. 
Some few of them have sidewalks, but they are narrow and badly 
paved. The gutters are in the middle of the streets, with a stream of 
water which emits a smell by no means agreeable. Those most 



RIO JANEIRO. 



65 



frequented are the Rua Direita and Ouvidor. The former, containing 
the palace and cathedral, is the broadest in the city. In the latter are 
the principal shops, and it is the gayest. The streets are paved with 
blocks of stone. The houses are for the most part two stories in height, 
and notwithstanding the materials are strong, yet the red tiled roofs 
overhang in places fearfully. The interior of the houses will not bear 
inspection. Ceilings, walls, and floors, are all exceedingly rough. In 
those of the better kind, the walls and ceilings are plastered, and have 
ornamented designs painted in fresco. Silk hangings are much in 
vogue. I was struck with the want of light and ventilation in the 
rooms and houses. The city in some parts has a triste appearance, 
but in others there are few places which show so much stir and bustle, 
particularly when it is considered that wheeled vehicles are not used 
for transportation. What gives Rio its principal charm are its suburbs 
and the small quintas around it. Nothing can exceed the beauty of 
those around Gloria and Botofogo. These situations are generally 
occupied by foreigners established here in business. 




OORCOVADO, FROM BOTO-FOGO BAY, RIO. 



The amusements of riding and fishing, with water excursions, are 
frequent, and of the most agreeable kind. These and other advantages 
of so fine a climate, soon render a residence at Rio quite desirable. 
There is much pleasant foreign society, composed of the diplomatic 



VOL. I. 



F2 



66 RIOJANEIRO. 

corps, many retired gentlemen, and generally the officers of the several 
men-of-war of different nations. I had the pleasure of meeting some 
old friends, and the time I could spare was very agreeably spent in 
their society. 

There appears to be but little intercourse between the Brazilians and 
the foreign society. The female sex particularly is still much restricted 
in this respect, and although great improvement has taken place, yet 
they seldom mix in social intercourse with foreigners ; I am told that 
even among themselves they are seldom seen except at ceremonious 
parties. They are very much as one would expect them to be, 
reserved, retiring, and wanting in education. They dress after the 
French fashion, and are usually, covered with finery, often displaying 
splendid jewels, without taste. There is none of that ease and gaiety 
which exists where the fair sex is considered on an equality with the 
other, and there is a total absence of that tone which a consciousness 
of their value gives to society. Though there is a great advancement 
in their education, yet there is still much room for improvement. 
Formerly they were not allowed to be educated at all. Their usual 
place of resort during the afternoon and evening is the balconies of 
their houses ; some of them are occasionally seen at church. It is said 
they soon lose their beauty, an early age being considered as their prime. 

It gives me pleasure to bear testimony that I witnessed an excep- 
tion to the above general rule. 

Among the many places to which we had the honour of an 
invitation, was the White-Jacket Ball, at Praya Grande, so called in 
consequence of a request being made on the card of invitation, that 
the gentlemen would come in white jackets, and the ladies appear 
without brilliants or other jewels. We gladly accepted the invitation. 

The row across the bay was beautiful ; the water undisturbed by 
any breeze ; the air cool and balmy ; while thousands of lights along 
the shores, and the phosphorescence of the water, gave additional 
interest and brilliancy to the whole. The distance, though great, 
was not too much for so beautiful an evening. 

After being once or twice at fault, we at last found the landing, 
and walked a short distance from the beach. On reaching the 
ante-room, we were met by the committee of gentlemen or managers, 
and kindly greeted without ceremony, making us at once feel at our 
ease. We were shortly after ushered into one of the most splendid 
ball-rooms I ever saw ; it would contain over one thousand persons. 
There were upwards of three hundred present, all dressed in pure 
white, without any finery whatever. The room was brilliantly 
lighted. We were shown around and introduced to a great many 



RIO JANEIRO. 67 

persons of both sexes, who all seemed bent on amusement. It was 
truly a sans souci meeting. Seldom have I seen so much good taste 
as was displayed in the arrangements, or so good a tone of society. 
A good band of music, all Brazilians, played waltzes and marches 
alternately. I was told there were many distinguished persons, 
senators, representatives of the congress, &c., present. 

These balls take place monthly, and are really what they profess 
to be, for the pleasure of meeting, innocent amusement, and recrea- 
tion. All the expense that attends them is the music and lights ; some 
few dulces were the only refreshments. 

The language generally spoken was Portuguese, though some few 
of the ladies, and many of the gentlemen, spoke French. I was not 
much struck with the beauty of the ladies, though many w r ere quite 
pretty. The great charm thrown over the whole was the unaffected 
manners and naivete exhibited by the whole company. I left the ball 
at a late hour, exceedingly gratified with my visit, and the politeness 
and kindness that had been shown us. 

On the 27th of November the Relief arrived, after a passage of one 
hundred days from the United States, the longest ever made. On 
requisitions being made for her stores, I was greatly and vexatiously 
disappointed to receive a report that they required a survey, as all 
were considered defective, including even the bread and flour. This 
report, after a careful survey by seven officers, proved to be true. I 
had been informed before taking command of the squadron that these 
provisions had been inspected, and understood them to be in good 
order, and that they would last over a year. 

Although this did not delay us, for the repairs in progress could not 
have been completed before we would be able to replace them, yet 
coming as it did with other vexations and delays, it w r as rather trying 
to the patience, and made it necessary to redouble our exertions. 

The Relief was despatched at the earliest day possible, the 14th of 
December, in order to enable her to reach Orange Harbour, in Terra 
del Fuego, the place I had fixed upon as a rendezvous, supposing she 
would take at least fifteen days more than the other vessels to reach 
the place at the same time. The boats towed her down the harbour 
and gave her a fair start. 

Two of the officers of the squadron ascended the Sugar Loaf. 
Hearing the expression of my surprise that they should have per- 
formed such an undertaking without instruments, they immediately 
volunteered to make it again. Lieutenants Underwood and Dale 
were furnished with the requisite instruments, and the height was 
obtained by the sympiesometer, which agreed within a few feet of 



68 RIOJANEIRO. 

that obtained by triangulation. The results will be found in the 
table. 

Not having time to complete all they desired, some of the party 
remained over night to complete the interesting observations. Lieu- 
tenants Emmons and Underwood, on their first trip, obtained many 
interesting botanical specimens, among them Bromelias, Tilland- 
sias, &c. 

On the 16th, the Peacock, with the two tenders, sailed for the 
purpose of measuring the distance between Cape Frio and Enxados 
observatory. I had first determined to measure the distance by 
rocket-signals, as the distance, lying nearly east and west, rendered 
this method very applicable ; but the duties I was engaged in, and 
the difficulties I might encounter from delays, prevented me from 
having recourse to it. I therefore adopted that by sound, wishing 
also to satisfy myself with what accuracy a length of this distance 
could be measured in this manner. 

Captain Hudson was also ordered to examine the St. Thomas 
Shoal, to the northward of the Cape. 

The manner of accomplishing the former duty was as follows. 
The three vessels were anchored in a triangle, with the light-house in 
sight, two vessels being in range with it, nearly east and west, 
towards the harbour of Rio. Each vessel firing four guns, the times 
of the flashes and reports of which were noted in the others. The 
angles were simultaneously observed between the objects, and the 
astronomical bearings taken. This gave the data to connect the 
survey with the light-house. 

The vessels now changed their positions alternately, anchoring in 
range, and on astronomical bearings proceeding westward, until they 
reached the island of Enxados, where they again formed a triangle in 
connexion with the observatory. 

Our repairs in Rio were extensive, particularly those on the 
Peacock. Among other things, the head of the mizzen-mast had to 
be cut off eighteen inches, in consequence of a defect in it, which it 
appeared had been filled up with rope-yarns and putty, and painted 
over, at her outfit. The defects about the vessel were so glaring 
that in going to the high latitudes, it would have been impossible to 
secure the crew from great suffering and exposure. Even in the 
state in which the squadron was now put, I had every apprehension 
of the greatest disasters. The Peacock, particularly, was wholly 
unseaworthy with respect to such a cruise. 

My object in giving these details is not to impute blame to any one, 
however satisfied I may be of the great neglect in all the outfits, but 



RIOJANEIRO. 69 

to let the country know what were the difficulties we had to 
encounter. 

It is always difficult to calculate upon the delays that may occur 
in a foreign port, particularly when it is necessary to employ foreign 
workmen. Their hours, habits, and manner of working, are so 
different from our own, that great patience is required in those who 
employ them. The manner in which the calkers of Rio work, would 
draw crowds around them in one of our own cities ; to see many of 
them engaged on a single seam on the outside of the vessel, striking 
the mallet at a signal given by their leader or overseer with his 
whistle, is amusing. They are generally blacks, (probably slaves,) 
and the leader a white man. The impression made upon us all was, 
that they were an indolent set ; yet they are said to understand their 
business well. I cannot, however, bear favourable testimony to their 
work ; the calking of my ship was certainly badly done. 

The uncertainty of the length of time I should be detained, rendered 
it impossible for me to allow long absences from the ship. I was 
anxious to have made some measurements of the Organ Mountains, 
and that our parties should extend their researches beyond them to the 
Campos. 

Dr. Pickering and Mr. Brackenridge succeeded in making the 
trip to the Organ Mountains on a botanical excursion ; but the outfits 
and duties connected with the vessels and observations, made it 
impossible for me to spare any officers to make the measurement of 
their height, or to go myself. These gentlemen set out, having taken 
passage in the usual freight-boat, (felucca rigged,) for Estrella, 
embarking their horses and mules in another. These boats are not 
decked, and are of sufficient tonnage to make them safe and convenient 
freight-boats. They generally have four or five slaves with a padron 
to manage them. 

On leaving Rio they steered up the bay for the island of Goberna- 
dor, round which it is necessary to pass, on their way towards the 
river Anhumirim, aided by a fair breeze and fine weather. They 
found the sail up the bay extremely beautiful, the- islands offering a 
constant source of interest and novelty. The mouth of the Anhu- 
mirim river was reached in about three hours. It was found about 
forty yards wide and quite shallow. The banks are an extensive 
mangrove swamp. They passed up the river about eight miles, and 
reached the port of Estrella at midday, where they took their horses 
and pursued the main road to the mines, which crosses to the west- 
ward of the highest peak. The distance to the base of the mountain 



70 RIO JANEIRO. 

from Estrella, is about ten miles, due north. The country is flat, with 
occasional undulations. About two miles from Estrella they came to 
a guard-house, where they were stopped. Their guide not being at 
hand, and not understanding the language themselves, they supposed 
their passports were demanded, and believing the reports to be true 
that we had all heard so often of the jealousy of the Brazilians in 
relation to the admission of foreigners into the interior, they concluded 
they were now to experience it. But on the guide coming up, the 
matter was soon arranged by the payment of a small tax, which was 
the only passport they found necessary. The ascent of the pass is 
made by a well-paved zigzag road. They soon reached the house of 
Padre Luiz, where they were kindly and hospitably received, and 
supper was supplied them from his scanty larder. 

Padre Luiz's house was quite spacious : a long one-story building, 
containing under the same roof the stable and storehouse, as well as 
accommodations for travellers and the females of the family. The 
latter, agreeably to the custom of the country, were not seen, though 
known to exist. Cold and wet, our travellers were ushered into an 
apartment where there was neither floor nor fire, and in which there 
was a free circulation of air through the cracks and crevices in the 
walls. The roof, however, was tight, which was lucky, as it was 
raining hard. A little further insight and experience into the customs 
and comforts of the country, made them think that the accommodations 
here had been excellent. After a most unreasonable delay, coffee, a 
fowl, and rice were set before them, with much parade and ceremony. 
During the night they heard what was supposed to be the howling 
monkey, but upon inquiry it turned out to be a Brazilian toad, called 
in Brazil "the blacksmith," whose croak is said to resemble very 
much the sound of hammering on an anvil. 

The next morning, understanding that they had been treated with 
luxuries and as persons of distinction, they told their host that they 
preferred the dish of the country," carne seca" and " farinha," which, 
with the addition of a few eggs and a cup of coffee, made an excellent 
meal, and was quickly served. 

They rode this day about twenty miles beyond the Organ Moun- 
tains, the extent to which their jaunt reached. On their way, they 
met vast numbers of mules heavily laden. The roads were generally 
good, and very little expense would have made them excellent for 
carriages. 

At Padre Coneas', at the top of the pass, they found a native fig- 
tree, of enormous size, with numerous parasitical plants upon it. It 



RIO JANEIRO. 71 

was to them quite a novelty from its low branches, which extended hori- 
zontally and covered a space of one hundred and forty feet in diameter. 

After leaving the Estrella Pass, the descent was very gradual, the 
route lying among the mountains. Crossing the river Paibanha, they 
reached a hamlet beautifully situated on the brow of a hill, and com- 
manding an extensive view of the country. Here they found the 
place well suited to their employment of making collections of 
plants, and resolved to stop. Their host kept a small store, and had a 
German for salesman, who was greatly delighted at finding that Mr. 
Brackenridge could speak his language. He paid them great atten- 
tion, and provided amply for their wants. 

They were gratified by the rich botanical field that was open to 
them. Among the plants, or trees, were Cupheas, with deep purple 
flowers, and others with lilac ; Lobelias fifteen feet high, with spikes 
of blue flowers three feet long ; and Acacias in full flower. Cyrtopo- 
dium Andersonii grew on the rocks in bunches, &c. Several- trees 
of the Araucaria Brasiliensis, from seventy to eighty feet high, were 
found in the valley, which Mr. Brackenridge succeeded in climbing, 
and obtained two handsome cones. The rivers were also searched 
for shells, but the water was too high to afford success. 

Returning at dark they found the German had provided supper, 
which was soon served. It consisted of bean soup, Indian bread, fried 
jerked beef, and sausages : they had the satisfaction of eating the meal 
on their knees, for there was no table, but one spoon, and only one 
knife for three persons. 

Having loaded themselves with specimens, they concluded to return, 
their ideas of life in tropical climates having undergone much change 
in this short time, from the erroneous belief they had entertained that 
industry was not necessary, that the inhabitants were surrounded by 
luxuries, having every delicacy imaginable, and that the only reason 
they were not advanced in agriculture and the arts was from the idle- 
ness engendered by the enervating influence of the climate. The 
fatigue and endurance necessary to overcome the actual state of 
things, was least of all expected ; and such a thing as suffering from 
cold, even on elevated spots, had not been dreamed of. 

The common food of the country was found to be ground manioc 
and jerked beef, which proved palatable after their fatigues. Their 
guide, however, who was a New Hampshire man, complained much 
of his privations. 

They had seen the Mato Virgen, or primeval forest, and instead of 
finding it, as had been represented, beset with difficulties in penetrating 
it, they were surprised to find it more accessible than some of the 



72 RIOJANEIRO. 

forests in our Atlantic States. According to the accounts of intelligent 
residents, it is easily traversed in any direction. The accounts of 
difficulties have probably arisen from the second growth on spots that 
have once been cleared, where the bamboos are intertwined so as to 
render the woods almost impassable, and this has no doubt been taken 
for the primeval forest. 

The nature of the Brazilian forest will account for so little being 
known of its botany. The trees are in fact inaccessible, the trunks 
being from seventy to one hundred feet high, before the branches 
appear, so that the latter can only be got at by felling. The view of 
the forest is truly remarkable. Trees of immense growth intermingled 
with others of less size, presenting to the eye the most singular and 
fantastic forms imaginable. The roots of climbing plants, dangling 
between their straight trunks, resembled the tackling of a ship. 

A little incident that occurred to these gentlemen will show the 
difficulties to be encountered in obtaining specimens. They had 
observed for a few days a beautiful yellow flowering tree, that was very 
conspicuous in the forest. Believing that it could be easily come at, 
they made the attempt to reach it, but without success, finding it, 
instead of being low, a high and inaccessible tree. They then directed 
their steps to others, but were disappointed again. Determined not 
to be foiled in their pursuit, they again went off in search of others in 
sight ; these, to their surprise, were on the opposite side of a river. 
Nothing daunted, Mr. Brackenridge crossed it, though deep, and 
endeavoured to scale the tree. What had appeared near the ground, 
now proved a tree of some sixty feet in height, with a smooth and 
slippery bark; and he returned to his companion empty-handed. Dr. 
Pickering next made the attempt. After crossing the stream with 
difficulty, he reached the desired object, and endeavoured to climb, but 
after reaching some forty feet, was obliged to acknowledge himself 
vanquished. They continued their return, and when near Padre Luiz's 
house, they found a small tree of the same kind they had been searching 
for, which proved to be a species of Csesalpinia. 

At Padre Luiz's they again passed the night, and the next day 
endeavours were made to reach one of the pointed peaks of the Organ 
Mountains. In this Dr. Pickering succeeded, though it did not prove 
the highest. On their way they found many interesting plants ; among 
them the Epiphytic Orchidese, slender Cecropias, rising to the height 
of one hundred feet without a limb, arborescent fern trees forty feet in 
height, and numerous parasitical plants hanging from the various trees 
in great profusion ; Bromelias, Bignonias, &c. On reaching the top, he 
found trees stunted and gnarled of about thirty feet in height. 



RIOJANEIRO. 73 

A good idea will be given of the richness of the Brazilian Flora by 
the fact, that when mounted in the tree-top, he collected specimens of 
three flowering trees not before seen, and three species of mistletoes. 

The same afternoon they reached Estrella, but found their guide had 
not procured any passage for them. They, however, succeeded after 
some difficulty in procuring one, set out before sunset, and reached Rio 
the next morning by three o'clock, having been greatly tormented by 
the musquitoes, and a minute fly, which was even more troublesome. 

Finding that the repairs had not proceeded so rapidly as I anticipated, 
I readily gave permission for a second jaunt, which they undertook in 
the direction of Piedade. Piedade is on the eastern side of the bay, 
nearly opposite to Estrella. On landing, they proceeded to Trexal, at 
the foot of the mountain, sixteen miles from Piedade, where travellers 
may get good lodgings, &c., for Brazil. The next day they took the 
route by the pass to Mr. March's. The summit of this pass commands 
a magnificent and extensive prospect, and is called Buena Vista. They 
reached the Fazenda of Mr. March about midday. It is situated in a 
beautiful valley, immediately behind the main ridge, and between two 
mountains. The houses were overflowing with visitors, who . had 
assembled to pass the holidays. This estate is large, embracing some 
thirty miles square, but only a very small proportion of it is cultivated. 
A large number of negroes were about the establishment, and every 
thing is kept in perfect order. It is a place of fashionable resort for 
the inhabitants of Rio, especially the English. The houses were 
comfortable after the Brazilian style. The garden and grounds are 
laid out on the English plan, and well stocked with very fine fruits, 
peaches, apples, pears, plums, gooseberries, all of which come to 
perfection. Of vegetables, they have potatoes, cabbage, turnips, 
carrots, beets, onions, parsnips, celery, and lettuce. Bananas will not 
ripen, the temperature being frequently as low as 40. Mr. March 
said his houses were situated three thousand one hundred and fifty feet 
above the level of the sea, and the peaks in the vicinity are about one 
thousand feet higher. To the westward he pointed out a peak said to 
be eight thousand feet in altitude, and which is the highest of the 
range. So far as is known, no one has gained the summit, although 
Mr. Gardner, an English botanist, by following the tracks of the tapir, 
had reached within a few hundred yards of it, after two days' hard 
labour, and found that the vegetation resembled that of temperate 
climates. Time did not admit of our gentlemen making the attempt. 
All that could be done was to ascend the hill pointed out by Mr. 
March, in the vicinity of his house, as never having been ascended, and 
which is one thousand two hundred feet above it. This was accom- 
VOL. i G 10 



74 RIO JANEIRO. 

plished, although with difficulty. On this trip they met with fallen 
timber, but the Brazilian woods, in general, were remarked as being 
much more free from it than our own. No change in the vegetation 
was observed. The route through this pass is much more difficult for 
travellers than that of Estrella, but to the admirer of nature more 
interesting. From the base to the summit of the mountains the virgin 
forest extends. The main chain here is much broken; the peaks 
appear more in the form of columns or pipes, and are quite inaccessible, 
casting a dark shade upon the deep and wooded valleys beneath. After 
being hospitably entertained they came back, crossing over to the 
island of Pagueta, where they had an opportunity of examining the 
large heaps of the shells fished up out of the bay, for the purpose of 
burning for lime, and were not a little surprised at the numbers of 
different genera which composed them. 

The results of these two expeditions were the addition of a great 
number of very interesting plants to our collection. These will be 
treated of in the Botanical Report. 

A few days before our departure, we made a trip to the top of the 
Corcovado. The naturalists, who were of our party, observed that 
almost a total change had taken place in the plants since their last 
visit, about a fortnight before. I took with me the necessary instru- 
ments to measure its height, and we all amused ourselves with 
collecting plants, insects, lizards, &c. We took the road that turns 
off near Gloria, and even before we began to emerge from the city, 
several novel kinds of ferns were observed growing on the house-tops 
and walls. We soon entered coffee plantations, groves of bananas, 
tamarinds, mangroves, and orange trees. A vast variety of plants 
were pointed out to me by Mr. Brackenridge, among them the 
beautiful Vochysia, with its splendid yellow blossoms, showing con- 
spicuous among the rest. After a fatiguing walk we reached the top. 
The last quarter of a mile, or the last rise to its summit, causes one to 
become somewhat breathless in a hot day ; but when the top is gained, 
it is worth all the labour of climbing, and amply repays for the 
exertion. 

The whole of the magnificent harbour, the city and environs, lay 
beneath our feet. A bird's-eye view is had of every thing, grouped 
in the most pleasing variety ; and nothing strikes one so forcibly as 
the white sandy beaches of Botofogo and Praya Grande, with the 
beautiful blue of the sea washing on them. The many lakes, the 
castellated peaks, and the variously shaped, craggy, and broken hills, 
are all softened by the light and airy green vegetation, creeping up 
their sides so as to melt them almost into one. The harbour was 



RIO JANEIRO. 



75 



covered with its busy and now tiny fleets, and many of its large islands 
looked as but specks on its flat surface. The day was beautifully 
clear, and the refreshing sea-breeze just what we could desire. The 
tower and observatory have been destroyed. To form an idea of the 
beauty of Rio and its environs, it is necessary to mount to the top of 
the Corcovado, or some high peak in its neighbourhood. 

After finishing our observations, and fully satisfying ourselves with 
the beautiful scene, we descended to the Belle Rue, where we enjoyed 
a rest and lunch. We returned to the city by the way of the Aqueduct 
late -in the afternoon, all greatly delighted with our day's jaunt, which, 
beside the amusement, had proved quite a profitable one in the way of 
collections. 




SLAVES SLEEPING. 



CHAPTER IV. 



CONTENTS. 

CHARACTER OF THE BRAZILIANS-CONSTITUTION OP THE EMPIRE-RULING PARTY- 
ELECTIVE REGENCY ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE ELECTIVE FRANCHISE ARMY 
NAVY SCHOOLS SLAVERY FEELING TOWARDS FOREIGNERS POPULATION- 
NATIONAL DEBT, REVENUE, AND EXPENDITURES - COMMERCE EVENTS IN THE 
SQUADRON DEPARTURE FROM RIO. 



G2 



(77) 



CHAPTER IV. 

POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 

1838. 

DURING my stay at Rio, I had an opportunity of seeing several 
intelligent gentlemen, who had long been residents of the country ; I 
am indebted to them for much information relative to the political 
state of this empire. Brazil, though quiet at the time of our visit, will 
long be destined to outbreaks and alarms, either from local oppression 
or some slight political movements. The people for the most part 
take very little interest in politics, or in the general welfare of the 
state. As yet, their habits make them averse to mental exertions, and 
they generally prefer their own ease, which precludes them from 
engaging in political excitement. They are not yet sufficiently 
advanced in civilization and education, so far as regards the mass of 
the population, to rise from the mental degradation which the policy 
of the mother country entailed upon them. 

The Brazilians, from the character I have received of them, are 
very ceremonious and punctilious, susceptible of flattery, suspicious 
yet courteous, selfish, cunning; assuming frankness and generosity, 
timid, unsteady in purpose, and without any large and comprehensive 
views. What is claimed from them as a right in a bold and confident 
manner, is readily yielded, while often through their ignorance they 
become presumptuous. 

The people are farther advanced in morals and intelligence than 
their government, but as yet they are not sufficiently enlightened to 
know their power. They are slow to act, and appear very patient 
under oppression. Long endurance of despotism has made them so. 

The new constitution was adopted in 1825. This secured the 
legislative power from further interruption, and achieved a complete 
victory over the bayonets and tyranny of Don Pedro, by forcing him, 
through the threats of the people and his fears, to grant a more liberal 

(79) 



80 POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 

constitution. Political freedom seems to have made rapid advance- 
ment through the freedom of the press, and the voice of liberty may be 
said to have been heard. At first it was listened to with apprehensions, 
and its meaning but imperfectly understood. Although many years 
have since passed, the people have scarcely more than begun to feel 
that they possess individual rights, and for the most part yield a blind 
obedience to the laws. This is true as respects the population of the 
seaports; but in the country, the population being sparse, communi- 
cation of every kind is difficult, and social intercourse embarrassed by 
early habits and customs. The advantages of a free and frequent 
interchange of sentiments are in consequence almost entirely unknown. 
A long time will probably elapse before there will be any political 
struggle among them. They are prospering in their private concerns, 
and contented without any ambition to advance themselves in political 
knowledge, or to meddle with the concerns of the government, except 
in their local operation. The state of society in the interior is very 
much of this character, and consequently the affairs of the country 
have suffered little derangement from the difficulties which have 
occurred, and mal-administration under the different sovereigns who 
have held rule for the last thirty years. Through part of this time a 
rapid decline was experienced in the national prosperity, which led to 
the abdication of the late Emperor Pedro I. 

The whole political machine by which the government is adminis- 
tered is uncouth and awkward, being composed of a mixture of feudal 
notions with the refinements of modern times. It is moved and 
sustained m<pre by the habit of obeying the laws, than by skill and 
judgment in administering them. There is an entire absence of all 
force, moral as well as physical, to sustain the government; yet to 
this in a great measure is it to be ascribed, that the country has not 
become a prey to anarchy and confusion. Combined with the above 
causes, is the jealousy that exists among the parties who have been 
called to office, and which prevents self-aggrandizement. Pretensions 
have been at times asserted, dangerous to public tranquillity and 
threatening the subversion of the established order of things. These 
have been promoted by the disaffected and discontented, principally 
composed of or countenanced by those persons who, after the depar- 
ture of Don Pedro I., remained in the country, and who, having lost 
their importance with their offices, returned to private life, with their 
pride wounded, their fortunes and reputation impaired and injured, 
and themselves dissatisfied with their condition. These persons have 
sought every occasion to disturb the even current of events, and to 
array themselves against the power of the state, wielded as they deem 



POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 81 

it to be, by plebeian usurpation of the royal prerogative ; but hitherto 
they have failed. 

Causes of dissatisfaction are not wanting to produce discontent. 
They are indeed numerous, and among them are a total want of 
justice in the administration of the laws ; the neglect of all petitions 
for political reform and the remedy of abuses ; the onerous and 
injurious regulations imposed by the government; and the haughty 
conduct and absolute power of those who hold office. Notwith- 
standing all these discouragements, well-informed residents perceive 
an improvement within the last few years, on the part of the govern- 
ment and of the people also. The establishment of a public press has 
had its effect in producing this change, by enlightening the public 
mind, and will gradually acquire the same control here that it exercises 
elsewhere; and education is better attended to than it used to be, 
although as yet it is far in the background. 

According to the best information, the present government was 
established by, and is under the guidance of, a few leading men, a 
small party in Rio, who manage all the political concerns of the 
empire. They seem to act without any desire of personal aggrandize- 
ment, and apparently without ambition to be distinguished beyond the 
circle of their party. From what has already been said of the 
interior and the character of its inhabitants, it will be seen that there 
is no great difficulty in managing the provinces by means of a few 
influential men, and thus the whole power seems concentrated within 
the city of Rio, where it is easy to direct things to the issue that they 
may desire. 

It was this party which overthrew or effected the reform in the con- 
stitution under Don Pedro I. in 1823, and established the new Congress, 
consisting of a senatorial body of fifty, who were chosen for life, and 
of one hundred deputies, for three years. The reformed constitution 
provided that the succession should devolve on the eldest son of 
Pedro I., during whose minority there should be three regents chosen 
for life. 

Things went on badly after the beginning of the new order of 
government, principally in consequence of the disastrous Banda 
Oriental war, which caused a great sacrifice of money and resources, 
deranged the currency, and involved the nation in debt. In 1831, Don 
Pedro abdicated the throne, and went to Europe ; the regency came 
into power, and this band of leading men formed themselves into an 
opposition to the government. They succeeded in making some 
important changes, setting aside the three regents for life, substituting 
one elected for four years, and introducing a federal system, which 
VOL. i. 11 



82 POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 

gives the provinces the right of local legislatures to regulate their pro- 
vincial concerns, independently of the general government. 

The manner in which the reforms in the constitution were effected, 
will give some insight into the mode of conducting business, and 
exhibits the power of this party. The plans, after being long under 
discussion in the Chamber of Deputies, were referred to a committee 
of that body, who reported upon them, and they were finally passed, 
under a decision by the Chambers that the Senate and Regency had 
no right to vote, control, or even deliberate upon the question. They 
thus assumed to themselves the whole power of legislative action on 
so momentous a subject, totally disregarding the constitutional claims 
of the other co-ordinate and co-equal branches of the government, 
whose concurrence was necessary to legalize all their acts under the 
constitution, and whose authority was then in vigour, and could not be 
suspended, although it was susceptible of modification in the proper 
form. This subject was recommended to the attention of the people 
in 1833, with a view to party action on it; and new elections were 
ordered, for the purpose of deliberating upon a new constitution. But 
from some circumstances, the regents were not willing to accede to 
the measure, after it had passed the forms of legislation in the 
Chamber of Deputies ; they steadfastly adhered to the determination 
of withholding their sanction to the law, opposing all terms of com- 
promise. For a long time the tranquillity, if not the destiny of the 
country, was in jeopardy. The regents were finally, as was supposed, 
and generally believed, brought over by pecuniary considerations. 
The Senate also ineffectually attempted to interpose a protest against 
the measure (the election of a regent to hold office for four years), not 
only to sustain their dignity but maintain their rights; neither was 
it satisfactory to the people generally, nor to the national guard, who 
it was well known would have supported the regents in their oppo- 
sition. All impediments, however, to the passage of this favourite and 
important measure, were overcome by the power and management 
of this band of leading men, who contrived to unite with them the 
most opposite characters, and to neutralize personal animosity, as well 
as party strife, absorbing all other subjects, and enlisting them in 
support of this measure. They thus clearly manifested their influence, 
in being able to set aside constitutional restraints, overcoming the 
executive power, and controlling the senatorial aristocracy. 

The new constitution seems to operate satisfactorily under these 
leaders. There are, however, some features in it which give its 
warmest friends many fears respecting the stability of the government. 
One of these is the difficulty of making the provincial legislatures 



POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 83 

work harmoniously with the general government. Great stress is, 
however, laid upon the character of the Brazilians, who are disin- 
clined to change, and upon their habits of obedience to the laws and 
constituted authority. This gives a well-grounded hope for the 
peaceful and onward march of the public prosperity under the new 
constitution. 

Every exertion is making to give the young Emperor a good 
education, and his talents are well spoken of. 

The regulation of the currency has continued to claim the attention 
of the government, as involving the most important questions, and 
those likely to bring about difficulties. Some apprehensions are 
entertained that the local governments may apply a remedy them- 
selves. In the Chamber of Deputies, all money-bills originate, but the 
Senate may amend them. All laws must be sanctioned by the 
Emperor after having passed both branches of the legislature. In 
case of disagreement between the two houses, the members unite in 
the Senate chamber, and the question is decided by a majority of 
votes. There are no doubt many sources of discord, but they are not 
fully known by any, except the principal actors, and few are aware 
how the affairs of the kingdom are going on. At this time (1838 and 
'39) all those acquainted with the people and government considered 
the whole kingdom in a precarious state : the administration at Rio 
Janeiro was believed to be unpopular, while some of the provinces 
evinced a strong disposition to join with that of Rio Grande in 
revolution. But this cannot succeed. Rio, with its situation and 
commercial advantages, must and always will have the ascendency in 
one way or other, will control its resources, and must be the seat of 
government of this empire. 

The administration of justice is confided to two high tribunals, 
which are open to the public, and where causes are decided on appeal 
by a majority of the judges. 

These tribunals are, first, the Rela^ao, of which there are two 
branches, one at Rio and the other at Bahia, each composed of eight 
judges. Second, the Supreme Tribunal of Justice, of twelve judges. 
The inferior courts are those for the trial of civil and criminal cases, 
an Orphans' Court, and a Court and Judge of Findings and Losings, 
the last of which is not yet abolished, however obsolete it may have 
become. Great corruption exists in them all, and no class of people 
are so unpopular as the judges. It is generally believed, and the 
belief is acted upon, that to obtain justice, all classes, including priests 
and laymen, lawyer and client, legislators and people, regents and 
ministers, must submit to great imposition ; that it is next to impossible 



84 POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 

to recover a debt by law except through bribery. If a debtor has 
money or patronage, and refuses to pay, it is difficult to obtain the 
payment even of an acknowledged note of hand through the process 
of the law, and it generally takes years to accomplish. 

It is, however, greatly to the praise of the Brazilians, that it is not 
often necessary to have recourse to law for this purpose. The 
greatest injustice occurs in the Orphans' Court; but the Court of 
Findings and Losings is one of the most singular in this respect. It 
takes charge of all things lost and found, making it the duty of a 
person finding any thing to deposit it with the judge. The loser, to 
prove property, must have three witnesses to swear that they saw him 
lose it, and three others, that they saw the finder pick it up, otherwise 
it remains in deposit. To show the working of this system, a gentle- 
man of Rio found a bank-note of four hundred milrees (about 8250). 
The owner went to him and claimed it, proving satisfactorily to the 
finder that the identical bank-note was his, upon which the finder gave 
it up. The Judge of Findings and Losings heard of the circumstance, 
sent for him, and asked a statement of the case, which the finder 
unsuspectingly related. The judge praised his honourable conduct, 
and was punctiliously polite. The next day, however, he issued an 
order for the deposit of the money found ; and because it was disre- 
garded, the finder, a respectable foreign merchant, was arrested in the 
street and sent to prison, to be confined with common criminals. The 
jailer, however, having private apartments for those who could pay 
for them, he became his guest, and was preserved from the disgust of 
being a close prisoner, and the companion of degraded and depraved 
wretches. Before he could regain his liberty, he had to pay the 
amount found, the decision being the forfeiture of a like sum, together 
with the jailer's fees, &c. 

The justices of the peace for each district are elected by the people, 
four at a time, to serve as many years by turns, substituting one for 
the other, when sickness or other circumstances prevent either from 
serving. They have final judgments in amounts not exceeding sixteen 
milrees. In cases of civil process, they act as mediators to effect a 
compromise and reconcile difficulties. Their political attributes are to 
preserve the peace in case of riot or disorder among the people, and 
they have a right to call on the national guard or military police to 
aid them, who must act under their direction. There is no civil 
police, and no imprisonment for debt. Trial by jury was at first 
limited to political offences and violations of the liberty of the press, 
but it is now extended to criminal cases, and in some instances to 
civil suits. Sixty persons compose the jury, and forty are necessary 



POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 85 

to try causes. The juiz de decrito (judge of law) sits with them in 
court, acts as president, and applies the law to the cases the jury may 
decide. Jurymen serve for one year, and are chosen in the following 
manner. In each district the vigairo (vicar), a justice of the peace 
and a member of the municipality, select from a list of male pa- 
rishioners, those qualified in their judgment for jurymen, and submit 
the names to the municipality, who, assisted by the vigairo and justice 
of the peace, purge the list of such as may be considered improper 
persons. It is then officially communicated by the municipality to 
the justice of the peace, and posted up for public inspection in the office, 
and on the doors of the parish churches throughout the district. 

To entitle any one to vote at an election, he must have an income 
of two hundred milrees per annum from property, trade, labour or 
employment of any kind. The vigairo sits with the judges at elections 
to decide on the qualifications of voters. Friars or members of 
religious fraternities are not entitled to a vote. Free blacks have all 
the civil rights, and vote at elections the same as white men. 

The attorney-general of the nation is the accuser in all criminal 
cases. Criminals have the right of counsel. 

It may be said that there is no standing army in Brazil, for the few 
troops do not merit that name. A military staff on a large scale is 
supported, with a large corps of military police, and a national guard. 
The national guard is organized by law, and in it all males from 
eighteen to forty-five years of age are enrolled. They are equipped 
at their own cost, the nation furnishing arms and ammunition only. 
Detachments of this guard are on duty daily at the palace and public 
offices. 

The navy is not effective ; they want seamen, and are not likely to 
have any. A naval academy is established for the education of cadets 
or midshipmen. Here they enter at twelve years of age, receiving 
some of the first rudiments of education, and remain four years. 
After passing an examination, they are sent to sea, serve there four 
years, and if found qualified are then promoted to second lieutenants. 

The military academy they enter later, remain seven years, passing 
through various courses of study, and if found competent, they are 
made lieutenants. From what I understood, the system of education 
is very imperfect. 

Schools for educating the people have been established, and the 
female sex are now allowed to be educated. 

Agriculture is extending ; and the slave trade, since the treaty with 
England, has been prohibited; but large numbers of slaves are still 
easily smuggled, by the connivance of the authorities, and although 



86 POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 

many are captured by British cruisers, yet it is said that more than 
one half of the vessels escape, and smuggle the slaves into the small 
rivers and harbours, bribing the collectors, who permit them to be 
landed. After landing, the slaves are driven into the woods, where 
they are secreted until they are sold to the planters in the interior. 

The slaves do not increase, as procreation is prevented as much 
as possible. The two sexes are generally locked up at night in 
separate apartments. The number of slaves imported into Rio and 
Bahia previous to the prohibition of the slave trade in 1830, was 
about forty thousand a year for the former, and ten thousand for the 
latter, as follows : 

RIO. BAHIA. 

1828 . . 41,913 . . . 8,860 

1829 . . 40,015 . . . 12,808 

1830 halfyear 29,777 . . 8,588 

About one-third of these were lost by death, leaving two-thirds as 
an accession to the labour of the country. 

The number annually imported since 1830, contrary to law, is 
estimated at seven to ten thousand. 

In speaking of the apprehension of a rise of the blacks in the pro- 
vinces, the well-informed seemed to entertain no kind of fear of such an 
event. I was told that Bahia was the only point at which insurrections 
were ever likely to occur, and this was from the prevalence of the 
Mina slaves, who are very intelligent, and capable of forming organized 
bodies, which they occasionally have done. The slaves of the other 
provinces are of a mixed character, incapable of any organization, and 
from having been taken from different tribes on the coast, they are 
more or less hostile to each other, and would be opposed to any such 
union. 

The Brazilians have great respect for foreigners who are not 
Portuguese. The latter are detested. They have a strong bias in 
favour of the United States and the American government generally. 
They think the time is approaching which will unite the people of this 
continent in a distinct national policy, in centra-distinction to that of 
Europe, and in rivalry to it. They are vain of their own country and 
its institutions, and firmly believe that a high destiny awaits Brazil. 
The government, in its political relations with other countries, is 
seemingly confiding and liberal. 

The population of the empire, taking the last returns of the members 
of the Chamber of Deputies as a guide, is estimated at five millions. 
No census has yet been taken, but it is thought to exceed this number. 
The scrutiny formerly exercised by the government into their domestic 



POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 97 

affairs, it is said, caused them to conceal the actual number of persons 
in their families. Of the above number, about two millions are slaves. 
No estimate has been made of the proportion which free blacks, 
mulattoes, or Indians bear to the whites or to each other. The relative 
number of slaves varies much in the different provinces ; it is largest in 
Rio de Janeiro and the Minas Geraes. The population of Rio in 1810 
was estimated at forty thousand, in 1838 it was two hundred and fifty 
thousand. In Appendix XXI. will be found a statement of the popula- 
tion that may be considered semi-official. 

The national debt of Brazil amounts to one hundred million milrees, 
or sixty million dollars. The revenue was about sixteen millions of 
dollars for 1838. It is derived principally from exports and imports. 
A statement of the quantities of produce exported in the above year, 
will be found in Appendix XXII. I was not able to obtain those of the 
imports. The expenditures of the government are fixed by law at 
about the same sum. All appropriations are specific. 

The imports amounted to over twenty millions of dollars. The 
amount of exports is variously stated. Coffee is the great staple, and 
more than one hundred and twenty millions of pounds were exported 
in 1838. It is derived from the central provinces, and the exports of 
it have more than doubled within the last ten years. The exports of 
the southern provinces are mostly confined to hides and tallow ; those of 
the northern, to sugar, cotton, and tobacco. 

The trade with the United States has greatly increased. Within the 
last few years, from one hundred and sixty to one hundred and seventy 
American vessels take and bring cargoes to and from the United 
States, and some foreign vessels are engaged in the same trade. The 
consumption of American flour in Rio and the neighbouring country, 
has been during the same year, about one hundred and twenty thousand 
barrels. 

The state of this country and the southern republics, renders it 
highly necessary that a suitable naval force should be employed on 
this coast for the protection of our increasing trade. 

The currency of the country is in paper and copper. Gold and 
silver coins are articles of traffic, and fluctuate in value : few or none 
of these are in circulation. The bank issues notes of milrees, which 
also fluctuate. The usual value of a milree is from sixty to seventy 
cents. One thousand five hundred ries are equal to a dollar. 

Printed books of all kinds are allowed to be brought into the country. 
Those of foreign origin are not under censorship. 

The great drawback to the facility of business is the number of 
holidays on which the custom-house is closed, and all business 



88 POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 

suspended. These amount to about one hundred days in the year 
These holidays are a great alleviation to the labour of the slave. 

Foreign merchants reside in the country, in the neighbourhood of 
the city. 

During our stay in Rio, George Smith, a seaman, while employed 
on board of one of the lighters in charge of Midshipman May, fell 
overboard and was accidentally struck with an oar ; Midshipman May, 
in a praiseworthy manner, jumped overboard to his relief, but did not 
succeed in saving him, for he sank immediately and was drowned. 

The delays in Rio had no effect upon the general health of the 
squadron, although I was fearful such might be the case, not only 
from the heat of the climate, but the copious draughts of aguardiente 
with which the foreigners supply the sailors. 

I found it necessary here to increase the crews of the ships, and 
applied to Commodore Nicolson, commander on the Brazil station, for 
that purpose. Thirty men were supplied the squadron. They were 
the most indifferent and worthless set, with two or three exceptions, 
we ever had on board. They were almost the only persons attached 
to the vessels on whom it became necessary to inflict punishment. 

The markets are abundantly supplied with fish, beef, and poultry. 
Vegetables are to be had in abundance, and are all sold in the streets. 

On the 26th, the Peacock and tenders returned, and brought their 
work up to the observatory at Enxados Island. Captain Hudson had 
not been able to examine the St. Thomas Shoal. Having lost five 
days in consequence of bad weather, it became impossible to accom- 
plish it within the given time.* During his progress, he had lost an 
anchor, which, when hove up, was found to have been broken off at 
the shank. Application was immediately made to the government 
for one, which request was very obligingly and promptly replied to, by 
desiring us to select one of a suitable size from those in the dock-yard. 

By the last of December we had completed all our scientific duties. 
These consisted of a series of pendulum observations ; those for 
longitude by moon culminating stars; circummeridian observations 
for latitude ; magnetic dip, intensity, diurnal variation ; and others, 
including tides, and solar and terrestrial radiation. We now made 
every preparation for sea. 

* The measurement of the whole distance by sound, when reduced, gave 1 08' 52" 8"' 
for the difference of meridians. Each distance between the vessels was the mean of about 
thirty observations. The longitude of Cape Frio Light, deduced from that of Enxados, 
which had been ascertained by moon culminating stars to be in 43 09' 06" 67'" west of 
Greenwich, is, therefore, 42 00' 13" 87"' W. For the particulars and a diagram of this 
work, see Appendix XXIII. 



POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 



89 



On the 5th of January the Porpoise was ordered to drop down near 
a slaver, on board of which it was reported some of our men had been 
smuggled, to form a part of her crew. She was boarded, and though 
the captain denied that they were on board, after a search two were 
found. One of them was a black, who had himself been a slave, yet 
he had been induced to enter for the purpose of carrying on this 
nefarious traffic. This was the brig Fox, and though undoubtedly 
fitted for a slaver, she sailed under English colours. It was given out 
that she was bound for New Zealand. 

On the 6th of January, every thing being ready, we weighed 
anchor, and dropped down the harbour. On passing the Indepen- 
dence, we were saluted with six cheers, which were returned with 
enthusiasm. 

There is no difficulty in beating out of the harbour of Rio, with a 
ship of any class, although vessels sail generally in the morning, 
with the land-breeze. The breeze failing, we anchored without the 
harbour, and I took this opportunity of sending back the Flying-Fish, 
in order to recover some of our men who had absented themselves. 
Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold took charge of her, and effected the 
object without difficulty. During this time I employed the officers in 
measuring the height of the Sugar Loaf again for exercise. 

In the evening we weighed anchor, and stood to the southward on 
our course. 




PALACE. 



VOL. I. 



H2 



12 



CHAPTER V. 



CONTENTS. 

PASSAGE TO RIO NEGRO - ARRIVAL THERE-GUACHOS-EXCURSION OF THE NATU- 
RALISTSSALT AND SALT LAKES GOVERNMENT AND POPULATION PRODUCTIONS- 
TARIFF INDIANS WANT OF ENTERPRISE DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY RIVER 
AND TIDES CLIMATE VEGETATION TRADE -HARBOUR -SQUADRON DRIVEN TO 
SEA-DANGERS IN SURVEYING - CONVICT SETTLEMENT - COMMUNICATION WITH 
BUENOS AYRES DEPARTURE FROM RIO NEGRO STATEN LAND STRAITS OF LE 
MAIRE APPEARANCE OF TERRA DEL FUEGO ITS HARBOUR PARHELION MIRAGE- 
MEETING WITH THE RELIEF HER DEPARTURE FROM RIO CURRENT RIO PLATA- 
CAPE RAZA-APE ST. JOSEPH-CAPE THREE POINTS-DREDGING-BELLACO ROCKS- 
CAPE ST. DIEGO GOOD SUCCESS BAY - CAPTAIN KING'S SAILING DIRECTIONS- 
NATIVES - INTERCOURSE WITH THEM -BOTANY -GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION -NEW 
ISLAND-ITS POSITION-ARRIVAL AT ORANGE HARBOUR-EMPLOYMENTS. 



(91) 



CHAPTEK V. 

RIO NEGRO. 

1839. 

THE winds proved light and variable during our passage to Rio 
Negro, and we occasionally experienced a southwesterly current, of 
little strength. On the 18th January, when seventy-eight miles 
distant from the mouth of the Rio la Plata, we passed through the 
discoloured water of that river. Its temperature was 4 less than that 
of the surrounding sea. After getting to the southward of the river, 
the direction of the current changed, and it was found to be setting to 
the northward. 

Towards evening, on the 19th, we met many discoloured patches 

in the water, and found they proceeded from a species of Salpse, which 

we had not before seen. When the night closed in, the sea became 

very luminous, the vessels in passing through the water leaving long 

bright trains behind them. Vivid lightning in the west showed a dark 

bank of clouds, betokening a storm. About 10 o'clock p. M., a haze 

suddenly enveloped us; the temperature of both air and water fell 

from 67 to 57, ten degrees, giving a cold clammy feeling to the air. 

The water became quite smooth, and the breeze died away ; all on 

deck seemed awakened to a sense of danger. We immediately 

shortened sail and sounded, but found no bottom with one hundred 

and fifty fathoms of line. The vessels of the squadron came up in close 

order, sailing as it were in a sea of silver, from the light of which 

their forms became visible. The effect was beautiful, and increased 

the mysterious and alarming sensation. Shortly after, we had a 

change of wind to the southwest, followed by a dense fog, which 

lasted for a day ; but the temperature of both air and water remained 

six to eight degrees colder, until the 23d, when it again rose to the 

height it had been before. 

(93) 



94 RIONEGRO. 

I have little doubt but this remarkable change and fall of tempera- 
ture, were caused by the near approach to icebergs, some of which 
have been at times seen nearly in this latitude, 38 55' S., longitude 
54 30' W. After this we had fine pleasant weather, until our arrival 
off the Rio Negro, the temperature of the air and water having fallen 
ten degrees during our progress from Rio. 

On the 22d we experienced a heavy dew. Our observations con- 
firmed the remarks of Captain King, that it is accompanied by a 
northerly wind, or change to that quarter. 

We next passed over the position assigned the Ariel Rocks on the 
charts, and sailed two degrees on their parallel, but saw no indication 
of them. 

In approaching the coast, the soundings were remarkably regular, 
decreasing about a fathom in three miles. After passing to the south 
of the river La Plata, they were composed of fine gray sand, with 
pebbles and shells, while to the north they were of blue mud. Sound- 
ings were had in fifty fathoms water, one hundred and fifty miles off 
the coast. 

On the 25th we discovered the coast, which is a line of low sand- 
hills, without trees, and it exhibits little appearance of vegetation. In 
the evening we anchored off the bar, in eight fathoms water, just after 
which we experienced one of the remarkable squalls of this coast, that 
rose from the southward and westward : it was attended with much 
lightning and thunder ; quantities of sand and insects were blown off 
from the land ; but little rain fell. The barometer indicated this squall 
by a depression of two-tenths of an inch. The wind soon changed 
and brought fine weather, the thermometer falling six degrees during 
the change. 

Having been led to believe we should be boarded by pilots on our 
anchoring off the bar, I was a good deal surprised to find none, and 
no endeavour making to board us, although the sea was quite smooth. 
The only appearances of inhabitants which we could see with our 
telescopes, were a few horsemen suspiciously reconnoitring us from 
the flagstaff on the top of the hill. I then concluded to despatch the 
Sea-Gull under Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold into the river, for 
the purpose of having communication with the town, directing him to 
take the channel leading to the northward and westward, as shown 
by the only chart we had, whilst I followed in the Flying-Fish, with 
the scientific gentlemen ; it proved to be the wrong one, and on the 
tide falling the schooners both grounded. Our situation was not the 
most agreeable ; for, in the event of the sea rising, we should have 
been exposed to all the fury of the surf, without any escape from the 



RIONEGRO. 95 

numerous sand-bars. It became necessary, as the tide rose, to make 
the river. The Sea-Gull having got off, I put the scientific gentlemen 
on board of her, and ordered Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold to 
proceed in, keeping in what the chart pointed out as the channel-way 
and deepest water. He finally succeeded in getting into the river, 
after thumping heavily over a sand-bar, with some fears on the part 
of the passengers, but without injury to the vessel, and anchored, after 
dark, about half a mile up the river. 

During this time an amusing occurrence took place in the road- 
stead. I had directed Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold, in case of 
accident or requiring aid, to make signal, that I might order boats at 
once to his assistance. When the night closed in, the signal was 
seen ; when the requisite signal was made from the Flying-Fish to the 
different vessels to send boats to assist. The commanding officer's 
mind being somewhat impressed with an idea of the hostility of those 
on shore, he concluded the boats were required to repel an attack, and 
had them fully armed; in this state they were met in a short time 
exerting themselves to their fullest strength at the oars, to be in time 
to take part in the expected fray, and appeared greatly disappointed 
when it proved a false alarm, and that none was to take place. 

Shortly after the schooner anchored, a voice was heard from the 
shore, ordering a boat to be sent immediately, when a party landed, 
but no one was found to receive them. Seeing a light at a distance, 
they proceeded towards it : it proved to be the pilot's house, a long 
low barn-like building ; but no inhabitants were visible, and none 
made their appearance until our party had taken a survey of the 
premises. The furniture was of a rude and scanty description; a 
table, bench, two or three bunks in one corner, and in another a 
number of arms, consisting of cutlasses, carbines, and pikes, in good 
order ; in the others, various accoutrements. The two pilots, one an 
Englishman and the other a Frenchman, with a negro, then made their 
appearance, and unravelled the mystery, by informing them that the 
vessels had been mistaken for the French squadron, and much alarm 
had been created by our visit ; they also said that the guard of about 
thirty Guachos were in ambush near where they landed, with the in- 
tention of cutting our party off; but hearing them speaking English, 
they found to their satisfaction that they were not French. They also 
stated that all the inhabitants living near the mouth of the river had 
fled to the town, and that most of the women and children in the town 
were hurrying off to the interior. They were likewise employed 
driving off the cattle, and preparing to fire the country, the usual mode 
of warfare, and were rejoiced to identify us as Americans. 



96 RIO NEGRO. 

All this accounted for the reconnoitring that we had observed, and 
our not being able to obtain a pilot. What still more alarmed them 
was the different vessels firing whilst surveying, and our making the 
attempt to force the passage in the small vessels. 

The captain of the coast guard now afforded all facilities, and a 
pilot for the schooner was sent on board to take her up the river, and 
horses and guides were furnished for a party to visit the town. 

The next morning a detachment of lancers arrived from the 
governor, with orders not to allow our vessels to proceed up, and that the 
pilot should come on shore, which effectually put a stop to our plans ; 
when Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold determined to go by land. 

It caused much alarm to the pilot, who entreated the officers to 
intercede with the governor in his behalf, and for that of the captain 
of the coast guard, stating that their lives would be forfeited for having 
attempted to pilot a vessel without the governor's orders. After some 
delay, a party proceeded to Carmen, under the escort of Guachos, to 
wait on the governor or commandant. On their way they met with 
a cordial welcome from all they passed, as the minds of all were now 
entirely relieved from fear, and great delight was expressed at seeing 
the North Americans. 

These Guachos are generally well made, tall and muscular, with 
swarthy complexions, black eyes, and long hair, very large mustachios 
and remarkably small feet. Their costume is a red striped shirt, and 
white drawers, large, loose, and fringed at the bottom of the leg, called 
calwncillas. Their trousers (chilipa) consist of two yards of scarlet 
cloth, which is sometimes ornamented at the corners; to form this 
into any thing like a garment appeared strange enough ; yet, when it 
is on the wearer, it has the appearance of a pair of Turkish trousers. 
The mode in which it is put on is to confine the ends round the waist 
by a girdle (triando), the middle of the cloth passing down between 
the legs, while the ends fall over the girdle. On the head was worn a 
red conical cap surmounted by a tassel. 

Their riding boots or leggings are made of the hide from the leg of 
a horse. This is stripped off and put on the leg while yet green, 
where it is suffered to dry, and remain until worn out. They fit very 
closely to the foot, like a stocking. The two largest toes of each foot 
were uncovered, for the convenience of putting them into the stirrup, 
which is only large enough to admit them. A long knife in the girdle 
completes the dress. 

During the time of our stay, the naturalists ranged the country in 
the vicinity, and the officers were engaged in making a survey of the 
roadstead and bar. 



RIO NEGRO. 



97 



The road to El Carmen is on the north bank of the river, over a 
range of downs, the south side being low. The river continues, about, 
one-third of a mile wide, flowing in a broad, still current. There are 
no trees to be seen in the landscape. 

On their way, the party stopped at several estancias. These are 
houses built of adobes or unburnt brick, divided into two or three 
apartments, without floor, ceiling, or furniture, and with a few out- 




GOVERNOR'S ESTANCIA. 

houses for the horses and slaves, and a coural for the cattle, formed 
of high poles, placed so near as to prevent the cattle from breaking 
through ; the poles are from four to six inches in diameter, and from 
twenty to thirty feet high. They were met on the way by the minister 
of finance or collector, whose interrogations were satisfactorily an- 
swered ; they were then allowed again to proceed. 

The next person whom they encountered was an American, Dr. 
Ducatel, who was especially despatched by the governor; he an- 
nounced himself as a physician and a citizen of the United States. 
His appearance was unlike both. He was dressed in the chilipa and 
calzoncillas, in the full costume, and had the appearance, of the 
Guachos. His skill was much vaunted by his attendants. We 
afterwards understood that the doctor, having picked up a smattering 
of physic, and wishing to acquire a fortune, had gone to Buenos Ayres 
to seek one. There he accidentally heard of the want of Rio Negro in 
that respect ; he embarked for that place with an ample store of drugs, 
and established himself as apothecary, surgeon, and physician. He is 
reported as having done well for some time, notwithstanding the 
healthiness of the climate and place, until the troubles at Buenos Ayres 
with the French, when the communication with the city being cut off*, 
had prevented him from obtaining his usual supplies, and the troops 
from receiving their pay. With the former he had lost the means of 

VOL. z. 13 



98 RIO NEGRO. 

curing his patients, and with the latter the remuneration that was due 
him. He had therefore, to use his own term, " retired from business," 
and lived several miles from the town, husbanding his estate, which 
consisted of an estancia, as above described, and his demands upon 
the government and soldiers. 

Under his escort they arrived at the pueblo, consisting of a few 
rows of mud and brick huts, scattered without any regularity over a 
sandy declivity by the side of the river. 

On the opposite slope was the fort, an enclosure of some extent, in 
which were seen the house of the governor and the barracks. A 
presentation to the Governor-General, Juan Jose Hernandez, now took 
place. He, on being informed of our character, and the object of our 
visit, received our officers in a most courteous and friendly manner. 
He is a native of Buenos Ayres, of dignified manners, polite and 
courteous, and invested with great authority. The officers were invited 
to dine with him, and received his hospitality. 

The doctor now undertook to show them the " lions" of the place, 
and carried them to the part of the town nearest the river, in which 
were the only two houses built of red brick. There they were 
introduced to an old Portuguese, who kept the only mercantile 
establishment in the place. It was a small store, said to have a very 
promiscuous assortment of goods, though the stock had become some- 
what reduced; as an evidence of which, a few of the inhabitants 
applied to be furnished with pairs of pantaloons from on board ship, 
for their own were worn out, and the only articles of dry-goods at 
present in the store, were three or four yards of calico. 

An American by the name of Adams, who was absent at the time 
of our visit, has engrossed all the trade and business of this place, and 
no other vessels but those in which he is interested had traded with it 
for the last two years, with the exception of two whale-ships, in 1837 
and 1838; on them a duty of twelve and a half cents per ton was 
levied, although their sole object was to obtain fresh provisions. This, 
together with the difficult and changing bar, will always prevent their 
resorting to this port. 

The inducements for a merchant vessel to visit this port are few ; 
for it would be difficult to dispose of even the most necessary articles. 
in consequence of the poverty of the place ; and there is no possibility 
of obtaining any thing in return, except salt. Of this there are several 
cargoes in stack along the banks of the river, which it is said could 
be delivered on board for twenty cents per bushel. It is obtained 
from the salt, lakes, or salinas, on the Campos, and is transported to 



RIONEGRO. 99 

the river in ox-carts. I regretted extremely that I had not time to 
spare to send a party to explore them, in order to have ascertained 
the extent of the staple commodity of this port. 

These salt lakes are known to be numerous throughout the Pampas, 
and within a few leagues of the town of El Carmen there are four, 
from two to three leagues in circumference, from which salt has been 
taken, besides many others of smaller dimensions. From the largest 
of these, the salt that is exported from the Rio Negro is mostly 
obtained. In dry weather it is said to form very rapidly, so much so 
that it may at times be gathered daily, and that it attains the thickness 
of two inches in twenty-four hours. How far this is true, I will not 
pretend to vouch. Still more wonderful stories are told of the larger 
lakes in the interior ; of their being ten leagues in circumference ; and 
they are described as being covered with a crust of dazzling whiteness, 
so strong that a horse and rider may pass over it without leaving an 
impression. In heavy rains these lakes are converted into morasses 
of black mud, which, as the water evaporates, becomes encrusted with 
salt. The salt is beautifully white and finely crystallized, and requires 
no purification before carrying it to market. The specimens were 
thought to equal in purity those from our own springs. The general 
belief relative to these salt lakes is, that 'the salt is disseminated 
through the soil, no salt in a solid state having yet been found in any 
part of the country. No satisfactory information could be obtained 
relative to their having become weaker, as the only person who was 
able to give this information was Mr. Adams, who, as I mentioned 
before, was absent. 

It appears that the policy of the present government of Buenos 
Ayres has been to discourage the raising of cattle and the exportation 
of hides from this place, in order, it is said, to concentrate the trade 
at Buenos Ayres. The large herds that were formerly kept in this 
country are now reduced to comparatively few. 

None of the government officers have received any salaries for the 
last eighteen months. 

There are about two thousand inhabitants within a circuit of eighty 
miles, exclusive of a few roving Indians. The population of Carmen 
is about five hundred. There are five Americans residing here, who 
state that they enjoy all the protection that the government can give, 
and that they are well treated. 

The Rio Negro is navigable for boats to the village of Chichula, 
two hundred miles from its mouth. 

The distance across the country to Buenos Ayres is but five hun- 
dred miles, yet it requires fifteen days to communicate with it ; the 



100 RIO NEGRO. 

governor had received no advices or information for the last two 
months from that place. The route is very uncertain, owing to the 
hordes of hostile Indians. 

Grain, fruit, and vegetables thrive well, and with proper industry 
might be produced in abundance. 

The climate is delightful, and cold weather is seldom felt, although 
ice has occasionally been seen a quarter of an inch in thickness. 

Bullocks and horses are the principal articles of trade ; indeed they 
constitute the legal tender of the country. The former are worth 
from five to ten dollars, according to age ; wild horses, two or three 
dollars, and if broken to the saddle, ten or fifteen. 

The tariff of duties is the same as at Buenos Ayres, but the late 
reduction of thirty-three per cent, during the blockade did not extend 
to this place. 

The Indians that are accustomed to visit this place (Carmen) for 
the purpose of war or trade are of four different tribes, viz., Pampas, 
Ancases, Tehuiliches or Teheulehes, and Chilenos. The two former 
occupy the territory to the north of the Rio Negro as far as the Rio 
Colorado. The Tehuiliches are from the mountains to the south, and 
the Chilenos from the southwest. 

During the infancy of the settlement, and until of late years, these 
Indians were extremely troublesome, making descents upon the place, 
and ravaging the outposts, waylaying all who were not on their 
guard, killing them, and retreating rapidly on their wild steeds, with 
their booty, to the pampas and mountains. The Spaniards frequently 
retaliated, and by the superiority of their arms and discipline, inflicted 
summary punishment on them. The last attack of the Indians was 
made in 1832, when they met with such an overwhelming defeat, that 
they have not ventured to make another ; yet the garrison is always 
kept in anxiety for fear of attacks. 

The weapons usual in their warfare are a long lance and the 
ballos, such as is used in taking the ostrich and throwing cattle, which 
they use with great dexterity. This consists of a thong of hide, four 
feet in length, with a leaden ball at each end, which the horseman 
grasps in the middle, and gives the balls a rotary motion by whirling 
them above his head, then dashing on to the attack, he throws it when 
within range with unerring aim, and seldom fails to disable his 
enemy. The Indians who are most feared are the Chilenos. The 
Tehuiliches, notwithstanding their immense size, are considered little 
better than cowards. 

All the information gained here tended to confirm the general 
impression that the Tehuiliches or Patagonians are above the ordinary 



RIO NEGRO. 101 

height of men, generally above six feet ; and the minister asserted that 
he had often seen them above seven English feet. We had not any 
personal opportunity to verify this statement, the Indians being only in 
the habit of visiting this post once a year, to obtain supplies, viz., in 
the month of March, at which time a vessel usually visits the place. 

The few Indians who inhabit the huts or toldos on the opposite side 
of the river, are converted, and are termed Indios Mansos ; they are 
a mixture of all the tribes, and so much changed in habits and dress 
from their former condition and mode of life, that an accurate idea 
could not be formed of their natural character. They were none of 
them above the middle height ; their limbs were usually full and well 
formed; their complexion a brownish copper, with coarse straight 
black hair, growing very low on the forehead : this is suffered to grow 
long, and hangs down on both sides of the face, adding much to the 
wildness of their appearance. Their foreheads are low and narrow 
towards the top, their eyes small, black, and deep set. Some were 
observed with their eyes set Chinese-like. The resemblance was 
somewhat increased by the width of the face, which was a particular 
characteristic. The nose is usually a little flattened at the root, and 
wide at the nostrils, the lips full, and the chin not prominent. The 
expressions of their countenance betoken neither intellect nor vivacity. 
The men were generally decked out in tawdry finery, partly after, the 
Spanish fashion; the women had only the chilipa to cover their 
nakedness. 

Of the Ancases very little appears to be known ; they live towards 
the north, speak a peculiar language, and are inferior to the rest in 
stature. 

The Chilenos are derived from the western side of the continent, 
and are predatory bands of the great Araucanian nation. 

The Peulches, including the Pampas and Tehuiliches, Falkner, in 
his account of this country, describes as inhabiting the portion south 
of the Rio de la Plata, and to the east of the Cordilleras ; they are 
scattered over the vast plains of the interior. Those to the north of 
the Rio Colorado are generally known under the name of the Pampas 
Indians ; they call themselves Chechehets. Those to the south of that 
river are termed Tehuiliches ; they inhabit the table-land between the 
Cordilleras, and the desert plains of the coast. 

These people are represented as of gigantic stature, and it is said 
by the residents, that those from the south are generally taller than 
those from any other part, and Indians are said to have been met with 
who are distinguished for their gigantic height and well-formed limbs ; 
but this rests on vague authority. 
12 



102 



RIO NEGRO. 



Our philologist related an anecdote of a young Indian, who had 
learned the Spanish tongue, whom he had been questioning relative 
to his language, in order to obtain a certain class of phrases. After 
having written down a word, in repeating it, he connected it with 
some adjunct, as my father, his house, this knife. The Indian mistook 
his meaning, and immediately took fire at the supposed insult, thinking 
that the correctness of what he had said was doubted, and that the 
object was to entrap him in a falsehood. It was with some difficulty 
that he was pacified. 

The Guachos and Indians are of course good horsemen, being 
trained to it from their infancy. Indeed they may be said to live on 
horseback, and it is very seldom that they are seen to walk any 
distance, however short. 

Their dress, although uncouth and ill-arranged, is comfortable, and 
picturesque when they are on horseback, particularly when at full 
speed in search of a bullock to lasso. The ease and nonchalance 
with which a Guacho mounts his steed, arranges himself in the 
saddle, quietly trotting off", lasso in hand, to select his victim, and 
detach it from the herd ; then the eager chase, the furious speed of 
the horse, the flying dress of the Guacho, with upraised arm whirling 
his lasso, the terror of the animal, the throw of the lasso, and instan- 
taneous overthrow of the bullock, all the work of an instant, excited 
both our admiration and astonishment. Nothing can exceed the ani- 
mation of both horse and rider on these occasions. 




GUACHO. 



Mr. Waldron, our purser, made an endeavour to purchase some 
vegetables for the crews, from an estancia on the river-side, of which 
an old Spaniard was the owner, thus affording him an opportunity of 



RIO NEGRO. 103 

disposing of many of them ; but the conditions were, that the articles 
must be on the beach in a few hours, which was ample time to have 
dug up an acre. As soon, however, as he learned these terms, he 
shrugged his shoulders, and declared the thing impossible, took down 
his guitar, seated himself in front of his house, and began to play a 
lively air, which his two sons accompanied with their voices. 

The coast and the banks of the Rio Negro are composed of sand- 
hills, of from thirty to fifty feet in height, covered with a scattered 
growth of grass, which prevents the sand from blowing away. These 
gradually rise to the height of one hundred feet, except to the south- 
ward of the river, where the bank is perpendicular ; at this height the 
ground stretches away in a level prairie, without a single tree to break 
the monotony of the scene, and affords a view as uninterrupted as the 
ocean. 

The apparent hills along the river are found to be no more than the 
face of the excavation made or worn down by the river, forming the 
valley through which it flows. 

The only verdure on the prairie is a small shrub, which when the 
lower branches are trimmed off serves a useful purpose. From an 
optical illusion, (the effect of refraction,) they appear, when thus 
trimmed, as large as an ordinary sized apple-tree, and one is not a 
little surprised to find them, on a near approach, no higher than the 
surrounding shrubs, four or five feet. Shrubs are trimmed in this 
manner at distances of about half a mile from each other, and are 
used as guide-posts on the prairie. A similar optical effect is spoken 
of by travellers on the steppes of Russia. 

Game is most plentiful, consisting of deer, guanacoes, and cavias, 
cassowaries, partridges, bustards, ducks, &c. Armadillos were com- 
mon, and the ostrich was frequently seen ; porcupines are said also to 
be found. The cavias were seen running about in single file, with a 
sort of halting gait. 

The soil of the Campos was mostly a mixture of clay, sand, and 
small pebbles, but is destitute of vegetable mould. They have the 
practice of burning the prairies in order to produce a new crop of 
sweet and nutritious grass for the cattle. The rock of the cliff, and 
along the river where it can be seen, is a soft, gray sandstone, in some 
places so friable as to be easily crumbled between the fingers, while 
other specimens are of sufficient hardness for building-stone. The 
stratification is perfectly horizontal. 

The width of the river is less than a third of a mile ; it has a rapid 
current, and a large body of water is carried by it to the ocean. The 
ordinary tide is about eight feet rise, and the spring tides fourteen feet. 



104 RIO NEGRO. 

The current is mostly downward, although the tide is felt about ten 
miles above its mouth. The ebb sets off shore some three or four 
miles, and may be known by the discoloration of the water, which 
just without the bar is comparatively fresh. The depth at high water 
on the bar is two and a half fathoms, and the bar is a changing one. 

No springs were observed in the vicinity, or any trace of running 
water, except in the river. The water from the rains collects in the 
depressions, and forms large ponds, covering acres of ground, but only 
a few inches in depth. 

The time of our visit corresponded in season to our midsummer 
months, and the mean temperature was found to be 73. The winters 
are represented as very mild ; snow does fall, but it disappears in a 
few hours. Ice is seldom seen, though frosts appear to be frequent in 
the winter. January, February, March, and April, are the least tem- 
pestuous months. 

The vegetation of the upland bears the marks of long-continued 
droughts, in an absence of trees, and the roots of plants penetrating 
vertically. The stunted appearance of the shrubs, branching from 
their base, their branches dense, rigid, and impenetrable, usually 
growing into spines; the smallness of the leaves, and their texture 
which is dry, coriaceous, and hardly deciduous; together with the 
general brown aspect of the landscape, all denote a vegetation adapted 
to endure or escape drought. 

There was formerly some trade here with Boston and New York, in 
hides, horns, bones, and tallow, in exchange for cotton and woollen 
goods of a warm fabric, hardware, crockery, boots and shoes, a few 
articles of furniture, spirits, and tobacco, all of which are bartered at 
an enormous profit. Considerable quantities of salt are shipped round to 
Buenos Ayres. Vessels discharging or taking in a cargo here, pay 
twelve and a half cents per ton. Vessels stopping without discharging 
pay half duty ; vessels for refreshments are permitted to remain twenty- 
five days free of duty, after that time they pay half duty. This duty 
includes pilotage and all other charges ; but the governor seems to have 
the power to exact the full duty whenever he thinks proper. 

Sarsaparilla abounds in this section of the country. 

As the bar is a shifting one, no permanent directions can be given, 
nor can any survey be relied on. The annual freshets and gales of 
wind that take place from May to October, often change the position 
of the bar. According to the pilots, it had recently undergone a 
change, and the depth of water was three feet less on it than had been 
before. Even the direction had been altered from southeast-by-south, 
to southeast, by compass. 



RIO NEGRO. 105 

The week we .ay off the bar, we experienced much fog, and found 
the current strong, two and a half knots on the flood and ebb. The 
former runs to the southwest, the latter in the contrary direction. The 
roadstead may be considered a very unsafe anchorage, except in the 
fine season. The gales come from the southeast, with a heavy sea. 
By taking advantage of the flood tide, and standing off to the southward 
and eastward, there will be found little difficulty in getting off shore, to 
avoid the danger a vessel would be exposed to. 

While engaged at this place, I felt great uneasiness for the safety of 
the boats, the officers employed having but little experience in managing 
them. The fogs and strong current rendered it extremely difficult to 
proceed rapidly with our survey : many of the boats were detained out 
over night, and others reached the ship with difficulty. 

On the night of the 30th of January, the weather assumed a 
threatening appearance. The wind changed to the eastward, with a 
falling barometer ; the sea rising, accompanied by a heavy fog, with 
the absence of three boats, caused me much anxiety. During the night 
the wind increased to a gale from the southeast. At daylight the 
Peacock made signal that the boats had reached her in safety. It had 
now became necessary for the squadron to leave this dangerous 
anchorage. Taking advantage of the tide, we effected it without diffi- 
culty, getting off under our storm-sails; three of the vessels were 
obliged to slip their cables. The barometer during the gale fell to 
29-600 in., which was lower than we had seen it since our departure 
from the United States. Towards evening, when the weather mode- 
rated, we again sought our anchorage. One of the boats returned to 
the Vincennes with but half her crew ; the rest, it was reported to me, 
had deserted. Two boats with officers were accordingly despatched 
for the purpose of apprehending them, as soon as we anchored. The 
men were found by the Guachos without difficulty. They accounted 
for their absence, that they had, while waiting on the beach, been 
enticed into the interior in chase of some game ; and the fog coming on 
suddenly, they had lost their way, missed the boat, and were obliged to 
pass the night on the prairie. The boats in returning to the ships 
narrowly escaped accident in passing through the rollers on the bar, 
and it was with great difficulty they reached the ship at midnight. 
Their lengthened absence caused no little anxiety for their safety to all 
on board. 

Dr. Pickering on this occasion at my request visited a cave he had 
mentioned to me as existing, for the purpose of ascertaining its tempe- 
rature, believing it would give some more accurate information as to 
VOL. i. 14 



106 RIO NEGRO. 

the mean temperature of the climate at this season. It was found to be 
70, in a horizontal hole, twelve feet from the surface. 

On the 1st February, the Peacock, Porpoise, and tenders, were 
engaged looking for their anchors ; the latter regained theirs, but the 
former was lost, the buoy having sunk. 

El Carmen may be termed a convict settlement ; for culprits and 
exiles are sent here from Buenos Ayres. The garrison is composed of 
about two hundred soldiers, principally African and Brazilian slaves 
brought here during the Banda Oriental war. Among them we found 
a person who called himself an American, from Rhode Island, by name 
Benjamin Harden, junior, who was desirous of claiming our protection. 
He was of small stature, slender make, and a light complexion, with a 
mild expression of countenance, and about thirty years of age. His 
story was, that he had been by chance in Buenos Ayres at the time 
when the government was in want of troops, and that he was seized 
and compelled to enlist. On inquiring, however, of the governor, it 
proved that he had been engaged in a riot at Buenos Ayres, in which 
he had killed two or three men, and committed other outrages, for 
which he had been condemned to death, but on the intercession of a 
friend, the sentence was commuted to that of exile as a soldier at this 
place. His farther history is, that not long since he formed the plan 
of deserting with another convict, by seizing an English trading vessel, 
in the absence of the captain and part of the crew, and making off with 
her, which he was fully able to accomplish, being an excellent sailor. 
The night however before the day fixed on for the execution of this 
plan, he got intoxicated, discovered the whole design, and received the 
severe punishment of twelve hundred lashes, at three different times. 

On the morning of the departure of the schooner, he effected his 
escape from the town, and swam off to the schooner. He was recog- 
nised by an officer, who knew his history in part, namely, that he had 
become a robber and a murderer, and had been an outcast from his 
father's house for fifteen years. He was told that he could not be 
received on board, and a boat landed him again. 

On the 3d of February we got under way, and were glad to leave 
so exposed and unpleasant an anchorage. 

On the 4th and 5th, we experienced a heavy sea from the south- 
ward, with much wind. 

Finding the tenders were much distressed while keeping company 
with the ships in the heavy sea, I made signal to them to make the 
best of their way to Orange Harbour, judging that I should thus save 
much time, as well as great wear and tear to the vessels : they would 



RIO NEGRO. 107 

also, by arriving before the squadron, materially aid it by acting as 
pilots, in case we should need such guidance. On the 6th the weather 
began to moderate, and the wind to haul to the westward. Shortly 
afterwards we had strong winds accompanied with rain. The lower 
scud was seen passing rapidly from the nortlrward and westward, 
whilst the upper scud was moving from the south-southwest. We 
found the current setting to the north-by-east, about fifteen miles in 
twenty-four hours. 

On the 8th we had a sudden fall of the barometer to 29-500 in., but 
without any change in the weather except fog and mist. The wind 
was from the west-northwest. On the llth, the wind hauled to the 
southwest, when the barometer began to rise, and the weather to clear 
off. On the 12th, the barometer again fell to 29-500 in., which brought 
thick weather and rain, with a heavy bank of cumuli to the southward 
and westward, a precursor of bad weather. In a few hours we had 
heavy squalls, with hail and rain, the weather becoming sensibly colder. 
Temperature 46. The next morning we made Staten Land, and 
soon afterwards Cape St. Diego, Tierra del Fuego. The land was 
broken, high, and desolate. The Straits of Le Maire were before us : 
we were just in time to take the tide, and with a fair wind we sailed 
rapidly through the strait, passing its whirls and eddies, now quite 
smooth, but in a short time to become vexed and fretted by the 
returning tide. The squadron glided along with all its canvass spread 
to -the breeze, scarcely making a ripple under the bows. The day 
was a remarkably fine one for this climate, and the sight beautiful, 
notwithstanding the desolate appearance of the shores. 

I cannot see why there should be any objection to the passage 
through the Straits of Le Maire, as it gives a vessel a much better 
chance of making the passage round the cape quickly. No danger 
exists here that I know of. A vessel with the tide will pass through 
in a few hours. As for the " race and dangerous sea," I have fully 
experienced it in the Porpoise on the side of Staten Land ; and am well 
satisfied that any vessel may pass safely through it, at all times and in 
all weathers, or if not so disposed, may wait a few hours until the sea 
subsides, and the tide changes. We were only three hours in passing 
through. We entered the straits with studding-sails set, and left them 
under close-reefed topsails. Squalls issuing from the ravines were 
frequent and severe, and were accompanied occasionally by a little 
snow. The barometer had fallen to 29-250 in. Contrary to my 
expectations, we had on the next day delightful weather, with light and 
variable winds from the eastward, and at times calms. This gave me 
an opportunity of examining the currents. Many rips were observed, 



108 RIO NEGRO. 

and it was found, as the vessels were on different sides of them, they 
were set in opposite directions. The current on the outside of a line 
drawn from Cape Good Success to Cape Horn sets to the eastward, 
and vessels sailing to the westward would greatly facilitate their 
passage by beating within this line, taking advantage of the tide on 
its ebb, and passing between the Hermit Islands and the main through 
Nassau Bay, if the time is at all favourable for it. In case of necessity, 
they may obtain good anchorage. 

To the eastward of Cape Horn I obtained a sounding with the deep 
sea thermometer to the depth of four hundred and fifty fathoms. The 
temperature at the surface was 44, and when the thermometer came 
up it showed but 28. The sounding was perpendicular, and the 
thermometer had been examined by two or three persons before going 
down, so that we were assured there was no mistake. So remarkable 
a circumstance surprised me not a little. It was too late to attempt 
another sounding that night, and I regretted in the morning to find 
myself on soundings in eighty fathoms water. The temperature at 
that depth did not fall below 46, whilst at the surface it was at 49. 

The coast of Terra del Fuego presents the same general character 
throughout, of high, broken, and rugged land, which appears of a 
uniform elevation of about one thousand or fifteen hundred feet, with 
here and there a peak or mountain covered with snow, rising to some 
four or five thousand feet. The whole wears a sombre and desolate 
aspect. It may be said to be iron-bound, with many high and isolated 
rocks, that have become detached from the land apparently by the 
wear of ages. Numerous unexpected indentations occur all along the 
coast, many of them forming harbours for small vessels, and some of 
them very safe ones. 

On Captain King's report of Orange Harbour, I had determined to 
make that our place of rendezvous previous to our first Antarctic trip, 
and accordingly all the vessels were ordered to proceed thither. We 
had his directions, although we were without the chart. I felt confi- 
dent I might repose full reliance in them, from his well-known ability ; 
and I now offer an acknowledgment of their value and general 
accuracy. 

The channels formed by the islands are deep, with no anchorage 
except in the coves near the rocks ; but a' vessel is generally safe in 
passing through, as there are no dangers but those which show them- 
selves, and wherever rocks are, kelp will be found growing upon them. 
To pass through the kelp without previous examination is not safe. It 
borders all the shores of the bays and harbours, and effectually points 
out the shoal water. 



RIO NEGRO. 



109 



It was my intention to pass within or to the north of the Hermit 
Islands into Nassau Bay, but the wind did not permit our doing so. 
This bay forms a large indenture in the southern coast of Terra del 
Fuego, a few miles to the northward of Cape Horn ; it is about thirty 
miles east and west, by eight miles north and south, and is somewhat 
protected from the heavy seas by the Hermit Islands. Around the bay 
are found some harbours sheltered by small islands, and surrounded by 
precipitous rocky shores, with occasionally a small ravine forming a 
cove, into which streams of pure water discharge themselves, affording 
a safe and convenient landing-place for boats. 

On the morning of the 16th, on board the Porpoise, Lieutenant Dale 
observed a remarkable parhelion, of which he made the annexed sketch. 





PARHELION. 

The upper is the true sun, the lower the mock sun. They were of 
equal size, and nearly of the same brightness. The latter was about a 
diameter below the former. The sun's altitude was 8. At the same 
altitude, and 21 40' south of it, was another mock sun, showing 
prismatic colours towards the sun, and with a brush of light in op- 
position. No halo or arc was seen. The whole disappeared in about 
fifteen minutes. The masthead temperature was not noted on board 
the Porpoise ; but according to that of the Vincennes, there was a dif- 
ference of five degrees in temperature at the time between the deck and 
the masthead, showing a state of atmosphere favourable to this 
phenomenon. Barometer 29-55 in., temperature 42. 

In passing the cape, the weather was delightful. We sailed within 
two miles of this dreaded promontory, and could not but admire its 



110 



RIO NEGRO. 



worn and weather-beaten sides, that have so long been invested with 
all the terrors that can beset sailors. Here we first encountered the 
long swell of the Pacific, but there was scarcely a ripple on its surface. 
Although the landscape was covered with snow, the lowest tempera- 
ture we had yet experienced was 40 Fahrenheit. 

The Porpoise, just before night, made signal that she wished to 
speak us, and sent on board a tub filled with a large medusa, for 
examination by the naturalists. Its dimensions were nine feet in 
circumference; the brachise seven feet long. It proved to be the 
Acalopha medusa pelagia of Cuvier. 

On the 17th of February, we had 
an extraordinary degree of mirage 
or refraction of the Peacock, exhi- 
biting three images, two of which 
were upright aiid one inverted. 
They were all extremely well 
defined. The temperature on deck 
was 54, that at masthead 62. A 
vessel that was not in sight from the 
Vincennes' decks, became visible, 
as in the annexed sketch ; the land 




PEACOCK. 



at the same time was much distorted, both vertically and horizontally. 

Barometer stood at 29-62 in. ; hygrometer 10. 

On board the Peacock, similar appear- 
ances were observed of the Vincennes and 
Porpoise. There was, however, a greater 
difference between the masthead tempe- 
rature and that on deck, the thermometer 
standing at 62 at masthead, while on 
deck it was but 50, being a difference of 
12, that on board the Vincennes differed 
only 8. The sketches were taken about 
the same time : that made of the Peacock 
on board the Vincennes it will be seen was 
the most elongated. 

We continued beating into the passage 

between the Hermit Islands and False Cape Horn, and found great 




VINCENNES. 



RIO NEGRO. HI 

difficulty in passing Point Lort, from the very strong outward set of 
the tide, which we found to run with a velocity of five miles an 
hour. We were not able to make way against it, though the log gave 
that rate of sailing. After beating about in this channel a long and 
dark night, with all hands up, we made sail at daylight, and at half- 
past 6 A. M. anchored in Orange Harbour. Here we found the Relief 
and tenders, all well. 

The Relief, it will be remembered, was left by the boats at the mouth 
of Rio Harbour, on the 19th December. Lieutenant-Commandant 
Long found it necessary to come to anchor before they cleared Raza 
Island, in consequence of its falling calm, and the flood tide drifting 
them in towards the harbour. The next day they took their departure, 
and with a northerly wind steered on their course to the southward, 
with hazy weather. 

On the 22d they experienced a current of twenty miles to the east- 
ward. 

The barometer stood lower than had been observed before, 29-79 in. 
The weather had the appearance of a change, the wind hauling to the 
southward by the west, and then to the southeast quarter, with clear 
and pleasant weather. 

The 26th, the sea was extremely luminous in large patches ; tem- 
perature of the water 73. 

On the 27th, in longitude 50 19' W., latitude 35 11' S., being 
three hundred miles off the mouth of the Rio Plata, they found the 
water very much discoloured ; its temperature had fallen to 70 ; no 
bottom was found with one hundred and fifty fathoms of line. Three 
sail of American whalers were in sight, one of which they spoke. 

The 28th, the current was found setting to the east-southeast, twelve 
miles. 

The 29th, in latitude 38 54' S., longitude 54 00' W., the water was 
still much discoloured, its temperature having fallen to 56 ; air 66. 
The ship was set southwest forty-six miles in twenty-four hours. No 
bottom was obtained with the deep sea line. On this and the next day 
the ship was surrounded by large numbers of birds, consisting of 
albatross, black petrel, &c. Shoals of porpoises and seals, and large 
patches of kelp, were met with. The current was now found to have 
changed to north-northeast, fourteen miles. 

On the 31st they had reached the latitude of 40 S. Many tide rips 
were here observed, and the water continued very much discoloured, 
having the appearance of shoal river-water. Although the chart 
indicated bottom at fifty-five fathoms, a long distance to the eastward, 
none was found with one hundred and seventy fathoms. The cur- 



112 RIONEGRO. 

rent was felt setting north 69 east, thirty-six miles ; water fell to 55, 
air 59. 

On the 1st of January, they obtained soundings in fifty-five fathoms, 
fine yellow and black sand ; this day there occurred a thunder-storm, 
with rain and hail. The current was north 49 east, thirty-one miles ; 
temperature of the water 54, that of the air 64. 

On the 2d, latitude 41 24' S., longitude 58 40' W., the wind was 
from the northward and westward, and was accompanied by hazy 
weather ; the temperature of the water rose to 58, air 66. The cold 
water which had been passed through had continued for a distance of 
one hundred and sixty miles ; the current was found, by anchoring a 
boat, to set south-half-west three-fourths of a mile per hour. The 
same kind of soundings continued ; some large dark spots were dis- 
covered in the water, but on examination they proved to be shoals of 
small fish resembling herring. Immense flocks of sea birds were still 
met with. 

The current from the 4th till the 7th was setting northeast-by-east, 
ten to twenty miles a day ; water and air continued at about 60. 

On the 5th, in dredging, they succeeded in obtaining a number of 
interesting shells, from deep water. 

On the 9th they discovered the coast of Patagonia, near Point 
Lobos. It appeared low at first sight, but, on approaching it, showed 
a level table-land, between four and five hundred feet high. At eight 
miles south of Cape Raza, latitude 44 20' S., longitude 65 06' W., the 
water was seen to break moderately in the direction of east-northeast 
and west-southwest ; a boat was lowered, and an officer sent to exa- 
mine the shoal : the least depth of water found was fourteen fathoms. 

On the 10th they rounded Cape St. Joseph's. The country was 
destitute of trees ; only a few shrubs were seen : it appeared covered 
with a tall grass, and the only living thing seen was a herd of 
guanacoes. 

During the sail down the coast the dredge continued to be used, 
and with success, and many interesting objects were obtained ; among 
them, terebratulas, chitons, corallines, sponges, many small and large 
crustaceous animals, and large volutes (Cymbiola magellanica.) 

On the 12th they again discovered land to the southward and west- 
ward, which afterwards proved to be Cape Three Points. Captain 
King's remarks, relative to the apex of one of the hills, as not being 
visible to the northeast, was found to be erroneous : it was distinctly 
seen on board the Relief at a distance of twenty miles. It is one of 
the most remarkable headlands of the coast, showing as it does above 
the flat table-land that is immediately behind it. 



RIO NEGRO. 113 

There is a shoal to the westward of Cape Three Points, which 
Lieutenant-Commandant Long, after anchoring, sent three boats to 
examine. The least water found upon it was seven fathoms; this 
was believed to be a continuation of the Byron Shoal. 

The Bellaco Rock was seen in latitude 48 30' S., longitude 66 07' 
11" W. ; there is another rock bearing S. 17 E. (true), about nine or 
ten miles distant, in latitude 48 38' 44" S., longitude 66 03' 53" W. ; 
this last rock was found to correspond in position with the Bellaco Rock 
of Nodales, It would seem, therefore, that there are two rocks, and 
that the one given by Captain Stokes is not the true Bellaco, but that 
it lies in the place assigned it by Nodales in 1619 ; it is probable that 
the Relief is the first vessel that has verified the existence of both. To 
account for this discrepancy, it is possible that the true Bellaco was 
covered with the tide when Captain Stokes passed that part of the 
coast. At their anchorage the tide was sweeping past them at a 
furious rate ; they had been much affected by it for the last few days, 
and had, on the many trials they had made, found it setting in 
various directions, according as the flood or ebb prevailed. 

At meridian the same day they were off Port St. Julian. Lieu- 
tenant-Commandant Long thinks the vicinity of Watchman's Cape 
ought to be avoided, from the strong currents that exist near it. 

On the 19th they made Cape Virgins, having kept along the coast 
until then, in from forty to sixty fathoms water, with bottom the same 
as before described* 

On the 21st they passed Cape St. Diego with a strong northwest 
wind, which gradually moderated and fell calm off Good Success 
Bay. It was deemed prudent to wait until the threatening appearance 
of the weather subsided, and at 1 p. M., they anchored in Good Suc- 
cess Bay. 

The Relief had an opportunity of proving the positions and sailing 
directions of Captain King, R. N., and it affords me great pleasure to 
say that all his observations tend to show the accuracy of the posi- 
tions, and the care with which that officer has compiled his sailing 
directions. 

No navigator frequenting this coast or passing round Cape Horn 
should be without the sailing directions for East and West Patagonia, 
and he will prize them as highly valuable after he has once used them. 
The admirable surveys and exertions of this officer and those under 
him on this coast entitle him to the rewards of his country, as well as 
the thanks of the civilized world. 

The day they landed, no natives were seen, but many marks of a 
recent visit were evident on the beach and in the deserted huts. On 

VOL. i. K2 15 



114 RIO NEGRO. 

the morning of the 22d, at daylight, the natives appeared on the beach, 
shouting to them to land. Lieutenant-Commandant Long delayed 
his departure for a few hours, and landed with a number of the 
officers. As the boats approached the shore, the natives began their 
shouting, and advanced towards them on their landing without fear, 
exhibiting a pleasant air, and apparently with every feeling of confi- 
dence : they were all unarmed. An old man, who was the chief, came 
forward to salute them, first by patting his own breast several times, 
and then that of each individual of the party, making use of the word 
cu-char-lie, dwelling on the first syllable, and accenting the last, in a 
whining tone of voice. The meaning of cu-char-lie it was impossible 
to divine, for it was used for every thing. After this ceremony, they 
returned to the thicket, and brought forth their bows and arrows. 
These people were admirable mimics, and would repeat all kinds of 
sounds, including words, with great accuracy : the imitation was often 
quite ridiculous. They were naked, with the exception of a guanacoe 
skin, which covered them from the shoulders to the knees. 

Mr. Agate's drawing of one of these Patagonians, faces the first 
page of this chapter. 

The party of natives were seventeen in number, and with a few ex- 
ceptions they were above the European height. The chief, who was 
the oldest man among them, was under fifty years of age, and of 
comparatively low stature ; his son was one of the tallest, and above 
six feet in height. They had good figures and pleasant-looking 
countenances, low foreheads and high cheek-bones, with broad faces, 
the lower part projecting ; their hair was coarse and cut short on the 
crown, leaving a narrow border of hair hanging down ; over this they 
wore a kind of cap or band of skin or woollen yarn. The front teeth 
of all of them were very much worn, more apparent, however, in the 
old than in the young. On one foot they wore a rude skin sandal. 

Many of them had their faces painted in red and black stripes, with 
clay, soot, and ashes. Their whole appearance, together with their 
inflamed and sore eyes, was filthy and disgusting. They were thought 
by the officers more nearly to approach to the Patagonians than any 
other natives, and were supposed to be a small tribe who visit this 
part of Terra del Fuego in the summer months ; they were entirely 
different from the Petcherais, whom we afterwards saw at Orange 
Harbour. 

None of their women or children were seen, but they were thought 
to be not far distant in the wood, as they objected to any of our 
people going towards it, and showed much alarm when guns were 
pointed in that direction. They seemed to have a knowledge of fire- 



RIO NEGRO. 



115 



arms, which they called eu, or spirit; and kai-eu, which they frequently 
uttered with gestures, was thought to indicate their Great Spirit, or 
God. 




PATAGONIANS. 



They had little apparent curiosity, and nothing seemed to attract 
or cause them surprise; their principal characteristic seemed to be 
jealousy. Though they are a simple race, they are not wanting in 
cunning ; and it was with great difficulty that they could be prevailed 
upon to part with their bows and arrows in trade, which they however 
did, after asking permission from their chief: this was always neces- 
sary for them to obtain before closing a bargain. They have had 
communication frequently before with Europeans; pieces of many 
articles of European manufacture were seen in their possession, such 
as glass-beads, &c. They refused tobacco, whiskey, bread, or meat, 
and were only desirous of getting old iron, nails, and pieces of hoop- 
iron. 

Their food consists principally of fish and shell-fish. Their fishing 
apparatus is made of the dorsal fin of a fish, tied to a thin slip of 
whalebone, in the form of a barb ; this serves as a good hook, and with 
it they obtain a supply of this food. Their arms consisted altogether 
of bows and arrows. The natives had the common dog, which they 
seemed to prize much. 

Mr. Rich employed his time in botanical researches : the prominent 
plants were Berberes, Winteria, Vaccinium, Andromeda, Compositae, 
(some woody) Crucifera3, Umbelliferae, &c. A number of these were 



116 RIO NEGRO. 

just putting forth their flowering buds. Scurvy-grasses and wild 
celery abounded. 

The tracks of the guanacoe were seen, and some land-shells were 
obtained. 

Captain King's description of this bay was found to be correct ; the 
position of it by the Relief's chronometers was 65 11' 31" W., by 
sights taken on shore, which is 2' 13" to the west of the longitude 
assigned it by him. The latitude was not obtained, but that given by 
Captain King, 54 48' S., is believed to be correct. 

The morning of the 23d they left Good Success Bay. On the 25th, 
having made but little progress to the westward, and the usual arid 
certain appearance of bad weather approaching, Lieutenant-Com- 
mandant Long determined to anchor under New Island to await it, 
which was accordingly done at five o'clock the same evening, in 
thirty fathoms. Shortly afterwards it blew furiously, with rain and 
hail, which continued throughout the night. 

The plants were the same as those seen at Good Success Bay, but 
were much farther advanced, being in full flower. Several heath-like 
plants and many new grasses were procured. During the time they 
were at anchor, some tide was perceptible, but it was quite irregular. 

The latitude of the anchorage was determined to be 55 17' S., 
longitude 66 13' W. It is not deemed a suitable or safe anchorage, 
unless well provided with good ground-tackle. 

On the 26th they again were under way for Orange Harbour, which 
they reached four days afterwards, where they were employed pre- 
paring for sea and accumulating fire-wood, preparatory to the arrival 
of the rest of the squadron. They had also established a light-house 
on the top of Burnt Island, which forms the protection to Orange 
Harbour on the east, as directed by their orders. On the 17th of 
February, as before stated, the Relief was joined by the rest of the 
squadron. 




FUEGJAN PADDLES. 



CHAPTER VI. 



CONTENTS. 

ORANGE HARBOUR PLAN OF THE SQUADRON'S OPERATIONS NATIVES THEIR 
APPEARANCE-THEIR HUTS-ARRIVAL OF NATIVESTHEIR TALENT FOR MIMICKRY 
VISIT TO THEIR HUTS THEIR FOOD SOIL NEAR ORANGE HARBOUR TIDES 
WHALES. 



(117) 



CHAPTER VI. 

TERRA DEL FUEGO. 
1839. 

ORANGE HARBOUR is on the western side of Nassau Bay, separated 
and protected from it by Burnt Island. It is nearly land-locked, and 
is the safest harbour on the coast. The hills on each side, after 
several undulations, rise into conical peaks, and the naked rock is 
every where broken into a jagged outline, with no creeping plants to 
soften or take off its harshness. Every thing has a bleak and wintry 
appearance, and is in excellent keeping with the climate ; yet the 
scenery about it is pleasing to the eye, bounded on all sides by 
undulating hills, which are covered with evergreen foliage. Distant 
mountains, some of which are capped with snow, shooting up in a 
variety of forms, seen beyond the extensive bays, form a fine back- 
ground. From the vessels, the hills look like smooth downs, and if it 
were not for the inclemency and fitfulness of the weather, they might 
be contemplated with some pleasure. 

The hills are covered with dense forests of beech, birch, willow, 
and winter-bark. Some of the former trees are forty or fifty feet high, 
having all their tops bent to the northeast by the prevailing south- 
west winds. They are remarkably even as to height, having more 
the look, at a distance, of heath, than of forest trees. 

The whole coast has the appearance of being of recent volcanic 
rocks, but all our investigations tended to prove the contrary. We 
nowhere found any cellular lava, pumice, or obsidian, nor was there 
any granite, or other primitive rock seen, though reported by Captain 
King as existing. The rock was trachytic, or of trap formation, 
apparently having undergone more or less action by fire. 

Immediately on our arrival at Orange Harbour, active preparations 
were made for a short cruise to the Antarctic. Although the season 

(119) 



120 



TERRA DEL FUEGO. 



was late, I at least anticipated getting some experience among the 
ice ; and I supposed that the lateness of the season would have allowed 
it to detach itself from the shores of Palmer's Land, and would permit 
as near an approach as possible to its main body or barrier, in the 
vicinity of Cook's Ne Plus Ultra. 




ORANGE HARBOUR, TERRA DEL FUEQO. 



Agreeably to my instructions, such disposition was made of the 
squadron as seemed best calculated to obtain the necessary results in 
the different departments. Captain Hudson, with the Peacock, and 
the Flying-Fish, under Lieutenant Walker, as a tender, were ordered 
to the westward, as far as the Ne Plus Ultra of Cook. I went in the 
Porpoise, Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold, accompanied by the Sea- 
Gull, Lieutenant Johnson, to pass to the south, for the purpose if pos- 
sible of exploring the southeast side of Palmer's Land, or, should an 
opportunity offer, of proceeding further south. The Relief, Lieutenant- 
Commandant Long, was ordered into the Straits of Magellan, through 
the Brecknock Passage and Cockburn's Sound, with part of the gentle- 
men of the scientific corps, in order to enlarge our field of operations. 
Mr. Peale volunteered to go south in the Peacock. 

The Vincennes was safely moored in Orange Harbour, and left 
under the charge of Lieutenant Craven, to carry on the investigations, 
surveys, &c. &c. Messrs. Couthouy and Drayton, of the scientific 
corps, remained in the Vincennes. Lieutenant Carr was put in charge 
of the observatory. 



TERRA DEL FUEGO. 121 

In making the changes necessary for this cruise to the south, I 
regretted extremely being compelled, from the want of junior officers, 
to supersede temporarily both Passed Midshipmen Reid and Knox in 
command of the two tenders. These officers had not their superiors 
in the squadron for the situations they occupied ; but the duty I owed 
the Expedition and country compelled me to do it, and also to refuse 
their application to be transferred from the tenders, for I was well 
satisfied, as long as they were on board, the vessels would be well 
taken care of. I had a very high opinion of Mr. Reid, from the expe- 
rience I had had of him ; and as respects Mr. Knox, I feel it my duty 
here to acknowledge how much the Expedition is indebted to him for 
nis services on board the Flying-Fish. He not only had the ability, 
but the necessary perseverance and ambition, to perform his duties 
well. So arduous were they, that I was for a time obliged to transfer 
him to my ship on account of his health. The moment his health 
permitted it, he was again put in command of the Flying-Fish, to the 
great advantage of the service. In according thus much to his indus- 
try, ability, and zeal, I am well satisfied that I but speak the opinion of 
every officer in the squadron. 

The vessels were well supplied with fuel, provisions, and various 
antiscorbutics, for ten months. A spot for the observatory was fixed 
upon, and orders left for the duties to be performed during the absence 
of the squadron.* 

The 22d of February was duly celebrated by the hoisting of flags, 
but we had not time to make a holiday of it. 

During our stay, we had at various times, visits from the natives. 
They were all at first very shy, but after they found our friendly dis- 
position towards them, they became more sociable and confiding. 

Before our departure from Orange Harbour, a bark canoe came 
alongside with an Indian, his squaw, and four children. The tribe to 
which they belonged is known by the name of the Petcherai Indians. 
They were entirely naked, with the exception of a small piece of seal- 
skin, only sufficient to cover one shoulder, and which is generally 
worn on the side from which the wind blows, affording them some 
little shelter against its piercing influence. 

They were not more than five feet high, of a light copper colour, 
which is much concealed by smut and dirt, particularly on their faces, 
which they mark vertically with charcoal. They have short faces, 
narrow foreheads, and high cheek-bones. Their eyes are small and 

* The instructions issued for the proceedings of the vessels will be found embraced in the 
Appendix, from XXV. to XXX. inclusive. 

VOL. I. L 16 



122 TERRA DEL FUEGO. 

usually black, the upper eyelids in the inner corner overlapping the 
under one, and bear a strong resemblance to those of the Chinese. 
Their nose is broad and flat, with wide-spread nostrils, mouth large, 
teeth white, large, and regular. The hair is long, lank, and black, 
hanging over the face, and is covered with white ashes, which gives 
them a hideous appearance. The whole face is compressed. Their 
bodies are remarkable from the great developement of the chest, shoul- 
ders, and vertebral column; their arms are long, and out of proportion ; 
their legs small and ill made. There is in fact little difference between 
the size of the ankle and leg ; and when standing, the skin at the knee 
hangs in a large loose fold. In some, the muscles of the leg appear 
almost wanting, and possess very little strength. This want of de- 
velopement in the muscles of the legs is owing to their constant sitting 
posture, both in their huts and canoes. Their skin is sensibly colder 
than ours. It is impossible to fancy any thing in human nature more 




NATIVE OF TERRA DEL FUEGO. 



filthy. They are an ill-shapen and ugly race.* They have little or no 
idea of the relative value of articles, even of those that one would 
suppose were of the utmost use to them, such as iron and glass-ware. 
A glass bottle broken into pieces, is valued as much as a knife. Red 

* For their dimensions, see Table of Comparative Proportions, at the end of the work. 



TERRA DEL FUEGO. 



123 



flannel, torn into stripes, pleases them more than in the piece ; they 
wound it around their heads, as a kind of turban, and it was amusing 
to see their satisfaction at this small acquisition. 

The children were quite small, and nestled in the bottom of the 
canoe on some dry grass. The woman and eldest boy paddled the 
canoe, the man being employed to bail out the water and attend to the 
fire, which is always carried in the bottom of the canoe, on a few 
stones and ashes, which the water surrounds. 




FUEGIANS AND CANOE. 



Their canoes are constructed of bark, are very frail, and sewed with 
shreds of whalebone, sealskin, and twigs. They are sharp at both 
ends, and are kept in shape as well as strengthened by a number of 
stretchers lashed to the gunwale. 

These Indians seldom venture outside the kelp, by the aid of which 
they pull themselves along ; and their paddles are so small as to be of 
little use in propelling their canoes, unless it is calm. Some of the 
officers thought they recognised a party on the Hermit Islands that had 
been on board ship at Orange Harbour. If this was the case, they 
must have ventured across the Bay of Nassau, a distance of some ten 
or twelve miles. This, if correct, would go to prove that there is 
more intercourse among them than their frail barks would lead one to 
expect. 

Their huts are generally found built close to the shore, at the head 
of some small bay, in a secluded spot, and sheltered from the prevailing 
winds. They are built of boughs or small trees, stuck in the earth, 



124 TERRA DEL FUEGO. 

and brought together at the top, where they are firmly bound by bark, 
sedge, and twigs. Smaller branches are then interlaced, forming a 
tolerably compact wicker-work, and on this, grass, turf, and bark are 
laid, making the hut quite warm, and impervious to the wind and snow, 
though not quite so to the rain. The usual dimensions of these huts 
are seven or eight feet in diameter, and about four or five feet in 
height. They have an oval hole to creep in at. The fire is built in a 
small excavation in the middle of the hut. The floor is of clay, which 
has the appearance of having been well kneaded. The usual accom- 




FUEGIANS AND HUT. 

paniment of a hut is a conical pile of shells opposite the door, nearly 
as large as the hut itself. 

Their occupancy of a hut seems to be limited to the supply of shell- 
fish, consisting of mussels and limpets, in the neighbourhood. 

These natives are never seen but in their huts or canoes. The 
impediments to their communication by land are great, growing out of 
the mountainous and rocky character of the country, intersected with 
inlets deep and impassable, and in most places bounded by abrupt 
precipices, together with a soil which may be termed a quagmire, on 
which it is difficult to walk. This prevails on the hills as well as in 
the plains and valleys. The impenetrable nature of the forest, with the 
dense undergrowth of thorny bushes, renders it impossible for them to 
overcome or contend with these difficulties. They appear to live in 
families, and not in tribes, and do not seem to acknowledge any chief. 

On the llth of March three bark canoes arrived, containing four 
men, four women, and a girl about sixteen years old, four little boys 
and four infants, one of the latter about a week old, and quite naked. 
The thermometer was at 46 Fahrenheit. They had rude weapons, 
viz., slings to throw stones, three rude spears, pointed at the end with 
bone, and notched on one side with barbed teeth. With this they 
catch their fish, which are in great quantities among the kelp. Two 
of the natives were induced to come on board, after they had been 
alongside for upwards of an hour, and received many presents, for 



TERRA DEL FUEGO. 125 

which they gave their spears, a dog, and some of their rude native 
trinkets. They did not show or express surprise at any thing on 
board, except when seeing one of the carpenters engaged in boring 
a hole with a screw-auger through a plank, which would have been a 
long task for them. They were very talkative, smiling when spoken 
to, and often bursting into loud laughter, but instantly settling into 
their natural serious and sober cast. 

They were found to be great mimics, both in gesture and sound, 
and would repeat any word of our language, with great correctness 
of pronunciation. Their imitations of sounds were truly astonishing. 
One of them ascended and descended the octave perfectly, following 
the sounds of the violin correctly. It was then found he could sound 
the common chords, and follow through the semitone scale, with 
scarcely an error. They have all musical voices, speak in the note G 
sharp, ending with the semitone A, when asking for presents, and were 
continually singing, 







Yah mass scoo nah Yah mass scoo nah. 

Their mimickry became annoying, and precluded our getting at any 
of their words or ideas. It not only extended to words or sounds, 
but actions also, and was at times truly ridiculous. The usual manner 
of interrogating for names was quite unsuccessful. On pointing to the 
nose, for instance, they did the same. Any thing they saw done they 
would mimic, and with an extraordinary degree of accuracy. On 
these canoes approaching the ship, the principal one of the family, or 
chief, standing up in his canoe, made a harangue. He spoke in G 
natural, and did not vary his voice more than a semitone. The pitch 
of the voice of the female is an octave higher. Although they have 
been heard to shout quite loud, yet they cannot endure a noise. When 
the drum beat, or a gun was fired, they invariably stopped their ears. 
They always speak to each other in a whisper. Their cautious 
manner and movements prove them to be a timid race. The men are 
exceedingly jealous of their women, and will not allow any one, if they 
can help it, to enter their huts, particularly boys. 

The women were never suffered to come on board. They appeared 
modest in the presence of strangers. They never move from a sitting 
posture, or rather a squat, with their knees close together, reaching to 
their chin, their feet in contact and touching the lower part of the 
body. They are extremely ugly. Their hands and feet were small 
and well-shaped, and from appearance they are not accustomed to do 

L2 



126 TERRA DEL FUEGO. 

any hard work. They appear very fond and seem careful of their 
young children, though on several occasions they offered them for sale 
for a trifle. They have their faces smutted all over, and it was 
thought, from the hideous appearance of the females, produced in 
part by their being painted and smutted, that they had been disfigured 
by the men previous to coming alongside. It was remarked that when 
one of them saw herself in a looking-glass, she burst into tears, as 
Jack thought from pure mortification. 

The men are employed in building the huts, obtaining food, and 
providing for their other wants. The women were generally seen 
paddling their canoes. 

When this party of natives left the ship and reached the shore, the 
women remained in their canoes, and the men began building their 
temporary huts ; the little children were seen capering quite naked on 
the beach, although the thermometer was at 40. On the hut being 
finished, which occupied about an hour, the women went on shore to 
take possession of it. They all seemed quite happy and contented. 

Before they left the ship, the greater part of them were dressed in old 
clothes, that had been given to them by the officers and men, who all 
showed themselves extremely anxious "to make them comfortable." 
This gave rise to much merriment, as Jack was not disposed to allow 
any difficulties to interfere in the fitting. If the jackets proved too 
tight across the shoulders, which they invariably were, a slit down 
the back effectually remedied the defect. If a pair of trousers was 
found too small around the waist, the knife was again resorted to, and 
in some cases a fit was made by severing the legs. The most difficult 
fit, and the one which produced the most merriment, was that of a 
woman to whom an old coat was given. This she concluded belonged 
to her nether limbs, and no signs, hints, or shouts, could correct her 
mistake. Her feet were thrust through the sleeves, and after hard 
squeezing she succeeded in drawing them on. ' With the skirts brought 
up in front, she took her seat in the canoe with great satisfaction, amid 
a roar of laughter from all who saw her. 

Towards evening, Messrs. Waldron and Drayton visited their huts. 
Before they reached the shore, the natives were seen making a fire on 
the beach, for their reception, evidently to avoid their entering their 
huts. 

On landing, one of the men seemed anxious to talk with them. He 
pointed to the ship, and tried to express many things by gestures; 
then pointed to the southeast, and then again to the ship, after which, 
clasping his hands, as in our mode of prayer, he said "Eloah, Eloah," 
as though he thought we had come from God. 



TERRA DEL FUEGO. 



127 



After a little time, they gained admittance to the hut. The men 
creeping in first, squatted themselves directly in front of the women, 
all holding out the small piece of sealskin to allow the heat to reach 
their bodies. The women were squatted three deep behind the men, 
the oldest in front nestling the infants. 

After being in the hut, Mr. Drayton endeavoured to call the atten- 
tion of the man who had made signs to him before entering, to know 
whether they had any idea of a Supreme Being. The same man then 
put his hands together, repeating as before, " Eloah, Eloah." From 
his manner, it was inferred that they had some idea of God or a 
Supreme Being. 

Their mode of expressing friendship is by jumping up and down. 
They made Messrs. Waldron and Drayton jump with them on the 
beach, before entering the hut, took hold of their arms, facing them, 
and jumping two or three inches from the ground, making them keep 
time to the following song : 



-JL 


i 






1 










1 


J 








l*m 


9 


M 


M 


_ 






a 


\yj " 9 : 


4* 


W IfiV 


9 v 


P 


w 




* 

Ha 
f\ 


ma la ha ma la ha ma la ha ma la. 


lyr: 


K fe ^ i% 


B 


^ ^ i 


X 


J J J J 


J 




1 -1 





OE . * 


9999 


^99999 -Bl 



la la la la 



la la la la la. 



All our endeavours to find out how they ignited their fire proved 
unavailing. It must be exceedingly difficult for them to accomplish, 
judging from the care they take of it, always carrying it with them 
in their canoes, and the danger they thus run of injuring themselves 
by it. 

Their food consists of limpets, mussels, and other shell-fish. Quan- 
tities of fish, and some seals, are now and then taken among the kelp, 
and with berries of various kinds, and wild celery, they do not want. 
They seldom cook their food much. The shell-fish are detached from 
the shell by heat, and the fish are partly roasted in their skins, without 
being cleaned. 

When on board, one of them was induced to sit at the dinner-table; 
after a few lessons, he handled his knife and fork with much dexterity. 
He refused both spirits and wine, but was very fond of sweetened 
water. Salt provisions were not at all to his liking, but rice and 
plum-pudding were agreeable to his taste, and he literally crammed 
them into his mouth. After his appetite had been satisfied, he was in 
great good humour, singing his " Hey meh leh," dancing and laughing. 



128 TERRA DEL FUEGO. 

His mimickry prevented any satisfactory inquiries being made of him 
relative to a vocabulary. 

Some of the officers painted the faces of these natives black, white, 
and red : this delighted them very much, and it was quite amusing to 
see the grimaces made by them before a looking-glass. 

One of these natives remained on board for upwards of a week, and 
being washed and combed, he became two or three shades lighter in 
colour. Clothes were put on him. He was about twenty-three years 
of age ; and was unwell the whole time he was on board, from eating 
such quantities of rice, &c. His astonishment was very great on 
attending divine service. The moment the chaplain began to read 
from the book, his eyes were riveted upon him, where they remained 
as long as he continued to read. At the end of the week he became 
dissatisfied, and was set on shore, and soon appeared naked again. It 
was observed on presents being made, that those who did not receive 
any began a sort of whining cry, putting on the most doleful-looking 
countenances imaginable. 

They are much addicted to theft, if any opportunity offers. The 
night before they left the bay, they stole and cut up one of the wind- 
sails, which had been scrubbed and hung up on shore to dry. 

Although we had no absolute proof it, we are inclined to the belief 
that they bury their dead in caves. 

There is a black-coloured moss that covers the ground in places, 
giving it the appearance of having been burnt. Many small ponds are 
met with, as though the peat had been dug up from the place, and the 
holes filled with water. There is great plenty of scurvy-grass and wild 
celery close to the beach. 

Here any quantity of water may be obtained on the top and sloping 
sides of the hills. 

The decomposition of the feldspathic rocks appears to be going on 
rapidly. This, combined with vegetable matter, forms a rich soil ; 
but it is so exceedingly wet from the constant rains and snows, that 
it is very questionable if any agricultural operations could succeed. 

At Orange Harbour the tide was found to have four feet rise and 
fall. High water, full and change, at 4 p. M. Among the Hermit 
Islands it seems to be affected by the winds in the offing The flood 
sets to the east. 

Large numbers of humpback whales were seen in March, about 
Orange Harbour. 

In a small cove on New Island, a different description of hut was 
seen by the officers of the Relief. Not having met with any natives, 
it was not in their power to ascertain if it belonged to the same tribe. 



TERRA DEL FUEGO. 



129 



It was built of logs, with their upper ends leaning together, in the 
form of a cone, and nearly circular at the base ; the interstices were 
filled with grass, leaves, and earth, in which some grasses had taken 
root, and were growing. It is represented in the tail-piece. 




NATIVE IIUT. 



VOL. I. 



17 



CHAPTER VI 



CONTENTS. 

DEPARTURE OF PORPOISE WHALE - SHIP HEIGHT OP WAVES KING GEORGE'S 
ISLAND-O'BRIEN'S AND ASPLAND S ISLANDS-PALMER'S LAND-ADVENTURE ISLETS 
-GALE -SEA-GULL ORDERED TO RETURN - RETURN OP THE PORPOISE-ELEPHANT 
ISLAND GOOD SUCCESS BAY-BOAT DETAINED-ATTEMPT TO RELIEVE-ACCIDENT- 
LIEUTENANT HARTSTEIN - GALE - FURTHER ATTEMPT TO RELIEVE THE PARTY- 
PORPOISE COMPELLED TO PUT TO SEA CAPE ST. DIEGO ANCHOR OFF IT RETURN 
TO GOOD SUCCESS BAY PARTY JOIN THEIR TRANSACTIONS LEAVE GOOD SUCCESS 
BAY NASSAU BAY DARK NIGHT FIND OURSELVES AMONG KELP ANCHOR 
NATIVES REACH ORANGE HARBOUR ALL WELL SEA-GULL DECEPTION ISLAND- 
PENGUINS SEA-LEOPARD TEMPERATURE VISIT TO CRATER FORCE OF WIND 
CAPTAIN SMILEY-DEPARTURE-ARRIVAL AT ORANGE HARBOUR-SENT IN SEARCH 
OP LAUNCH -LOSS OP THAT BOAT RETURN OP SEA-GULL AGAIN SAILS FOR 
WOLLASTON'S ISLAND-BAILY ISLAND-SEA-GULL HARBOUR-ARRIVAL OF FLYING- 
FISH. 



(131) 



CHAPTER VII. 

SOUTHERN CRUISE. 
1839. 

ON the 25th of February, having completed the arrangements for 
the southern cruise, and prepared instructions for the continuance of 
the duties of the Expedition in case of my being detained among the 
ice, the signal was ordered to be made for the vessels to get under 
way, when I joined the Porpoise. Very many of my crew were 
desirous of following me, and expressed regrets and disappointment 
that the Vincennes was not going south. All I could do, was to 
promise them enough of Antarctic cruising the next year, and I believe 
they are now all satisfied that I kept my word. About 7 A. M., we left 
the harbour, with a light breeze from the north, having the Sea-Gull, 
of which vessel Lieutenant Johnson was in charge, in company. On 
passing the other vessels of the squadron, we received three hearty 
cheers, which were duly returned. 

Various causes conspired to render our short stay in Orange 
Harbour the turning point of the discipline of the cruise. 1 cannot but 
express my surprise, even at this distant day, that any officers 
embarked in this undertaking could have so far lost sight of their duty 
as to attempt to throw obstacles in the way of the prompt execution of 
the duties they owed to the country, and the service on which they 
were engaged, or would have allowed selfish feelings to predominate 
over those for the public good. Prompt and energetic action soon put 
an end to these small difficulties. 

At the mouth of the harbour, Captain Hudson and the few officers 
who had accompanied us, took their leave. I must own at that moment 
I felt greatly depressed, for I was well aware that we had many, very 
many dangers to encounter before meeting again. But there is a feeling 
produced by the kind of service on which we were engaged, that gives 
a stout heart, braces it for meeting almost every emergency that may 

M (133) 



134 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

happen, and causes one to look forward with hope to overcome the 
difficulties that may lie in the path. After a short time we saw the 
Peacock and Flying-Fish under sail, following us. 

The wind continued light, with fine weather, until the afternoon. 
The whole scenery around us was viewed to great advantage, under a 
mild state of the atmosphere, taking away from it the usual gloomy 
aspect which a sky, overcast and boisterous, gives. A dense bank of 
cumuli in the southwest foretold that we were not long to enjoy such 
moderate weather. About 4 p. M., a heavy squall struck us, which 
soon took us clear of the islands, on our course to the southward. 

On the 26th, we discovered a sail, which proved to be the whale- 
ship America, from New Zealand, bound to New York, and afforded 
us an opportunity of writing home, which we gladly availed ourselves 
of. The master of the America informed me that he had experienced 
constant heavy winds, and had been thirty-five days from New 
Zealand ; that the ship was very leaky, but having a full cargo of 
three thousand eight hundred barrels of oil, he was in great spirits. 
I have seldom seen at sea a more uncombed and dirty set of mariners 
than his crew. How they preserve any tolerable state of health I 
know not, and it is not at all surprising that the ravages of scurvy 
should be felt on board of some vessels belonging to the whaling fleet, 
if this is the usual state in which they are kept. 

After delivering our letters, we bore away to the southeast, the wind 
inclining to the northwest and blowing heavy, with a high and 
remarkably regular sea following. This afforded me an opportunity 
I had long desired, for making observations to determine the height 
of the waves, together with their width and velocity. It is obviously 
very difficult to do this with correctness. I shall therefore state the 
means which I adopted, in order that it may be perceived what 
reliance is to be placed on the results. 

This opportunity was far more favourable than that which occurred 
off Madeira, when I was enabled to get only an approximation to 
their velocity : they were not then urged on by any fresh impetus, as 
in the present case. 

The Porpoise was directly ahead of the Sea-Gull, and but two waves 
apart ; the rate of sailing was about eight knots an hour, both vessels 
being apparently very steady. In heaving the log, I found that the 
chip, in drawing in the line, was, when on the top of the next wave 
astern, distant by line three hundred and eighty feet, equal to one- 
sixteenth of a mile, and the schooner being on the next wave, was 
twice the distance, or one-eighth of a mile. The time occupied for a 
wave to pass from the schooner to the brig was thirteen seconds, 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 135 

taking the mean of many trials, from which none varied more than a 
second and a half. This gave about twenty-six and a half miles in an 
hour for their apparent progressive motion. In order to get their 
height, I took the opportunity when the schooner was in the trough of 
the sea, and my eye on board the Porpoise in the horizon, to observe 
where it cut the mast : the wood-cut will illustrate it. 




This gave me thirty-two feet. The waves ran higher and more 
regular on this occasion than I have seen them at any other time 
during the cruise. 

We had many albatrosses hovering about, and at times resting as it 
were immovable in the storm, some gray petrels, and Cape pigeons in 
numbers. The weather becoming thick, and the temperature of the 
water having fallen to 32, I deemed it prudent to heave-to during the 
darkness. 

The 28th came in more moderate. As soon as it was light we 
again made sail to the south. Towards noon the wind hauled to the 
northward and brought rain. The temperature of the water was 37. 
The wind now again hauled to the southward and blew fresh. At 
noon we had reached the latitude of 61 20' S., longitude 60 49' W. 
We found ourselves obliged to lay-to this night also, it being too dark 
to run. 

At daylight on the 1st of March we had snow in flurries, and the 
first ice-islands were made. They excited much curiosity, and ap- 
peared to have been a good deal worn, as though the sea had been 
washing over them for some time. They were of small size in com- 
parison with those we afterwards saw, but being unused to the sight, 
we thought them magnificent. At noon we made land, which proved 
to be Ridley's Island. It was high, broken, and rugged, with the top 
covered with snow. The rocks had a basaltic appearance, and many 
were detached from the main ))ody of the island, with numerous high 
pinnacles, very much worn by the sea. The surf was too great to 
attempt a landing for the purpose of procuring specimens. As we 
closed in with the land, we lowered a boat and tried the current, which 
was found setting to the north-northwest, two fathoms per hour. 

At 6 p. M. we had several ice-islands in sight, Cape Melville bearing 
south-by-east (true). We now had light winds from the south-south- 
west. 



136 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

The north foreland of King George's Island was in sight, and found 
to be well placed on the charts. The appearance of all this land is 
volcanic ; it is from eight hundred to one thousand feet high. The 
upper part is covered and the valleys filled with snow of great depth. 
Before night we had several other islands in sight, with many bergs 
and much drift-ice. 

On the 2d, at daylight, we made O'Brien's and Aspland's Islands, to 
the eastward, with many ice-islands, some of a tabular form, and from 
half a mile to a mile in length. The temperature of the water was 
34. Through the fog and mist, we got a sight of Bridgeman's Island, 
and stood for it, with the intention of landing on it. The fog cleared 
off as we approached it, and we could perceive distinctly the smoke 
issuing from its sides. We made it in latitude 62 06' S., and longi- 
tude 57 10' W. I determined to land, although the fog was hovering 
in the horizon around us, and ordered a boat to be prepared. While 
in the act of getting ready, in less than ten minutes, we were enveloped 
in a fog so dense, that we could not see three lengths of the brig. We 
were now a short distance from and under the lee of the island, and 
perceived a strong sulphureous smell. We waited for some time, in 
hopes of its clearing, but we were disappointed, and I therefore deemed 
it advisable to proceed under short sail, feeling our way to the south- 
ward, with the expectation, every moment, of encountering icebergs. 

This island is about six hundred feet high, and of the shape of a 
flattened dome. The sea was quite smooth, but the long swell was 
heard dashing against it and the icebergs as we passed them. 

On the 3d we filled away at daylight, and stood for Palmer's 
Land. The birds now had very much increased, Cape pigeons, 
with the gray and black petrel, and occasionally penguins, swimming 
about us in all directions, uttering their discordant screams : they 
seemed astonished at encountering so unusual an object as a vessel in 
these frozen seas. At 6 h 30 m we made land, which I took to be Mount 
Hope, the eastern point of Palmer's Land. By 8 A. M. we had pene- 
trated among the numerous icebergs, until we found it impossible to 
go farther. I have rarely seen a finer sight. The sea was literally 
studded with these beautiful masses, some of pure white, others show- 
ing all the shades of the opal, others emerald green, and occasionally 
here and there some of a deep black, forming a strong contrast to the 
pure white. Near to us, we discovered three small islets, and gave 
them the name of the Adventure Islets ; while beyond, and above all, 
rose two high mountains, one of which was Mount Hope. I place the 
eastern extremity of Palmer's Land, or Mount Hope, in longitude 57 
55' W., latitude 63 25' S. 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 137 

We found the coast to trend off to the southeast, and I judged we 
could see it trending from twenty-five to thirty miles. We had now 
ascertained, beyond a doubt, that there was no open space next to the 
land, as I had been led to believe would be found, so late in the season. 
The whole area was studded with icebergs, which it now became 
necessary to get clear of, if possible, before night set in. 

It was a day of great excitement to all, for we had ice of all kinds 
and descriptions to encounter, from the iceberg of huge quadrangular 
shape, with its stratified appearance, to the sunken and deceptive 
mass, that it was difficult to perceive before it was under the bow. 
Our situation was critical, but the weather favoured us for a few hours. 
On clearing these dangers, we kept off to the southward and west- 
ward, under all sail, and at 8 p. M. we counted eighty large ice-islands 
in sight. Afterwards it became so thick with mist and fog, as to 
render it necessary to lay-to till daylight, before which time we had a 
heavy snow-storm. The temperature of the water had fallen to 29 ; 
air 28. At one hundred fathoms depth we found the former 29. A 
strong gale now set in from the southward and westward. The 
brig's deck was covered with ice and snow, and the weather became 
excessively damp and cold. The men were suffering, not only from 
want of sufficient room to accommodate the numbers in the vessel, 
but from the inadequacy of the clothing with which they had been 
supplied. Although purchased by the government at great expense, it 
was found to be entirely unworthy the service, and inferior in every 
way to the samples exhibited. This was the case with all the articles 
of this description that were provided for the Expedition. Not having 
been able to satisfy myself to whom the blame is to be attributed, 
contractors or inspectors, I hesitate to give their names publicity. 
The deception is in my opinion to be attributed to both. 

On the 5th of March the gale had increased. The tender Sea-Gull 
being in close company, both vessels were in imminent danger. At 
3 A. M. we narrowly escaped several icebergs. At 4 A. M., it blew a 
very heavy gale from the southwest ; the temperature of the air fell 
to 27, and that of the water was 29 ; the ice formed rapidly on the 
deck, and covered the rigging, so much as to render it difficult to 
work either the brig or schooner; dangers beset us in every direction, 
and it required all the watchfulness we were possessed of to avoid them. 

From the state of the weather, the lateness of the season, and the 
difficulty of seeing around us, not only during the several hours of the 
night, but even in the daytime, the constant fogs and mist in which 
we had been for several hours every day enveloped, rendered our 
exertions abortive, and precluded the possibility of doing any thing 

VOL. I. M2 18 



138 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 



more than to attend to the sailing of the vessels. These reasons 
determined me to give up the endeavour to proceed farther south, 
feeling convinced that the season for such explorations had gone by. 
I therefore ordered the Sea-Gull to return to Orange Harbour, well 
knowing that her situation was much worse than our own ; directing 
her to touch at Deception Island on the way, while we proceeded to 
the northward to examine some of the other islands. 




PORPOISE AND SCHOONER SEPARATING. 



When we bore away, I had the intention of passing towards the 
assigned situation of the Aurora Isles, but I found the crew so much 
enfeebled by their constant exposure, whilst some of them were 
affected with incipient scurvy, that I concluded it was better to 
return to Orange Harbour as soon as possible. We encountered great 
numbers of ice-islands, of large size ; but I shall defer speaking of 
their formation, &c., until I relate my second trip to the Antarctic 
Circle, the following year, and shall only remark here, that they were 
similar in formation and appearance to those then seen. 

We continued under easy sail, enveloped in fogs, and falling in 
repeatedly with icebergs close aboard, from which at times we escaped 
with difficulty. 



SOUTHERNCRUISE. 139 

On the 6th March the wind shifted to the northward, with snow. 
Great numbers of penguins, Cape pigeons, and whales, were around 
the vessel. 

The 7th commenced with rain and snow. The wind was light and 
from the westward; it gradually hauled to the southwestward and 
blew fresh. While making all way to the northward, the fog lifted, 
and high land was reported within a short distance of us. A few 
moments more, and we should have been wrecked. This proved to be 
Elephant Island. We found from its position that we had been set 
upwards of fifty miles to the eastward, in the last four days, by- the 
current. We passed to leeward of it. The sea was too high to 
attempt a landing. In the afternoon it cleared, and from our obser- 
vations we found Cape Belsham, its eastern point, well placed. We 
passed between it and Cornwallis Island. The Seal Rocks were also 
seen and observed upon. 

Elephant Island is high and of volcanic appearance; its valleys 
were filled with ice and snow. We tried the deep-sea temperature. 
At the surface it was found to be 36, whilst at three hundred fathoms 
it was 33. 

We now stood to the northward, and until the 14th had continued 
bad weather, accompanied with heavy seas. On this day we made 
the land. 

On the 16th we were off the Straits of Le Maire, where I again 
tried the deep-sea temperature, with a wire sounding-line, which parted 
at three hundred and forty fathoms, and we lost the apparatus. I then 
made a second experiment, with a line of rope four hundred fathoms 
in length. The temperature of the surface was 44, of the water 
below, 37. This was about sixty miles to the eastward of the place 
where I had sounded before, on the 15th February, when passing 
around Cape Horn in the Vincennes. 

March 17th, we had light winds from the eastward, and a smooth 
sea, with delightful weather. There was, however, a heavy bank of 
cumuli to the southwestward, and after a few hours' calm, the wind 
came from that quarter, and began to blow fresh, accompanied with 
heavy squalls. We did not succeed that night in reaching New 
Island, where it was my intention to have anchored and rode out the 
gale. We in consequence found ourselves the next morning thirty 
miles to the eastward of our position on the previous evening, having 
drifted at the rate of three miles an hour. From appearances, I 
inferred that the gale had set in for several days ; I therefore deter- 
mined to make for Good Success Bay, and await the breaking up of 



140 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

the storm, being satisfied we could make little progress to the west- 
ward during its continuance. 

We anchored in the bay early in the afternoon, when we took our 
boats and went on shore for a few hours. There was but little surf 
when we landed, but it rapidly increased, and one of the boats in 
attempting to pass through it filled, and after several ineffectual 
attempts, did not succeed in getting off. A boat was sent to assist, but 
returned with a report that no relief could be rendered them, and that 
they had determined to remain until morning. 

In the morning the surf had very much increased. The sea setting 
in the bay, rendered our situation uncomfortable, and somewhat 
dangerous, as we were exposed to the force of it and the wind, which 
had hauled to the southeast. 

At 1 p. M., being desirous of sending provisions to the party on shore, 
Lieutenant Hartstein was ordered to take charge of two boats, to 
communicate with them, and give them supplies. 

My intention was to effect this by having a line floated on shore by 
which to haul the seal-boat or yawl, having provisions lashed in her, 
through the surf by the party on shore. Instructions to this effect 
were given to Lieutenant Hartstein, who was enjoined not to risk the 
lives of the men. We watched them attentively with our glasses. 
Shortly after they had anchored their boats outside the surf, we 
perceived Lieutenant Hartstein and three men strapping on their life- 
preservers, and preparing themselves for a landing in the boat. I felt 
under great apprehensions of accident. Placing, however, great 
confidence in that officer's judgment, I was assured he would not risk 
the lives of the men, and his own, on such an occasion. It was with 
great anxiety we watched their proceedings ; in a few moments after- 
wards they were separated from the other boat, still apparently making 
preparations. In an instant the'y were borne on the crest of the rollers, 
and immediately disappeared. Some few minutes after, the boat was 
seen bottom up among the rollers. Presently, the other boat's crew 
were seen pulling in haste towards a person ; one was picked up, then 
another. We looked intently for the rest, but no signs of them were 
seen. We then endeavoured to count the party on shore, and we 
thought it had increased, but the constant motion of the vessel ren- 
dered it impossible to keep our glasses fixed on them for a sufficient 
length of time to ascertain their number. We now saw the boat 
returning ; it soon reached the vessel, and Lieutenant Hartstein and 
Samuel Stretch proved to be the two that had been saved. Both were 
much exhausted. The persons in the boat, while yet at a distance 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 141 

from the brig, to relieve our anxiety, gave us the joyful intelligence 
that Williams and Moore had reached the shore in safety. 

Lieutenant Hartstein, on recovering from his exhaustion, informed 
me, that on arriving at the surf and anchoring the boat, he found it 
impossible to carry into effect the intention of getting a line on shore. 
He then concluded that in the surf-boat, with oars, and a line from the 
boat outside, they might land in safety. Samuel Stretch, John Wil- 
liams, and Samuel Moore, volunteered to accompany him. They 
strapped on their life-preservers, with which they were provided, and 
were preparing themselves for the trial, when a wave curling without 
them, carried them forward with rapidity ; in an instant the boat was 
thrown end over, and they found themselves struggling for life in a 
furious surf. Had it not been for the life-preservers, they must all 
have been drow r ned. The under-tow assisted in bringing Stretch and 
himself out, (neither of whom could swim,) together with the boat. 
Williams and Moore swam to the beach. 

The night proved dark and stormy, and the squalls were furious. 

The morning of the 21st dawned with no better prospect. All our 
endeavours to get a supply of provisions to the party on shore by kites, 
&c., failed, and it was now deemed advisable for the safety of the 
brig, to slip our cables and go to sea on the making of the flood, 
which sets out of the bay. Previous to this time, we were employed 
in supplying the yawl with provisions, intending to leave her as a 
buoy to our cable and anchor ; and, to prevent her from sinking, our 
India-rubber life-spars were lashed in her. 

When the time arrived, there appeared no alteration for the better. 
We slipped our cable, and stood out of the bay under our storm-sails. 
A very heavy sea was encountered in the straits, and particularly in 
the race that is formed on the Staten Land side; but we passed 
through without difficulty or accident. When we got under the lee of 
that island, we had smooth water, almost a calm, and moderate 
weather. The contrast was great indee'd, from the violent gale we 
had just left. 

On the 22d and 23d we had light winds, and were drifted to the 
northward some thirty miles, occasionally passing through rips and 
tide eddies. We had generally between fifty and sixty fathoms water, 
with soundings of sand, shells, and coral. 

On the 24th, it being calm, we anchored in forty-four fathoms, off 
Cape St. Diego, to await the tide, and found the current running at 
the greatest strength two and a half miles per hour. ^V'- 

We did not again reach Good Success Bay until the night of the 
25th, after five days' absence, when we found the party had got the 



142 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

provisions, and were all well. At daylight on the 26th they came on 
board. On the 27th we recovered our anchor, and on the 28th set 
sail for Orange Harbour. 

On the evening of the 29th, having entered Nassau Bay, (it being 
quite dark,) as we were standing as we supposed over for Orange 
Harbour, we heard the surf, and suddenly discovered that we were 
close in and among the kelp; we immediately anchored, in six 
fathoms. 

At daylight we found ourselves in a snug cove of Wollaston's 
Island, and discovered that it was the false pack-saddle to the south- 
ward of the island which had served to mislead us. 

We were here visited by a canoe with six natives, two old women, 
two young men, and two children. The two women were paddling, 
and the fire was burning in the usual place. They approached the 
vessel, singing their rude song, " Hey meh leh," and continued it until 
they came alongside. The expression of the younger ones was ex- 
tremely prepossessing, evincing much intelligence and good humour. 
They ate ham and bread voraciously, distending their large mouths, 
and showing a strong and beautiful set of teeth. A few strips of red 
flannel distributed among them produced great pleasure ; they tied it 
around their heads as a sort of turban. Knowing they were fond of 
music, I had the fife played, the only instrument we could muster. 
They seemed much struck with the sound. The tune of Yankee 
Doodle they did not understand ; but when " Bonnets of Blue" was 
played, they were all in motion keeping time to it. The vessel at this 
time was under way, and no presents could persuade them to continue 
any longer with us. There was some disposition in the younger ones, 
but the adults refused to be taken where the fickleness of their climate 
might subject them to be blown off. We found them also extremely 
imitative, repeating over our words and mimicking our motions. 
They were all quite naked. 

I have seldom seen so happy a group. They were extremely lively 
and cheerful, and any thing but miserable, if we could have avoided 
contrasting their condition with our own. 

The colour of the young men was a pale, and of the old a dark 
copper colour. Their heads were covered with ashes, but their ex- 
terior left a pleasing impression. Contentment was pictured in their 
countenances and actions, and produced a moral effect that will long 
be remembered. 

On the 30th we reached Orange Harbour. While yet off the port, 
we made signal for the boats, and were soon joined by them, and 
learned with much pleasure that they were all well. The Sea-Gull had 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 143 

returned safely. Lieutenant Craven having entertained some fears of 
the safety of the launch, which had been absent on a surveying excur- 
sion, had despatched that vessel in pursuit of her. 

The Sea-Gull returned to Orange Harbour from the southern cruise 
on the 22d of March, having, after parting company, visited, as 
directed, Deception Island. On the morning after she left us (5th 
March,) Lieutenant Johnson gives the following account of the situation 
of the Sea-Gull : " The water was freezing about the decks, icicles, 
forming with the direction of the wind, enveloping every thing, shipping 
seas every five minutes, jib still hanging overboard, it was next to 
impossibility for us to make sail, and we should even have found diffi- 
culty in waring ship to avoid danger ; our foresheets were of the size 
of a sloop of war's cable, from being so covered with ice ; there was 
scarce a sheave that would traverse." After encountering thick and 
foggy weather, they reached Deception Island on the 10th of March, 
and anchored in Pendulum Cove. 

The weather was extremely unfavourable during his stay of a week, 
being very boisterous. The plan of this bay by Lieutenant Kendall, 
of the Chanticleer, with which I furnished Lieutenant Johnson, was 
found accurate. On their landing, the bare ground that was seen, was 
a loose black earth. The beds of the ravines and the beaches were of 
a black and reddish gravel, much resembling pumice-stone in appear- 
ance. Penguins were seen in countless numbers, or, as he expresses 
it, " covered some hundreds of acres on the hill-side." It was then the 
moulting season, and they were seen busily occupied in picking off 
each other's feathers. It was an amusing sight to see them associated 
in pairs, thus employed, and the eagerness with which the sailors 
attacked them with the oars and boat-hooks. They were not inclined 
to submit quietly to this intrusion, and in some instances readily 
gave battle. Their manner in doing it was to seize the aggressor 
with their bill, and beat him with their flippers. Their bearing 
was quite courageous, and their retreat dignified, as far as their 
ridiculous waddle would permit. They were showy-looking birds, 
with yellow topknots, and are known as the Aptenodytes chrys- 
come. 

As an accompaniment to these penguins, a small white pigeon, 
(Chironis or sheath-bill,) was found here, quite tame. These were 
easily taken in numbers. They are not web-footed, have red legs and 
bills, with perfectly white though not fine plumage. They seem to live 
entirely on the dung of the penguin, and their flesh is black, coarse, 
and unpalatable. Sailing up the bay, they descried a sea-leopard (the 
Phoca leopardina Jam), which Lieutenant Johnson succeeded in taking ; 



144 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

but by an unaccountable mistake, the skull, &c., were thrown over- 
board. Its dimensions were also omitted to be taken. 

Knowing that Captain Foster, in the Chanticleer, had left here a 
self-registering thermometer, in 1829, I directed Lieutenant Johnson 
to look for it, and note its standing. Immediately on securing the 
tender he proceeded to search for it, but notwithstanding the particular 
directions, he did not find it. Since my return home, I have received 
a letter from William H. Smiley, master of a sealing vessel that 
touched there in February, 1842, stating that he had found the ther- 
mometer, and carefully noted its minimum temperature, which was 
5 below zero. 

Lieutenant Johnson, in company with Assistant-Surgeon Whittle, 
visited an old crater, at the head of the bay, where a gentle ascent of 
about four hundred feet, brought them to the edge of an abrupt bank, 
some twenty feet high, surrounding the crater on the bay side. The 
crater was about fifteen hundred feet in diameter, from east to west, 
bounded on the west or farther side by lofty hills, with many ravines, 
which had apparently been much washed by heavy rains. This led to 
the belief that the water found within the crater would be fresh, but its 
taste, and the incrustation of salt found on its borders, showed that it 
was not so. Near the east end of the crater, the water boils in many 
places, sometimes bubbling out of the side of a bank, at others near the 
water's edge, with a hissing noise. The surface water was found to 
be on a level with the waters of the bay, and to be milk-warm. A few 
inches below, it was perceptibly colder. No thermometric observa- 
tions were obtained. The ground near the Boiling Springs was quite 
hot. In the vicinity were lying quantities of cellular and scoriaceous 
lava. The only sign of vegetation was a lichen, growing in small 
tufts, around the mouth of several small craters, of three or four feet 
in diameter. From these a heated vapour is constantly issuing, 
accompanied by much noise. Before they returned to the tender, they 
were overtaken by a violent snow-storm from the northeast, and with 
difficulty reached the cove without the boat, having been compelled to 
leave it at the opposite side of the bay, for the force of the wind was 
such as to render all their efforts to pull against it useless. This 
weather continued with much snow for three days, when it ceased 
snowing, but still blew heavy. It was the intention of Lieutenant 
Johnson to carry over the yawl, for the purpose of sounding in the 
crater, to ascertain its depth, and get its temperature, which it is to be 
regretted was not done. On the 17th of March they sailed from 
Deception Island, having left a bottle enclosing reports, tied to a flag- 
staff. This was afterwards found by Captain Smiley, who mentions in 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 145 

his letter to me, that in February, 1842, the whole south side of 
Deception Island appeared as if on fire. He counted thirteen 
volcanoes in action. He is of opinion that the island is undergoing 
many changes. He likewise reports that Palmer's Land consists of 
a number of islands, between which he has entered, and that the pas- 
sages are deep, narrow, and dangerous. 

The Sea-Gull, after a stormy passage, reached Orange Harbour on 
the 22d, with all hands much exhausted. She was despatched by 
Lieutenant Craven the next day, as before stated, in search of the 
launch, (which had been absent eleven days,) on the route she had 
been ordered to pursue. 

In passing over from Hermit Island to that of Evout's, during a 
brisk gale and heavy sea, the launch, in towing, filled, broke adrift, 
and was lost. The men had all been previously ordered out of her, 
and most of the articles removed. The Sea-Gull again reached 
Orange Harbour on the 5th. 

On her arrival, finding the launch had not completed the duties 
pointed out, I again despatched the Sea-Gull tender, to finish them, 
particularly to examine and survey a harbour on the east side of 
Wollaston's Island. She accordingly sailed the next day, and suc- 
ceeded in performing the required duty, having surveyed a very safe 
and convenient harbour on the east side, and ascertained that the so- 
called Wollaston Island formed two islands. Leaving to the eastern- 
most the name of Wollaston, I have given to the western the name of 
Baily, after Francis Baily, Esq., the well-known Vice-President of the 
Royal Society, as a small memento of the obligation the Expedition 
and myself are under to him, for the great interest he took in the 
equipments, and the kindness shown me while in London when pro- 
curing the instruments. The harbour that lies between these two 
islands was named after the Sea-Gull. A chart of it will be found in 
the Hydrographical Atlas. Lieutenant Johnson was again transferred 
to the Vincennes. On the 12th, the Flying-Fish arrived, bringing 
news of the Peacock and their operations, which will be detailed in 
the following chapter. 




VOL. i. N 19 



CHAPTER VIII. 



CONTENTS. 

DEPARTURE OF PEACOCK AND FLYING-FISH-GALE RETURN TO ANCHOR-FINAL 
DEPARTURE - DIEGO RAMIERES GALE SEPARATION DEFECTIVE OUTFITS OF 
PEACOCK-CURRENT-GALE-ACCIDENT TO WILLIAM STUART HIS RESCUE -DEATH 
-FIRST ICEBERG DIP OBSERVATIONS WEATHER -ICEBERGS AND SNOW-GALE 
SITUATION OF PEACOCK-BIRDS-AURORA AUSTRALIS-DEEP-SEA SOUNDING-FOG- 
PETRELSBREAKING ASUNDER OF ICEBERGS DENSE FOG DANGERS SNOW-STORM- 
OBSERVATIONS FLYING-FISH REJOINS LIEUTENANT WALKER'S REPORT SITUATION 
OF VESSELS COUNCIL OF OFFICERS CAPTAIN HUDSON RESOLVES TO RETURN- 
WEATHER AURORA GALE SHIP ON FIRE FLYING-FISH DESPATCHED FOR ORANGE 
HARBOUR GALE ACCIDENT TO ROYAL HOPE PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SEA WHALE- 
SHIP ARRIVAL OF PEACOCK AT VALPARAISO FIND THE RELIEF LIEUTENANT- 
COMMANDANT LONG'S INSTRUCTIONS DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED GALE TOWER 
ROCKS ANCHOR UNDER NOIR ISLAND DANGEROUS POSITION LOSS OF ANCHORS * 
AWFUL NIGHT PART CABLES NARROW ESCAPE CONDUCT OF COMMANDANT AND 
OFFICERS-COUNCILDETERMINATION OF IT PROCEED TO VALPARAISO ARRIVAL 
OFF THE PORT COMMANDANT LOCKE, H. B. M. SHIP FLY RELIEF ANCHORS 
ARRIVAL OF FLYING-FISH AT ORANGE HARBOUR PREPARATIONS FOR DEPARTURE- 
WINDS TEMPERATURE BAROMETRICAL RANGE CLIMATE ANIMALS WOLF BIRDS 
-ORANGE HARBOUR -VINCENNES AND PORPOISE TAKE THHIR DEPARTURE-SEA- 
GULL AND FLYING-FISH TO AWAIT THE RELIEF-ANCHOR IN SCAPENHAM BAY- 
GALE-ORANGE BAY-FINAL DEPARTURE VINCENNES AND PORPOISE PART COMPANY 
ALBATROSS-DYSENTERY-ISLAND OF MOCHA TRADE- WINDS VINCENNES' ARRIVAL 
AT VALPARAISO ARRIVAL OF PORPOISE AND FLYING-FISH-HEAVY GALE SEA- 
GULL LAST SEEN WHALER. 



(H7) 






CHAPTER VIII. 

SOUTHERN CRUISE CONTINUED. 
1839. 

AT 10 A. M., on the 25th of February, the Peacock, with the tender 
Flying-Fish, got under way, and also received parting cheers from 
the Vincennes and Relief as they passed out of the harbour. The 
wind, as with the Porpoise, was light and variable until the afternoon, 
when they likewise encountered the heavy squall from the southwest, 
which with the thick weather induced Captain Hudson to regain the 
outer anchorage of Orange Harbour, and remain there during the 
continuance of the gaje. The next morning, the weather proving 
more favourable, J;hey again got under way, and stood down the bay, 
with all sail set, and a fine breeze from the northward. Although they 
were passing rapidly through the water, when off Point Lort they 
found the flood tide so strong as to impede their progress. Indeed, 
such was its strength, that for a portion of the time they made little or 
no headway; and the tide being contrary to the wind, produced a 
cross and very unpleasant sea. By meridian, they had reached the 
island of Diego Ramieres. 

The heavy bank of cumuli that had been perceived in the west, by 
noon began to develope itself, and by three o'clock they were under 
their storm-sails. The barometer, which was at 29-21 in., began to rise 
as it came on. This gale lasted twenty-four hours, and during its con- 
tinuance the tender Flying-Fish was lost sight of. Captain Hudson in 
his instructions to Lieutenant Walker, notified him that the Peacock 
would wait twelve hours in or near the situation where last seen ; 
which he now did ; but no tidings being received of the tender, he 
bore away for their first rendezvous, having taken the precaution to 
fix four places of meeting. 

During the last gale, from her bad and defective outfits, no vessel 

N2 4 



150 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

could be more uncomfortable than the Peacock, and although every 
precaution was taken to make the ports tight, yet from their working, 
it was found impossible to keep them so. 

After the gale, they found they had been set about three miles per 
hour to the southeast. Until the 3d of March, they had moderate 
weather. On the morning of the 4th of March, the barometer stood 
at 28-34 in. Shortly afterwards it began to rise, and a gale set in 
which blew heavily for several hours, when the weather again mode- 
rated, but the sea continued very high, and rendered the ship extremely 
wet. The wind varied from south-by-west to west-northwest. 

On the 7th they again had squalls of snow and rain, with strong 
gales. On the 9th, although the weather had moderated, yet the sea 
was very heavy, and the ship tossed and tumbled about in every 
direction. William Stewart, captain of the main-top, was this day 
knocked off the yard, and in his fall struck the main rigging, but he 
canted and fell overboard, when he was seen to lie quite insensible, 
feet up, supported by his exploring boots, which were supposed to 
have occasioned his fall. A bowline was thrown over them, and he 
was dexterously drawn on board again. The ship had but little 
headway, and it would have been impossible to lower a boat on 
account of the roughness of the sea ; his rescue was therefore almost 
miraculous. Every care was taken of him, but it was soon found that 
the violence of the concussion had been so great that his lungs had 
become gorged with blood, and little hopes were entertained of his 
recovery. After lingering to the llth, he died. He was greatly 
regretted by both officers and men, for he had proved himself an 
excellent man, and was well calculated for the service. On tjie same 
day his body was committed to the deep, with the usual ceremonies. 

This day they made the first iceberg. The only indication in the 
air or water on approaching it, was a fall of two degrees in the tem- 
perature of the former, and one degree in the latter. Their position 
was in latitude 64 S., and longitude 80 W. 

On the 13th the weather proved fine and the sea smooth, affording 
an opportunity of making dip observations. These gave it 75. The 
variation was 33-30 E. Their position was in latitude 64 27' S., 
longitude 84 W. 

On the 14th, Captain Hudson remarked a great and striking change 
in the weather since they passed the 62 of south latitude, it having 
become much more settled, and free from the sudden squalls and con- 
stant gales they had experienced since leaving Cape Horn. Several 
birds were shot this day, including an albatross and many penguins. 
Petrels and Cape pigeons were seen. They now began to fall in with 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 151 

icebergs in numbers. The temperature of the water and air had fallen 
to 33 and 32. 

On the 15th and 16th they had very many icebergs as their compa- 
nions, mostly of fantastic shapes, much worn and broken, disagree- 
able weather, with snow-squalls passing over. A continued twilight 
in the horizon and slight appearances of the aurora were seen, but no 
rays. 

They encountered, during the 17th, and part of the 18th, the 
heaviest gale and sea they had experienced since leaving the United 
States. The thermometer in the air stood at 21 of Fahrenheit, and 
in the water at 28. The ship was completely coated with ice, even 
to the gun-deck. Every spray thrown over her froze, and her bows 
and deck were fairly packed with it. The crew suffered much from 
the gun-deck being constantly wet; and it being now covered with ice, 
the ship was damp throughout. 

On the 18th, the gale continued, with a heavy sea, the winds prevail- 
ing more from the south and south-southeast. There were many birds 
about the ship; among them a sheath-bill, which Mr. Peale made 
every exertion to take, but without success. A blue petrel was, 
however, caught. Several icebergs were in sight, and at night they 
had a beautiful display of the aurora australis, extending from south- 
southwest to east. The rays were of many colours, radiating towards 
the zenith, and reaching an altitude of 30. Several brilliant meteors 
were also observed. 

Hot coffee was now served to the crew at midnight, or at relieving 
of the watch, which proved exceedingly acceptable. The temperature 
of the ay had fallen to 22, and of the water to 28. 

On the 19th they had another display of the aurora, and it exhibited 
a peculiar effect. In the southern quarter there was an appearance of 
a dense cloud, resembling a shadow cast upon the sky, and forming 
an arch, about 10 in altitude. Above this were seen coruscations of 
light, rendering all objects around the ship visible. From behind this 
cloud, diverging rays frequently shot up to an altitude of from 25 to 
45. These appearances continued until day dawned. The night was 
remarkably fine, and many shooting stars were observed. The 
barometer stood at 29-77 in. During the afternoon of this day, a fog- 
bank was perceived in the southwestern quarter, and they were a 
short time afterwards completely enveloped in a fog so dense and 
thick, that they could not see twice the length of the ship. Fortu- 
nately, before it closed in, they were enabled to get good bearings of 
the different icebergs in sight, and particularly of those which closely 
surrounded them. 



152 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

On the 20th, they had moderate weather, with fogs. They had now 
reached the longitude of 90 W., latitude 68 S., and obtained a sight 
of the icy barrier. The fog becoming dense, they were obliged to 
heave the ship to ; the sea being smooth, they took the opportunity to 
sound with the deep-sea line, with the apparatus for temperature. The 
line being of copper wire, they succeeded in getting out eight hundred 
fathoms of it ; but when they began to reel it up, it parted, and the 
whole was lost. The noise of the sea beating on the icebergs was 
frequently heard close aboard, and several loud sounds resembling 
thunder, which they imputed to the breaking asunder and turning over 
of large icebergs. 

The dip was also tried, and was made 78 ; the variation was found 
to be 33 easterly. On the fog lifting, they found themselves in near 
proximity to icebergs arid field-ice. Some few petrels were seen 
about the ship, of a different species from any heretofore observed by 
us. All trials to obtain one proved unsuccessful. 

During the whole of the 21st they could not venture to run, in 
consequence of the dense fog, which lasted all day, with the exception 
of about an hour. Mr. Peale having shot one of the petrels, of the 
same kind as seen the day before, a boat was lowered to pick it up, 
of which advantage was taken to try the current. It was found setting 
one-third of a mile per hour to the northwest-by-west. 

The 22d also proved foggy. At daylight the fog lifted for a few 
moments, and they discovered the icy barrier extending from north- 
east-by-north to southeast-by-east. At about 9 A. M. the fog again 
lifted, when they discovered icebergs all around them, rendering their 
position extremely dangerous. Every endeavour was made tfo effect 
their escape as soon as possible. Besides petrels, Cape pigeons, &c., 
a flock of tern was seen. 

The wind continuing from the northward and westward, they wore 
ship to the northward. In the latter part of the day, considering their 
situation in the vicinity of so many icebergs too dangerous to be held 
under such circumstances, they therefore made sail, and ran off to seek 
a more open sea. Many whales were seen and heard during the last 
few days. 

On the 23d it partly cleared, and the fog having been succeeded by 
a snow-storm, the wind hauled to the west, with a heavy bank of 
clouds in that quarter. The barometer showed no indication of a 
gale ; the weather turned out thick, and prevented them from seeing any 
distance. They had some severe squalls, accompanied with snow. On 
the 24th, the wind hauling to the northward and westward, brought 
snow and thick weather, with some heavy squalls. Many icebergs 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 153 

were met with, which were fortunately avoided. A sharp look-out 
was kept for them, and the ship put in readiness to perform any 
manoeuvre that might be desirable. Some of the icebergs were two 
hundred feet above the surface of the water, and of a pinnacle shape. 
The snow continued to fall fast, rendering the ship uncomfortably wet. 

On the 25th, the fog continued until near meridian. Many birds 
were seen about the ship, and many fin-back whales. They obtained 
a meridian observation, the first for the last six days, and found them- 
selves in the latitude of 68 S., longitude 97 58' W. Here, in the 
evening, to their great joy, they fell in with the tender Flying-Fish. 
On her near approach, all hands were turned up, and gave her three 
hearty cheers. Lieutenant Walker came on board, and reported to 
Captain Hudson as follows. 

That he had visited all the appointed rendezvous in hopes of falling 
in with the Peacock, but without success, having encountered very 
severe and boisterous weather. On the 18th they left the fourth 
rendezvous, having passed the 17th in its vicinity. They then turned 
towards the south for Cook's Ne Plus Ultra, and continued their way 
to the southward. The weather was at times very thick, the ice 
islands became numerous, and they occasionally passed a little floating 
ice. On the 18th the ice became abundant, and floated in large masses 
around them. At 4 A. M. the water was much discoloured, and some 
of the ice also having the appearance of being but lately detached from 
the land. They obtained a cast of the lead, but found no bottom at one 
hundred fathoms. At eight o'clock the fog lifted, and discovered, to the 
amazement of all, a wall of ice from fifteen to twenty feet high, 
extending east and west as far as the eye could reach, and spreading 
out into a vast and seemingly boundless field to the south. This wall 
was formed of masses of all sizes, and various shapes and colours. 
Their latitude at this time was about 67 30' S., longitude 105 W. 
The weather becoming thick, they stood to the northward, and soon 
ran into blue water. 

On the 21st, at 7 A. M., they saw the ice extending in broken ranges 
from south-by-east to northeast, and the sea extending round to the 
westward. At eight o'clock, the water was again much discoloured, 
and many large icebergs were around. At meridian, their latitude was 
68 41' S., longitude 103 34' W., when they again stood to the south- 
ward, running among the ice-islands with a fair wind, flattering them- 
selves that they should before noon of the next day get further south 
than Cook had. But their hopes were soon blasted ; for the weather 
became thick, and they were in consequence obliged to heave-to. The 
wind soon freshened to a gale, accompanied by a heavy sea. 

VOL. i. 20 



154 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

March 22d, from midnight to four o'clock, a fresh gale, with rain. 
The weather lighting up at intervals, made them aware that they were 
in the midst of innumerable ice-islands, so closely packed as scarcely to 
afford a passage between them. At four, the wind still continuing fresh 
and the weather misty, they stood to the northward and eastward. 
The weather grew thicker and became colder. Shortly after the fog 
lifted, and they found themselves surrounded by narrow fields of ice, 
with contracted passages between them, extending in a direction 
perpendicular to that of the wind. As far as the eye could reach were 
icebergs, packed and floating, in all directions. After a short exami- 
nation, some places appeared where the ice was not so compact. At 
one of these, they succeeded in passing through. Fresh gales and 
thick weather followed, and they still passed numbers of icebergs, of 
from eighty to one hundred feet in height, with the sea breaking on 
them. 

On the morning of the 23d, their latitude was 70 S., longitude 
100 16' W. The weather proved clear. In the afternoon they again 
stood to the southward and eastward for three hours, when they 
observed the appearance of land, and discovered large masses of ice 
and numerous icebergs. At midnight the southern horizon was beauti- 
fully illuminated with the aurora australis. 

On the 24th of March, they had a heavy fall of snow ; passed many 
icebergs, and large qualities of floating ice ; got suddenly into large 
fields of packed and broken ice, extending as far as the eye could 
reach, in all directions, which, with the accumulation of snow, 
appeared to be rapidly becoming solid. They lost no time in forcing 
their way out. All on board were of opinion, that within a short time 
after they cleared it, it became a firm field of ice. The latitude observed 
was 69 06' S., longitude 96 50' W. 

Having on two occasions narrowly escaped being closed in by the 
ice, Lieutenant Walker had determined to return, and was making his 
way to the north when he fell in with the Peacock. 

The nights having become long, with the interruptions occasioned 
by fogs and snow-storms, afforded but little time for running the 
vessels among the icebergs, whose numbers rendered the navigation 
extremely hazardous. The condition of the Peacock for a winter's 
campaign, was miserable, and on board the Flying-Fish there was no 
protection in the event of being frozen in. The positive nature of his 
instructions, combined with the report of Lieutenant Walker, convinced 
Captain Hudson of the necessity of turning the vessels' heads towards 
a more temperate climate. On holding a council with his officers, he 
found them all of the opinion that the season for active operations in 

. 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 155 

these latitudes had passed, and that it was advisable for the vessels to 
proceed without delay to the north. 

He remarks in his report (which, together with Lieutenant Walker's, 
will be found in Appendix XXXI.), " That it required more moral 
courage than I can well describe, to bring my mind to this decision, 
for we had at that moment less ice about us than at any time since we 
had entered among it; but I felt satisfied, taking all things into 
consideration, that nothing more could be done at this late season, and 
that it would be recklessly hazarding the lives of those entrusted to 
my care, jeoparding the vessels, and of great detriment to the future 
operations of the Expedition, which an honest conviction of the duty 
I owed my country, most decidedly forbade." The vessels accord- 
ingly steered to the northward. 

The weather, during the cruise south, was exceedingly unfavour- 
able ; for, with few exceptions, during their stay in the Antarctic 
Circle, they were enveloped in dense fogs, or found only occasional 
relief from them in falls of snow. The crew during the whole time 
enjoyed an unusual degree of health, which is not a little surprising ; 
for, since leaving Orange Harbour, the state of the ship had been such 
as to promote disease. The precautions and endeavours to keep the 
men dry, entirely failed, from the condition of the ship, heretofore 
referred to. 

On the night of the 26th, they had again a slight display of the 
aurora, its radiations extending 30 in altitude. Fresh gales blew 
from the northwest, with a heavy sea, so that the tender found diffi- 
culty in keeping company, and they reduced sail in order to avoid 
parting with her. 

The fresh gales continued on the 27th, accompanied with rain. 
Towards night it cleared a little, and, with the aid of the young moon, 
they were enabled to run through the ice. 

The weather proved thick on the 28th and 29th, and they had little 
opportunity of making progress to the north, against the northwest 
winds, which were light. On this night a new danger beset them, that 
of being consumed by fire ! At midnight, on the 29th of March, they 
were aroused by the smell of burning and smoke, issuing from the 
main hold. The usual orders were given relative to the magazine. 
The drum beat to quarters. On opening the main hatch, smoke issued 
out in volumes, and fire was discovered under it, proceeding from a 
bag in full blaze. This was soon passed on deck, and the fire extin- 
guished. It was fortunately discovered in time, and was found to pro- 
ceed from a quantity of coffee, which had been put below, in the bag, 
after it had been burnt or roasted, the previous afternoon. 



156 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

On the 1st of April, in latitude 60 12' S., longitude 84 20' W., 
Captain Hudson despatched the tender to Orange Harbour, with his 
reports to me, and continued his route to Valparaiso. The last ice- 
bergs seen were in latitude 62 30' S., longitude 87 41' W. ; the 
temperature of air 33 ; of water 35. 

Captain Hudson speaks in the highest terms of his officers and crew, 
of their promptness and efficiency in the performance of their respective 
duties, and of their cordial co-operation in carrying out his views. 

They experienced a gale of wind on the 6th and 7th of April, in 
which the barometer fell to 28-71 inches. Some of the squalls were 
remarkably heavy, and the sea high and topping. The gale began at 
northwest, varying to the eastward, and suddenly changed to west- 
southwest; latitude 52 47' S., longitude 84 W. 

On the 9th, Royal Hope, ordinary seaman, fell from aloft, but did 
not experience any injury. In latitude 51 S., longitude 82 W., the 
sea again showed signs of phosphorescence : the temperature of the 
water was 46. 

On the llth, they had reached the latitude of 47 30' S., longitude 
80 W., and the weather began to moderate, having passed the stormy 
latitudes of from 50 to 60 S., where the heaviest winds and seas are 
met with. 

The wind, on the 13th of April, in the latitude of 40 S., began to 
draw to the eastward, and gradually passed into the trade-wind. The 
15th of April was the first fair day they had had since the 25th of 
February. 

On the 16th of April, they had much phosphorescence, appearing 
as it were in sheets of liquid fire : the temperature of the water 58 ; 
latitude 36 S., longitude 75 W. 

On the 17th, they spoke the whale-ship Francis, and afforded her 
medical assistance. Until the 20th, they had very light airs, inclining 
to calms. On the evening of the 19th, they made the land of Chili ; 
and on the 21st the Peacock arrived in Valparaiso, where to their 
surprise they found our store-ship the Relief, which had arrived at 
Valparaiso some days previous. 

The Relief left Orange Harbour on the 26th of February, (a copy 
of her instructions will be found in Appendix XXX.,) for the purpose 
of visiting various places in the Straits of Magellan, to afford an op- 
portunity of making investigations, and opening a larger field for our 
naturalists during the fifty or sixty days they were to be detained on 
the coast. Most of the scientific gentlemen were accordingly trans- 
ferred to her ; and she was ordered to enter the Brecknock Passage, 
and thence into Cockburn Sound, of which we had King's valuable 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 157 

chart ; and I thought that the passage into the strait was more feasible, 
and might be sooner accomplished by that route than by taking the 
eastern passage, particularly as the wind was favourable. I also 
thought it would enable them to explore more parts of the straits, and 
those which had been least visited. 

Various difficulties prevented her reaching the entrance to the 
Brecknock Passage, principally that of keeping too far off the coast 
on long tacks to the southward. 

On the 17th of March, after being at sea twenty days, they ap- 
proached the coast, and a gale ensuing from the southwest, Lieutenant- 
Commandant Long, on the following day, determined to run in and 
anchor under Noir Island, which is spoken of by King as an excellent 
harbour. The wind was blowing a gale from the southwest, with 
thick weather and hail-squalls. Noir Island was discovered under the 
lee, judged to be about twelve miles distant, when they steered for it. 
It becoming thick, they did not discover the Tower Rocks until they 
were almost up with, and just had time to clear them. These rocks 
presented a magnificent and fearful sight, the sea breaking completely 
over them. Three anchors were prepared. They rounded the south- 
east point of the island, and stood in for the bay. At about five o'clock 
they anchored in seventeen fathoms, and the anchor took effect. 

On the morning of the 19th, the highest point of Noir Island was 
seen, capped with snow; the wind had abated somewhat, but not 
enough to permit of their landing in a snug little cove abreast of them. 
In the afternoon the wind again increased, and another anchor was 
let go. There was much sea, and the ship rode very uneasy at her 
anchor. The sea broke tremendously on the reef astern, shooting up 
in columns, such as are seen to appear under the effect of mirage. 
After it became dark, the wind shifted to the southward and eastward, 
which brought the sea from that quarter, and exposed them more both 
to it and the wind. The anchors shortly after began to drag, and the 
vessel was urged in the direction of a rock. Fortunately the wind 
abated towards morning, and came from its old quarter, southwest, 
more off the land, but still blew with violence. 

On the morning of the 20th, one of their chain cables was found to 
have parted. The chain was hove in with some difficulty, and another 
anchor let go. The weather towards evening became again threaten- 
ing, and produced no little anxiety. At nightfall it shifted in the same 
way it had done the previous evening, blowing again heavily. The 
ship was felt to be constantly dragging, accompanied by that grating 
kind of noise of the chain moving on the bottom, which is any thing 

but agreeable. The rock astern, together with the reef toward which 
o 



158 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

the wind and sea were both setting the ship, rendered their situation 
truly appalling. The prospect of any one surviving, in case they had 
struck, was extremely slight. The night was dark and stormy, and 
the dragging continued occasionally until midnight, when they found 
they had passed and escaped the rock, and were near the reef. They 
now shipped a heavy sea over the bows, the shock of which was so 
great that it parted their cables, and their drifting became rapid. 
From the set of the current, they just cleared the reef. When the 
point of the island bore east of south, they slipped their cables, wore 
round, and made sail; and on the 21st, at daybreak, they found them- 
selves off Cape Gloucester. 

The conduct of Lieutenant-Commandant Long, his officers and men, 
during the perilous situation in which the Relief was placed, deserves 
great praise ; they did their duty in every respect. On getting to sea, 
Lieutenant-Commandant Long, with a council of officers, opened his 
sealed instructions, which directed him to proceed to Valparaiso, in the 
event of not finding me on his return to Orange Harbour ; and con- 
cluded to make for Valparaiso, off which port he arrived on the 13th 
of April, without anchors, which soon became known to Commandant 
Locke, of her Britannic Majesty's ship Fly. He, in the most prompt 
and handsome manner, despatched a boat with an anchor to the 
assistance of the Relief; and it affords me great pleasure to acknow- 
ledge the obligation we feel for this opportune service. The next 
day the Relief anchored in the bay of Valparaiso. 

But to return to Orange Harbour. 

The Flying-Fish arrived on the llth April. The duties of the 
observatory having been completed, the instruments were embarked, 
and every thing made ready for our departure. During the Vincennes' 
stay here of sixty days, we found the weather exceedingly changeable. 
The winds prevailed forty-seven days from the westward, twelve days 
from the north and eastward, and one from the southeast. The mean 
temperature was 44*36 ; maximum, 56, minimum, 32. During this 
time there were eleven gales of wind, of from two to three days' duration. 

The mean range of the barometer was 29*801 in. ; its movement in 
predicting the weather, was directly opposite to that observed in other 
latitudes, the gales always commencing when the barometer began 
to rise, fine weather generally continuing until it reached its minimum, 
29*109 in., to which it sinks in from twenty-four to thirty-six hours, 
and where it remained stationary for a few hours, during all which 
time the weather continued good. As the barometer begins to rise, 
the gales come on, and continue until the mercury again reaches 
nearly its maximum point, 30*244 in. 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 159 

There were but few days on which rain did not fall during some 
portion of the twenty-four hours, but seldom heavily ; lightning and 
thunder occurred once during the time. The climate may be called 
extremely boisterous, although from the fact of the natives being with- 
out any kind of covering, one would suppose it cannot be very variable 
as to temperature, throughout the year. The want of clothing is not, 
however, peculiar to all the natives ; those seen at Good Success Bay 
were well covered with guanacoe-skins, and are a finer-looking and 
taller race of men. 

Observations of any kind are difficult to be had at Orange Harbour, 
either by day or night. 

While Lieutenant Carr and his party were at the observatory, a 
wolf was seen, at which Midshipman Clark fired, but supposed he 
was not shot. The next morning he was found dead at a short dis- 
tance from the place. He appeared very ferocious and fearless. Mr. 
Drayton made a correct drawing of him, and a number of measure- 
ments were taken. The hair was long over the whole body, and that 
about the neck and shoulders stood erect. It was a male, "weighed 
fifteen pounds and three quarters, and measured, from nose to tip of 
tail, three feet six and three-fourths inches, and stood sixteen inches 
and a half high ; colour of back, top of head and tail, gray, the latter 
with a tuft of black at its end ; sides of head and outside of legs 
reddish brown ; white between the legs and on the belly. Dr. Fox 
some days afterwards shot a female near the same place ; she had 
attacked one of the men, and seized his pea-jacket. 

The wolf is the only land animal that is a native of the soil, and is 
supposed the same as that described by Captain King. The natives 
have many dogs. 

Of land birds, we found the upland goose, a most beautiful eagle, a 
few plover, and some small birds. There are great quantities of wild 
fowl, geese, ducks, and the usual sea birds, to be seen at all times in 
the harbour, where they find abundance of food among the kelp. 

A number of burnt human bones were dug up in a cave; but 
whether the natives burn their dead or not, we had no opportunity of 
ascertaining. 

Orange Harbour is an excellent place to obtain wood and water. 
The latter is easily procured and of good quality. Winter-bark may 
be obtained here in large quantities ; scurvy-grass and wild celery are 
also plentiful around the shores ; and fish are in abundance. 

As a resort for vessels in distress or affected with scurvy, &c. &c., 
this port may be recommended ; and it is the only one on this coast 
that offers a safe and convenient harbour to supply their wants. 



160 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

On the 17th April, the time having expired for the return of the 
Relief, I concluded to leave Orange Harbour with the Vincennes and 
Porpoise. Believing the Relief had been detained, the Flying-Fish and 
Sea-Gull tenders were both left to await her arrival, for ten days, to 
take the scientific gentlemen on board, and join us at Valparaiso, in 
order to prevent detention by the slow sailing of that ship. 

We got under way; but the wind drawing ahead, with appearances 
of bad weather, we anchored in Scapenham Bay. The weather 
becoming stormy, and thinking the place in which we were anchored 
too much exposed, we again got under way, ran back, and anchored 
in Orange Bay. 

Before leaving these desolate and stormy regions, it may be expected 
that I should say a few words relative to the passage round the Cape. 
There are so many opinions relative to the best manner of proceeding 
in this navigation, that one in consulting them derives but little 
satisfaction, no two authorities agreeing in their views upon the 
subject. I am inclined to believe that as much depends upon the 
vessel, and the manner in which she is navigated, as the route pursued, 
whether the Cape is passed close to, or given a good berth : the object 
of all is to pass it as quickly as possible, and taking into consideration 
the difficulties to be incurred from boisterous weather, heavy seas, and 
ic it is impossible to lay down any precise rule : that course which 
appears most feasible at the time ought to be adopted, keeping, how- 
ever, in view, that there is no danger to be apprehended in navigating 
on the western coast of Terra del Fuego, as the current sets along its 
coast, and it is perfectly safe and practicable to navigate it as far as 
Cape Pillar. The great difficulty exists in passing the pitch of the 
Cape ; there is none afterwards in getting to the westward. On the 
coast, the wind seldom blows long from the same quarter, but veers 
from southwest to northwest : the gales generally begin at the former 
quarter and end at the latter. Previous to the southwest gales, it 
would, therefore, in all cases, be advisable, when indications of their 
occurrence are visible, (which are known by the banks of cumuli in 
that quarter, some twenty-four hours previously,) to stand to the south- 
ward and westward in preference, with as much sail as well can be 
carried, that when the change occurs, you may be ready to stand on 
the other tack to the northward. One thing every navigator ought to 
bear in mind, that it requires all the activity and perseverance he may 
be possessed of, to accomplish it quickly. 

On the 20th we took our final leave of these waters, and on the 
21st lost sight of land, passing to the northward of the island of Diego 
Ramieres. 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 1G] 

On the 23d, during a strong gale, we parted company with the 
Porpoise. On the 28th, found ourselves in longitude 78 30' W., 
latitude 56 30' S., when I kept away to the northward, it blowing 
violently from the southward and westward, with a heavy sea. 

On the 30th, we had reached the latitude of 43 S., longitude 76 
W., when the wind came out from the northward. It being a mild 
day, we caught with a small hook, several fine albatrosses, ten feet six 
inches from wing to wing. They were preserved as specimens. 

Immediately after leaving Orange Harbour, dysentery made its 
appearance on board the Vincennes, and ran through the whole ship's 
company. Some of the officers were also affected. It proved of a 
very mild type, and readily yielded to medical treatment. Upon our 
arrival at Valparaiso, it had entirely disappeared. The medical 
officers were unable to account for it, the health of the ship's company 
having been very good during our stay at Orange Harbour. It was 
not thought to be owing to the water, as they had been using it for 
two months without any bad effect, but I think must be imputed to the 
cold and wet we experienced in the first part of the passage. 

On the 10th, we made the island of Mocha. The northerly wind 
continued until the llth of May, when we had a gale for several hours. 
The barometer indicated this gale by a fall of .300 in. This gale 
seemed to break up our adverse winds, and we were shortly after- 
wards enabled to lay our course. This was the first fair wind for nine 
days, the head winds having continued from the 2d till the llth instant. 

On the 13th, in latitude 36 S., we took the trade-winds, Cape 
pigeons, and albatrosses still continuing with us. 

On the 15th we made the land off Valparaiso, and before noon 
anchored in the bay, where we found the Peacock, and received 
tidings that the Relief had sailed with the store-ship Mariposa for 
Callao. The Porpoise arrived on the 16th, and the Flying-Fish 
reached Valparaiso on the 19th, after having experienced extremely 
boisterous weather. 




RELIEF AT NOIR ISLAND. 
VOL. I. O2 21 



CHAPTER IX. 



CONTENTS. 

APPROACH THE COAST CORDILLERAS VISIT TO AUTHORITIES OF VALPARAISO- 
LANDING OP INSTRUMENTS CUSTOM-HOUSE OFFICERS MR. COOD OBSERVATORY 
G. G. HOBSON, ESa. NORTHERS PERCEPTIBLE CHANGE IN THE BAY VALPARAISO- 
DESCRIPTION OF IT-ITS ORDER AND GOVERNMENT-TRAIT OF CHILIANS-POLICE- 
THEIR SIGNAL SHOPS AMUSEMENTS CHINGANO DANCES SAMACUEC A HIGHER 
CLASSES DRESS TASTE FOR MUSIC FONDNESS FOR FLOWERS GENERAL PRIETO 
-HONOURS PAID HIM-BALL DESCRIPTION OF IT. 



(163) 



CHAPTER IX. 

CHILI. 

1839. 

ON approaching the coast of Chili, every one is anxious to get a 
sight of the Cordilleras. There are only two periods during the day 
in which they can be seen to advantage, viz. : in the morning before 
sunrise, and in the evening at sunset. The first is the most striking 
view. The outline is at that time of a golden hue, and may be easily 
traced, in a long line, running north and south. This gradually 
brightens, and is lost the moment the sun is seen. 

The evening view gives rise to disappointment. The mountains are 
seen at a great distance (eighty miles in a bird's flight) reflecting the 
setting sun, and, in consequence, appear much lower than is anticipated. 

On our arrival at Valparaiso, I lost no time in establishing the 
observatory. The officers and scientific gentlemen were assigned to 
such duties as were deemed most desirable to insure the results in the 
different departments. 

The authorities, whom I at once called upon in company with our 
consul, were exceedingly kind and attentive, and gave every offer of 
assistance. 

The officers of the customs readily gave me permission to land all 
my instruments. Mr. Good, an English gentleman, kindly offered our 
consul to place at my disposition an unoccupied house on the hill. 
Although it was some distance to mount up, as it was quiet and out of 
the way, I accepted the kind offer, and occupied it. 

As I was desirous of avoiding all unnecessary delay, not only on 
account of the loss of time we had already met with, but because the 
season was approaching when the northers might be expected, every 
exertion was made to supply our wants, and through the kindness and 
attention of our consul, G. G. Hobson, Esq., this was effected in the 

(165) 



166 CHILI. 

shortest possible time. The northers are greatly dreaded, although I 
think without much cause. One of them, and the last of any force, I 
had myself experienced in June, 1822, (whilst in command of a 
merchant vessel.) In it eighteen sail of vessels were lost. But since 
that time vessels are much better provided with cables and anchors, 
and what proved a disastrous storm then, would now scarcely be felt. 
I do not deem the bay so dangerous as it has the name of being. The 
great difficulty of the port is its confined space, and in the event of a 
gale, the sea that sets in is so heavy, that vessels are liable to come in 
contact with each other, and to be more or less injured. The port is 
too limited in extent to accommodate the trade that is carried on in it. 
Various schemes and improvements are talked of, but none that are 
feasible. The depth of water opposes an almost insuperable obstacle 
to its improvement by piers. The enterprise of the government, and 
of the inhabitants of Valparaiso, is, I am well satisfied, equal to any 
undertaking that is practicable. 

From the best accounts, I am satisfied that the harbour is filling up. 
from the wash off* the hills. Although this may seem but a small 
amount of deposition, yet after a lapse of sixteen years, the change was 
quite perceptible to me, and the oldest residents confirmed the fact. 
The anchorage of the vessels has changed, and what before was 
thought an extremely dangerous situation, is now considered the best 
in the event of bad weather. The sea is to be feared rather than the 
wind, for the latter seldom blows home, because the land immediately 
behind the city rises in abrupt hills, to the height of from eight to fifteen 
hundred and two thousand feet. 

Valparaiso has greatly increased in size and consequence within the 
last few years, and has become the great seaport of Chili, and, indeed, 
of the whole coast. Although it labours under many disadvantages as 
respects its harbour, which is inferior to others on the coast, yet it is 
the nearest and most convenient port to Santiago, the capital. 

I have had some opportunity of knowing Valparaiso, and contrast- 
ing its present state with that of 1821 and 1822. It was then a mere 
village, composed, with but few exceptions, of straggling ranchos. It 
has now the appearance of a thickly-settled town, with a population 
of thirty thousand, five times the number it had then. It is divided 
into two parts, one of which is known by the name of the Port, and 
is the old town ; the other by that of the Almendral, occupying a 
level plain to the east. Its location is by no means such as to show 
it to advantage. The principal buildings are the custom-house, two 
churches, and the houses occupying the main street. Most of the 
buildings are of one story, and are built of adobes or sun-dried brick. 



CHILI. 167 

The walls of the buildings are from four to six feet thick. The reason 
for this mode of building is the frequent occurrence of earthquakes. 
The streets are well paved. The Plaza has not much to recommend 
it. The Government House is an inferior building. Great improve- 
ments are now making, and many buildings putting up. 

They are about bringing water from one of the neighbouring springs 
on the hill, which, if the supply is sufficient, will give the town many 
comforts. On the hills are many neat and comfortable dwellings, 
surrounded by flower-gardens. These are chiefly occupied by the 
families of American and English merchants. This is the most 
pleasant part of the town, and enjoys a beautiful view of the harbour. 
The ascent to it is made quite easy by a well-constructed road through 
a ravine. The height is two hundred and ten feet above the sea. The 
east end of the Almendral is also occupied by the wealthy citizens. 
The lower classes live in the ravines. Many of their habitations are 
scarcely sufficient to keep them dry during the rainy season. They 
are built of reeds, plastered with mud, and thatched with straw. They 
seldom contain more than one apartment. 

The well-known hills to the south of the port, called the " Main arid 
Fore Top," are the principal localities of the grog-shops and their 
customers. These two hills, and the gorge (quebrada) between them, 
seem to contain a large proportion of the worthless population of both 
sexes. The females, remarkable for their black eyes and red " bayettas," 
are an annoyance to the authorities, the trade, and commanders of 
vessels, and equally so to the poor sailors, who seldom leave this port 
without empty pockets and injured health. 

It was difficult to realize the improvement and change that had 
taken place in the habits of the people, and the advancement in civil 
order and civilization. On my former visit, there was no sort of 
order, regulation, or good government. Robbery, murder, and vices 
of all kinds, were openly committed. The exercise of arbitrary 
military power alone existed. Not only with the natives, but among 
foreigners, gambling and knavery of the lowest order, and all the 
demoralizing effects that accompany them, prevailed. Every body 
engaged in trade was found more or less to recognise the system of 
fraud and deceit that had become the order of the day. The de- 
moralizing influence of smuggling, and bribery in open day, without 
disguise, with the knowledge and connivance of the higher authorities, 
whose duty it was to apply the corrective, naturally brought about 
this state of things ; and the inference was drawn, true or false, that 
they participated in the profits accruing from such transactions. 

I myself saw on my former visit several dead bodies exposed in the 



168 CHILI. 

public squares, victims of the cuchillo. This was the result of a night's 
debauch, and the fracas attendant upon it. No other punishment 
awaited the culprits than the remorse of their own conscience. 

Now, Valparaiso, and indeed all Chili, shows a great change for 
the better; order reigns throughout; crime is rarely heard of, and 
never goes unpunished; good order and decorum prevail outwardly 
every where ; that engine of good government, an active and efficient 
police, has been established. It is admirably regulated, and brought 
fully into action, not only for the protection of life and property, but in 
adding to the comforts of the inhabitants. 

There is no country that more strongly bears the impress of the 
working of a master spirit, in conjunction with a desire on the part of 
the people to maintain order by good government, than Chili. 

The civil power has now complete ascendency over the military, 
which had so long ruled Chili with despotic sway. The breaking 
down of the latter was the first step to the establishment of good 
order, and removed the spirit of disorganization that a military 
ascendency was for ever producing. Revolution had become another 
word in the army for promotion, for with it, every officer usually 
obtained a grade. Each officer was ever ready to seek self-aggran- 
dizement, whenever he could create a party in his favour ; and no 
opportunity was lost in bringing about dissatisfaction at the mode in 
which the existing government conducted affairs. 

The predominant trait of the Chilians, when compared with other 
South Americans, is their love of country and attachment to their 
homes. This feeling is common to all classes. There is also a great 
feeling of independence and equality. Public opinion has weight in 
directing the affairs of state. The people are fond of agricultural pur- 
suits, and the lower orders much better disposed towards foreigners 
than in other parts. Schools and colleges have been established, and 
a desire to extend the benefits of education throughout the popu- 
lation is evinced. This has been of late one of the constant aims of 
government. 

The credit of forming this police is given to Portales. It consists 
of two distinct bodies, one mounted, the other on foot. The watch- 
men carry swords only. The former patrol the streets on horseback, 
while the latter take their particular walk round a square or two, for 
which they are responsible. A message may be sent through them to 
the farthest end of the city, and an answer returned, in fifteen minutes. 
They carry a loud and shrill whistle, the sounds of which are varied 
as occasion requires, and by it a concentration of force can be effected 
in a few moments. The notes of the whistle when all is well, are 



CHILI. 



169 




When they cry the hour they all sing the same tune, but the pitch 
is ranged in accordance with the scope of the voice. The manner of 
singing the hour is pleasing, thus : 




se - re - na. 



Viva Chi - li, Viva Chi - li, las diez and - a y 

In the morning they add to it a prayer, as Jive Maria purissima las 
cinco y media. The music does not differ from the night-song, but 
has the few additional notes that are necessary. 

This police adds greatly to the comfort as well as to the safety of 
the inhabitants. To give an instance of its effects, apothecaries are 
chosen weekly to keep their shops open all night, and in case of 
sickness or requiring any aid, one has only to call for the vigilante, 
who takes the recipe and passes it to the next, and so on to the shop, 
where it is obtained, and returned as soon as possible, without any 
trouble whatever. They have their particular rounds, and each door 
is obliged to have a padlock. If any door is found without it, they 
put a lock on, for which the owner has to pay a fine of four dollars to 
the city to have it removed ; half is the reward of the vigilante. 

A complaint during our stay was made by one of the officers, of 
exactions made by a policeman. It was instantly taken notice of, and 
punished. It is to be regretted that this police should still wear the 
military uniform, as it seems unbecoming in a republican form of 
government ; at least we thought so. 

The shops are well filled with almost all articles of English, Ameri- 
can and French manufacture. The markets are well supplied. There 
are no market-gardens in the neighbourhood of Valparaiso, and nearly 
all the vegetables are brought from the valley of Quillota, about sixteen 
miles distant, on the backs of mules, in panniers. The mode of bringing 
grass or clover to market is peculiar : it sometimes almost covers both 
horse and rider. The supplies are abundant and of excellent quality, 
consisting of all kinds of fruits and vegetables, &c. The prices vary 
but little from those at home ; beef, for instance, costs six and a half 
cents per pound. 

There are but few amusements. Among them is a theatre, which is 
small and inconvenient, and the chingano, both of which are usually 
open on a Sunday evening. 

The Chilians are extremely fond of the dance called the samacueca. 

VOL. i. P 22 



170 CHILI. 

This may be called the national dance, and is in vogue among the 
common people. It is usually performed at the chingano, which is a 
kind of amphitheatre, surrounded by apartments where refreshments, 
including strong drinks, are sold, and is generally well filled by both 
sexes. The dance is performed on a kind of stage, under an open 
shed. The music is a mixture of Spanish and Indian, and is performed 
altogether by females, on an old-fashioned long and narrow harp, one 
end of which rests on the lap of the performer, and the other on the 
stage, ten feet off. A second girl is seen merrily beating time on the 
sounding-board of the instrument. On the right is another, strumming 
the common chords on a wire-string guitar or kitty, making, at every 
vibration of the right hand, a full sweep across all the strings, and 
varying the chords. In addition to this, they sang a national love- 
song, in Spanish, at the top of their voices, one singing a kind of alto ; 
the whole producing a very strange combination of sounds. 

The dance is performed by a young man and woman ; the former 
is gaudily decked in a light scarlet jacket, embroidered with gold lace, 
white pantaloons, red sash and pumps, with a tiny red cap; whilst 
that of his partner consists of a gaudy painted muslin dress, quite short 
and stiffly starched, not a little aided by an ample pair of hips ; thrown 
over all is a rich-coloured French shawl ; these, with well-fitted silk 
stockings, complete her attire. These last are in truth characteristic of 
the Chilian women of all classes, and they take no pains to conceal 
them. One not unfrequently sees the extravagance of silk stockings 
in the washerwomen at their tubs, and even with their hands in the 
suds. The dress in general fits neatly, and nature is not distorted by 
tight lacing, or the wearing of corsets. Nothing is worn on the head, 
and the hair, parted and equally divided from the forehead back to 
the neck, hangs down in two long plaits on each shoulder to the 
waist. 

The style of dancing is somewhat like a fandango. The couple 
begin by facing each other and flirting handkerchiefs over each other's 
heads, then approaching, slowly retreating again, then quickly shooting 
off to one side, passing under arms without touching, with great 
agility, rattling and beating time with castanets. Their movements 
are quite graceful, those of their feet pretty, and withal quite amorous ; 
the gestures may be readily understood, not only by the native 
audience, but by foreigners. I cannot say much for its moral tendency. 

The higher classes of females have the name of being virtuous and 
estimable in their domestic circle, but we cannot say that they are 
beautiful. They dress their hair with great care and taste. Their 
feet are small, and they have a graceful carriage. 



CHILI. 171 

The French fashion of dress prevails, and they are just beginning 
to wear bonnets. The advancement of civilization is rapid ; the imi- 
tation of foreign habits and customs will soon predominate over those 
of Chili ; and what is of more consequence, some attention is being 
paid to their education. 

A rather singular occurrence took place at a review of the militia 
on the Plaiancia, one Sunday, by the President, who was attended by 
his daughter, and a number of the most respectable ladies of the place. 
They marched down the line, and afterwards danced with the officers 
on the field, in the presence of the soldiers. All the South Americans 
are inveterate dancers, the Chilians taking the lead. The taste for 
music is general, but although they have a number of national airs, 
few have been printed. All the printed music in common use is 
foreign, as are the instruments. Pianos are to be seen in almost every 
house. 

The natives have a fondness for flowers, although they are but little 
cultivated. Few gardens are yet to be seen of any consequence. 
They require constant irrigation the most of the year, which may 
account for this want. There are two in the Almendral, surrounded 
by high walls, and kept in tolerable order ; and great attention is paid 
in these to foreign plants. 

We happened to be at Valparaiso during the President's visit, 
which, connected with the. late victory and successes in Peru, caused 
much rejoicing; every possible attention was shown to the Chief 
Magistrate, by both natives and foreigners. Among others, he was 
taken on an aquatic excursion, on board of a small brigantine, decked 
out with the flags of all nations, and was accompanied by the civil 
authorities of Valparaiso, the English admiral, and others. On pass- 
ing the men-of-war, he received the customary salutes from all but 
ourselves. We could not fire the guns on account of our chronometers. 
On his passing, however, the rigging was manned, and we gave him 
several hearty cheers, which, it was said, much delighted the Presi- 
dent and his suite, from the novelty of the compliment. 

Three balls were given during the stay of the squadron here, in 
consequence of the visit of the President (General Prieto) ; one in 
honour of the recent victory of Yungai over the Peruvians ; the others 
by the citizens and foreigners to his Excellency. As the former was 
an extraordinary occasion, a description of it will give some insight 
into the manner in which they conduct these affairs in Chili. All three 
were managed in a manner that would have been highly creditable in 
any part of the world. 

The place selected for the great ball was between the walls of two 



172 CHILI. 

large unfinished storehouses, a space of one hundred and fifty feet long 
by ninety wide, over which temporary arches were built, the whole 
covered with an awning lined with blue, and studded with stars, from 
which were suspended some twenty very handsome chandeliers. The 
whole was carpeted, and the various pillars which supported the roof 
were decorated with emblems of the victory and nation. At the end 
opposite to the entrance was a transparency of General Bulnes, the 
hero of Yungai, surrounded with scrolls of his deeds. Along the 
corridors which the piazzas formed, ranges of sofas and seats were 
placed; on the walls were hung rich mirrors and paintings: the former 
rested on massive pier-tables, in which hundreds of lights were seen 
reflected, whilst the graceful festoons of the national flags and pennants 
formed into draperies, intermixed with wreaths of flowers and ever- 
greens in endless variety, encircling emblematic designs of the nation's 
glory, produced an effect not easily surpassed. The reception-room 
of the President was hung with scarlet tapestry, decorated with 
paintings, mirrors, and pier-tables, and brilliantly lighted with chande- 
liers, &c. 

There were likewise card-rooms, smoking-rooms, supper-rooms, 
and a dressing-room for the ladies, in which were a number of hair- 
dressers and mantua-makers constantly in attendance. The whole 
was well got up, unique, and truly splendid ; all Valparaiso had sent 
furniture of every kind, and even the churches had contributed to assist 
in the great gala fete in commemoration of the national victory. 

The company consisted of about five hundred, one-third of whom 
were females. Many costly uniforms, of various patterns, and not a 
little fanciful, added to the brilliancy of the scene. 

About ten o'clock, the ball was opened by the President, Don Joaquim 
Prieto, in person, a novel sight to us. He was dressed in a richly em- 
broidered coat, gold epaulettes, and field-marshal's sash. He danced 
a minuet with a lady of Valparaiso, whom he had especially selected, 
after which the dancing became general, consisting of quadrilles, 
country-dances, and waltzes, besides which they had the lascivious 
dances of samacueca, cachuca, and lordean. These partake somewhat 
of the bolero and fandango, or Spanish and African dance. 

By way of interlude, marches and national airs were played and 
sung. The ball did not break up until eight o'clock next morning, at 
which hour the President and his daughter were escorted home by a 
procession of the dancers, with the music playing national airs, forming 
rather a grotesque show to the bystanders, from the interchange of 
hats and outer garments that had taken place. 

On reaching General Prieto's quarters, they sang a national hymn, 



CHILI. 



173 



after which many were invited in, where they again continued dancing 
until noon. 

I should not omit to mention that after midnight the ladies under- 
went a second operation of the toilet. 

The whole equalled, if it did not surpass, any of our own fetes at 
home ; indeed all who attended were much surprised, having little idea 
that Valparaiso could have made so brilliant and tasteful a display of 
beauty and magnificence. 




TAKING GRASS TO MARKET. 



CHAPTER X. 



CONTENTS. 

JOURNEY INTO THE INTERIOR-BILOCHES-TR AVELLING - CAS A BLANC A GEOLOGI- 
CAL FORMATION CURACOVI HEIGHT ABOVE THE SEA CUESTA DE ZAP ATA CUESTA 
DEL PRADO ROADS TRANSPORTATION OF GOODS BEGGARS PLAIN OF MAYPO 
CORDILLERAS ST. JAGO MINT LIBRARY AMUSEMENTS FASHIONS MARKET 
CLIMATE EXCURSION TO THE CORDILLERAS MOUNTAIN SCENERY SNOW GUANA- 
COES HEAT RETURN TO ST. JAGO MA YPOCHO JOURNEY TO SAN FELIPE 
QUILLOTA TUPONGATI PEAK DIKES EVANGELISTO CELIDONO FARM-HOUSE 
CATCHING WILD HORSES RANCHO - ENTERTAINMENT ARRIVAL AT SAN FELIPE 
DE ACONCAGUA-MR. NEWMAN'S MR. CHASE-TOWN OF SAN FELIPE - CHICHA AND 
AGUARDIENTE THEIR MANUFACTURE AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS - VISIT THE 
COPPER MINES MODES OF WORKING THEM-THEIR SITUATION-TRANSPORTATION 
OF ORES-WAGES-TEMPERANCE REGULATIONS-LAKE ON THE HIGH CORDILLERAS- 
COPPER ORES-RETURN TO SAN FELIPE-KINDNESS OF MR. NEWMAN AND LADY 
CELIDONO aUILLOTA RETURN TO VALPARAISO EARTHQUAKES _ PROTESTANT 
CHURCH LIBERALITY OF PRIESTHOOD-ORACION-COMMERCE-EXPORTS - IMPORTS 
FOREIGN VESSELS POPULATION COLLEGES CONGRESS IMPROVEMENTS IN 
PROGRESS REVENUE NATIONAL DEBT CLIMATE FRUITS ADMINISTRATION 
EXECUTIVE SENATE HOUSE OF DEPUTIES MILITIA ARMY NAVY G. G. HOBSON, 
ESCl., U. S. CONSUL-LIEUTENANT CRAVEN HIS GALLANT CONDUCT-CAPTAIN ISAAC 
M'KEEVER U. S. SHIP FALMOUTH FLYING-FISH GALE SEA-GULL LAST SEEN HER 
LOSS PASSED MIDSHIPMAN JAMES W. E. REID PASSED MIDSHIPMAN FREDERICK A. 
BACON-ADMINISTRATION OF GOVERNMENT OF CHILI. 



CHAPTEE X. 

CHILI CONTINUED. 

1839. 

PREVIOUS to my arrival at Valparaiso, the naturalists and some 
officers on board the Peacock and Relief had made excursions into 
the interior. On my arrival, I allowed all those who could be spared, 
and were desirous of visiting Santiago, sufficient leave to make the 
trip. Several set out for that city, and some with a view of extending 
their journey to the Cordilleras beyond. 

The bilocheros were eager for opportunities to hire their biloches, 
a vehicle somewhat resembling a double gig, which is generally used 
for travelling in Chili. They have a most rickety and worn-out 
appearance ; almost every part appears mended with cords made of 
hide. They accommodate two passengers; and the time required 
between Valparaiso and the city (Santiago), is about eighteen or 
twenty hours. In the shafts a horse is put ; a postilion rides one on 
the left, and sometimes another is placed on the right, both being 
fastened to the vehicle by lassos of raw-hide proceeding from the 
saddle. Each vehicle is attended by three bilocheros or drivers, with 
a drove of twelve or fifteen horses, forming quite a cavalcade. 

The bilocheros are very expert at their business. They are excellent 
riders, having been brought up to this exercise from their infancy, and 
understand managing their horses, though in a rude way. Their 
horses are small, but spirited, and bear fatigue well. Their usual 
speed is about nine or ten miles an hour. Few equipages can com- 
pare with these crazy machines, driven, as they sometimes are, pell- 
mell up hill and down dale, with all their accompaniments of horses, 
Guachos, &c. ; and it affords no small amusement to those on foot, to 
witness the consternation of the affrighted passengers, in momentary 
expectation of a break-down, and a broken neck or limbs. It is a 

VOL. i. 23 < 177 ) 



178 CHILI. 

difficult matter to acquire composure, on seeing the numerous tem- 
porary lashings, giving ocular proof that accidents have been frequent, 
however well satisfied one may be with the skill of the conductor. 
Fortunately the road is excellent, though at this season (May) it is 
divested of much of its beauty from the want of vegetation. The inte- 
rest is, however, carried forward to the lofty peaks of the Andes, of 
whose summits occasional glimpses are had ; and the eye glances over 
the surrounding scenery in the immediate neighbourhood, that would 
elsewhere be deemed grand, to rest on some high and towering peak. 
Among these the peak of Tupongati is the most noted, ranking, since 
the measurement of King, as next in height to the Himmaleh mountains. 

The first stopping-place is at Casa Blanca, a small pueblo of some 
five hundred inhabitants, where travellers usually sleep. The accom- 
modations were good, having been recently much improved. In the 
neighbourhood is the only tract of woodland to be found in this part 
of the country. The elevation of Casa Blanca, about thirty miles 
from Valparaiso, is five hundred and ninety-eight feet about the level 
of the sea. The primitive district extends about fifty miles from the 
coast, and of course is found here. It is composed chiefly of gneiss, 
which is generally easily decomposed. The mountains, in conse- 
quence, are not rugged, but of an easy ascent, and mural precipices 
are not met with. The gneiss was in some places observed to pass 
into hornblende rock, resembling the trachytic or igneous greenstone. 
It contains abundance of diffused epidote, and among the minerals 
schorl was observed, but no garnets were found. 

The road from Casa Blanca next passes through Curacovi, a small 
pueblo, three hundred and forty-four feet above the level of the sea, 
where the trap rock first makes its appearance, and then over a high 
ridge, called the Cuesta de Zapata. This terminates the first plain, 
and divides it from the second, of similar character, which extends to 
the Cuesta del Prado. It is passed over by a zigzag road, and was 
found to be two thousand three hundred and ninety-four feet high. 
On reaching the top, the view that presents itself is extensive and 
magnificent. 

In front is the extensive plain of Maypo, with here and there a conical 
mountain standing alone on it. At the extremity of the plain rise the 
lofty peaks of the Andes, covered with eternal snow, some reaching 
above the clouds. They appear but a few hours' ride off, although at 
a distance of twenty leagues. On either side rise the high ridges of 
the Cuesta. Beneath lie grazing grounds, extending over the plain, 
and covered with flocks and herds. Variety and life are given to the 
whole by the view of the national road, on which are seen numbers of 



CHILI. 



179 




CORDILLERAS, FROM CUESTA DEL PR ADA. 



vehicles, mules, &c., threading their way up and down the mountain- 
side, laden with foreign and domestic products. This is the only road 
of any extent for wheel-carriages in the country. It is kept in good 
repair by convicts, who are seen working in chains. A moveable 
prison or lock-up house, somewhat resembling the cages used in 
caravans of wild beasts, is used for their accommodation and security 
at night. 

The heavy merchandise is for the most part transported in ox-carts 
of enormous dimensions. Their wheels are clumsy and without tires, 
and the whole frame is made strongly with timber pinned together. 
Their perpendicular sides and rounded tops are wattled with cane and 
covered with bull's-hide. No iron is used in their structure ; wooden 
pins and raw-hide lashings seem to answer the purpose better. The 
yoke is set on the heads of the oxen, behind the horns, and fastened to 
them. The creaking of these carts may be heard for miles, as the 
drivers never think of greasing the axles to lessen the friction. They 
are generally drawn by four or eight oxen. The wood-cut, at the end 
of this chapter, from a sketch taken by Mr. Drayton, will complete the 
description. 

Lighter articles are transported by mules, and immense numbers of 
these animals are seen on the road at all times. 



180 CHILI. 

The mode of changing horses is truly characteristic of the country. 
The relays are made as soon as the shaft-horse tires ; he is quickly 
taken out, and one of the drove caught with a lasso, and put in his 
place, when on they go. These relays occur every eight or ten miles ; 
the only relief the poor horses have is a trot out of harness, and without 
a load. The bilocheros seldom dismount ; all is done on horseback. 
On going up hill, a third or even a fourth horse is soon hitched to the 
vehicle to assist the draught. The horses are all in good condition, 
and it is not a little remarkable that they should be so, for I understood 
that their only food at this season was chopped straw. The teamsters 
and Guachos themselves are equally abstemious. They live mostly 
upon bread and their favourite chicha, which is made from the grape, 
and resembles cider ; but after it has passed through a fermentation, it 
is quite intoxicating. The mud huts or ranchos, on the road-side, are 
filled with happy and contented faces. 




PEASANT S HOUSE. 



Begging is common on the road to the city, and is quite a business. 
The beggars let themselves to the highest bidders, and value themselves 
according to their deformities. At Valparaiso two days are allowed 
in each week for begging. 

The plain of Maypo, which reaches to the foot of the Cuesta del 
Prado, is extremely level, and is almost thirty miles in width, extending 
to the foot of the Cordilleras. The road leads nearly in a straight line 
over it to the city of Santiago, which is situated on the eastern side of 
the plain. 

The elevation of Santiago above the sea is fifteen hundred and 
ninety-one feet, upon the third step or plain from the coast. Its entrance 
is through avenues bounded by high adobe walls, which shut out all the 
view, except the Cordilleras, which tower above and beyond it. 

The more the Cordilleras are viewed, the greater appears their 
attraction. They have at all times an imposing aspect from the 
neighbourhood of the city. Their irregular and jagged outline is con- 
stantly varying under the effects of light and shade. The rays of the 
setting sun, with the deepening shadows, throw the innumerable peaks 



CHILI 181 

into bold relief, and at times produce yellow and red tints, which give 
a remarkable character to the whole scene. The red tints are often 
accompanied with a green hue in the sky. The city is surrounded by 
many fine orchards, gardens, farms, and grazing grounds. The former 
being enclosed by high adobe walls, give it a rather unpleasant 
appearance, until the city is fairly entered, when the streets have a 
fresh and clean look. The city is laid out in squares. Its streets are 
well paved, and have good sidewalks. This fresh and clean appear- 
ance, we afterwards understood was owing to a law, obliging all 
to whitewash their houses and walls once a year, a practice which 
gives a general uniformity, at least in colour, to the whole, and forms 
an agreeable contrast with the red-tiled roofs. The houses are mostly 
of one story, built in the form of a hollow square, from twenty to forty 
feet wide, round which the rooms are situated. The roof projects so 
as to form a kind of piazza or covered-way. The gateway is usually 
large, and the rooms on each side of it are not connected with the rest 
of the building, but are rented as shops. Opposite to the gateway is 
the centre window, guarded by a light and ornamental iron frame, 
painted green or richly gilt. The court-yard is usually neatly paved 
with small rounded pebbles from the bed of the Maypocho, arranged in 
fanciful forms ; but in many cases they are laid out in flower-gardens, 
where roses and geraniums are seen in full bloom. 

The river Maypocho runs through one portion of the city, and 
supplies it with water, which is conducted through all the principal 
streets, assisting much in preserving their cleanliness, though not suffi- 
cient to supersede the necessity of scavengers. In the centre of the 
city is the great Plaza, where the public buildings are situated. These 
are built of a coarse kind of porphyry, obtained from the mountains, 
and are on a large scale. The cathedral and palace each occupy one 
side; in the centre is a fountain, with several statues of Italian marble; 
but which is entirely too small to have any effect in so large a square. 
All these buildings are much out of repair, having been at various 
times damaged by earthquakes. 

The cathedral is very large and extensive. Its altar is decked with 
a great quantity of gold and silver. There are many paintings and 
hangings, among which is a large number of trophies, which have 
been taken in their various wars, and are here preserved. The 
niches are filled with wax figures, representing saints ; and there are 
also the remains of two martyrs of the church, in a tolerably good 
state of preservation. 

The palace was originally built for the Viceroy. It is now appro- 
priated to the accommodation of the President, and the public offices. 



182 CHILI. 

On the side opposite to the palace is a colonnade, which is not yet 
finished, and will occupy the whole side of the square. Under its 
portico are fancy and dry-goods shops, and between the columns 
various trades, or lace and fringe-makers are at work. In the even- 
ing, this becomes a most busy scene. Females, with large flat baskets 
before them, are vending shoes, fruit, and fancy articles ; others are 
employed in cooking cakes, and the whole lighted up as it is with 
numerous candles, affords much amusement to the stranger, besides 
giving him an opportunity to see a large number of the inhabitants. 
The greater part of those present are females. 

- The mint occupies a whole square ; it has never yet been completed, 
and has also suffered greatly from earthquakes. The operation of 
coining is in the rudest and oldest form, the same as practised in 
Europe in the last century. The rolling and cutting are done by 
mule-power, and the oldest kind of fly-press, with a great screw beam, 
having enormous balls at the end, is used. The dies they use are 
made from the male die, in the same way as with us, but they have 
not the same facilities, and want the modern improvements in the pro- 
cess. A toggle-jointed press was imported from France ; but it was 
soon put out of order by the workmen, and there being no one to 
repair it, its use has been abandoned. 

The library is extensive, containing several thousand volumes, 
which formerly belonged to the Jesuits, and many curious manuscripts 
relating to the Indians. 

The amusements are not very remarkable. Santiago, however, 
boasts of a theatre, and a chingano. There appears to be little busi- 
ness doing, and it may be called a quiet city. The siesta is daily 
indulged in ; even the shops were shut in the afternoon, and the city is 
as quiet as midnight. Towards the cool of the evening, the Alameda 
is resorted to. It is a beautiful walk, about a mile in extent, well 
shaded, and occupies one bank of the river. It is planted with a 
double row of poplar trees, which seem to thrive well here. Streams 
of water are constantly running on each side of the walk. Every few 
yards stone seats are placed, which are at times filled with a well- 
dressed population. The Alameda affords at all times a cool and 
pleasant promenade. 

The evenings are geno-rally passed at tertulias, in visiting socially, 
or in shopping in the colonnade. The inhabitants are much addicted 
to gambling. Monte is the game with the higher classes, whilst that 
of match-penny is the favourite of the lower orders. The Chilian 
ladies are remarkable for their ease of manner, kindness, and attention 
to strangers. They are fond of diversions of any kind, but more 



CHILI. 



183 



particularly those of dancing and music, both of which are much 
practised. They seem extravagantly fond of music. Dancing they 
are taught very young. Most of them have good figures, and some 
would be called quite pretty ; but their teeth are generally defective, 
which causes them soon to look old. Their costume varies little from 
our own, except that the ladies wear no bonnets. 

The gentlemen follow the European fashions. 

The dress of the lower order is a mixture of Spanish and Indian. 
They are fond of bright colours. Over their shirt and trousers is worn 
a blue or brown poncha. A high-crowned and small-rimmed hat, tied 
on under the chin, over a bright cotton handkerchief on the head, 
completes their outfit. They are a well-disposed people, and good 
citizens, and have more the air of contentment than any other nation 
of South America. 




MARKET PLACE, ST. JAGO DE CHILI. 



The markets are well supplied. There is one large one near the 
banks of the Maypocho. It covers an area of four or five acres, and 
is surrounded by a low building, with a tile roof, supported by columns, 
under which meats of all kinds are sold. The centre is reserved for 
vegetables, fruits, flowers, poultry, and small-wares. The market- 
women are seen seated under awnings, screens, and large umbrellas, 
which are used to keep off the sun. 



184 CHILI. 

The whole is kept quite clean, and has a pretty effect. Fruit and 
vegetables are abundant and cheap. They are of excellent quality. 
The grapes and peaches are of the finest kind ; apples are also plenty, 
but no care appears to have been taken to secure the best kinds, 
Cabbages, beets, potatoes, cauliflower, &c., are all large and good. 

Beef is proverbially fine, and also the mutton ; the prices are six and 
a quarter cents for the former, the latter three cents per pound. 

The average price of a horse is twelve dollars, but some that are 
well broken are valued as high as those in the United States. 

The climate of Chili is justly celebrated throughout the world, and 
that of Santiago is deemed delightful even in Chili ; the temperature is 
usually between 60 and 75. Notwithstanding this, it has its faults. 
It is extremely arid, and were it not for its mountain streams, which 
afford the means of irrigation, the country would be a barren waste for 
two-thirds of the year. Rains fall only during the winter months, 
(June to September,) and after they have occurred, the whole country 
is decked with flowers. The rains often last several days, are 
excessively heavy, and during their continuance the rivers become 
impassable torrents. The temperature near the coast does not descend 
below 58. The mean temperature, deduced from the register kept at 
Valparaiso, gave 63. At Santiago, the climate is drier and colder, 
but snow rarely falls. On the ascent of the Cordilleras, the aridity 
increases with the cold. The snow was found much in the same state 
as at Terra del Fuego, lying in patches about the summits. Even the 
high peak of Tupongati was bare in places, and to judge from appear- 
ances, it seldom rains in the highest regions of the Cordilleras, to which 
cause may be imputed the absence of glaciers. 

Several of our gentlemen made an excursion to the Cordilleras, in 
order to get information in their various departments. I regretted 
they were not provided with the necessary instruments for ascertaining 
heights. The party left Santiago in biloches, and travelled to the 
eastward five leagues, to the " Snow Bank" from which the city is 
supplied. The ascent was gradual, but quite constant, as no intervening 
ravines occurred. They then took horses, leaving their biloches to 
return. Their route after this lay up a valley. On the surrounding 
heights the guanacoes were seen in great numbers. On reaching the 
head of the valley, one of the party became so unwell that he was 
unable to proceed, and was obliged to return. 

Dr. Pickering, Messrs. Dana, Peale, and Drayton, went on. As 
they proceeded they found the middle region was marked by spiny 
plants, principally Burnadesia. The soil was found to be a mixture 
of loose earth and pieces of rock. On rising higher, the vegetation 



CHILI. 185 

became almost wholly extinct. Places occurred of an eighth of a 
mile in breadth, destitute of verdure of any kind. The party then 
ascended a ridge belonging to the main body of the Cordilleras, and at 
an elevation of about ten thousand feet, they reached its summit. 
Here they had an extensive view of all the line of the snow peaks. 
That of Tupongati appeared the most conspicuous, although at a 
distance of eighty miles. The guide asserted that he could see smoke 
issuing from its volcano in a faint streak, but it was beyond the vision 
of our gentlemen. The peak itself from this view of it was quite 
sharp-pointed. The scene immediately around them was one of 
grandeur and desolation: mountain after mountain, separated by 
immense chasms, to the depth of thousands of feet, and the sides 
broken in the most fantastic forms imaginable. In these higher parts 
of the Cordilleras they found a large admixture of the jaspery aluminous 
rock, which forms the base of the finest porphyries ; also chlorite, in 
abundance. The rock likewise contains fine white chalcedony in 
irregular straggling masses. Trachytic breccia was observed in 
various places. The porphyry is of a dull purple colour, rather lighter 
than the red sandstone of the United States. No traces of cellular 
lava were seen, nor of other more recent volcanic productions. No 
limestone was seen in the regions traversed by our parties ; all the 
lime used at Santiago is obtained from sea-shells; nor were any 
proper sedimentary rocks seen. 

Nothing could be more striking than . the complete silence that 
reigned every where ; not a living thing appeared to their view. 

After spending some time on the top, they began their descent ; and 
after two hours' hard travelling they reached the snow line, and 
passed the night very comfortably in the open air, with their blankets 
and pillions, or saddle-cloths. Fuel for a fire they unexpectedly found 
in abundance : the Alpinia umbellifera answering admirably for that 
purpose, from the quantity of resinous matter it contains. Near their 
camp was the bank of snow before spoken of, from which the city 
has been supplied for many years. It covers several acres. The 
snow line here seemed to have remained constant, and would have 
afforded a fine opportunity to have verified the rule of Humboldt, but 
they had no instruments. The height they had ascended was supposed 
to have been about eleven thousand feet, and the Cordilleras opposite 
them about four thousand feet higher. The view of the mass of the 
Cordilleras, in its general outline, was not unlike those of Mont Blanc 
and other mountains in Switzerland. 

Mr. Peale went in search of the guanacoes, and succeeded in killing 
one nine feet in length and four feet in height. They were found to 

VOL. i. o, 2 24 



186 . CHILI. 

frequent only the most inaccessible summits, and are said never to 
leave the vicinity of the snow. They feed upon several small thorny 
bushes, which impart a flavour to their flesh, and a smell to their 
excrement that may be distinguished at some distance from their 
places of resort. They make a peculiar sound when alarmed, like 
that of the katydid, (Gryllus.) This animal is never hunted for the 
market, though its flesh is good. The Benzoar is often found in its 
stomach, and is highly prized among the natives and Spaniards as a 
remedy for various complaints. It is also used as a gum. 

All the party suffered greatly from the heat of the sun's rays, and 
the dryness of the atmosphere. Their faces and hands were blistered, 
and the nose and lips made exceedingly sore, while the reflection of 
the light from the snow caused a painful sensation to the eyes. 

The next day they reached Santiago, whence they returned to the 
Part, as Valparaiso is usually distinguished in the country. 

Over the Maypocho at Santiago there is a substantial stone bridge, 
with five arches. For nine months of almost every year, the bed of 
the stream is nearly dry. At the time of our visit it was about two 
yards wide and several inches deep; but in the winter and spring, 
during the melting of the snows, it becomes quite a torrent, and from 
the damage that has been done in former times, they have taken the 
precaution to wall it in on the side of the city, towards the Cordilleras, 
for several miles, with stone and hard brick. When swollen it is a 
quarter of a mile wide, rapid and deep, and would cut off the commu- 
nication with the surrounding country were it not for the bridge. 

Messrs. Couthouy and Dana were desirous of making a trip to the 
copper mines of San Felipe, to which I readily consented, and gave 
them all the time possible. Although this was short, yet by their 
indefatigable industry it afforded some interesting results. They left 
Valparaiso on the 17th for San Felipe, which is about one hundred 
miles north of Valparaiso. They were to have taken a barometer 
with them in case of ascending some heights, but it was forgotten. 

These gentlemen took a biloche as far as Quillota, a distance of 
forty miles, and proceeded thence to San Felipe on horses ; for the use 
of which they were to give thirty dollars each, and one dollar extra 
for the service of the peon who accompanied them, for seven days. 
The road to Quillota was found good, although many hills and valleys 
were met with. 

For the first twenty-five miles the road passed along the sea-shore, 
with no elevation over two hundred feet ; it was thought equal to the 
most frequented turnpikes in our own country. At six miles from 
Valparaiso, the road is cut through a bed of sienite, remarkable for 



CHILI. 187 

the singular vertical dikes of granite by which it is intersected. As 
this curious formation will be ably treated of in the Geological Report, 
I shall refer the reader to that for a description. 

Ten miles from Valparaiso, the valley of Villa del Mar, having a 
breadth of nearly three miles, is crossed. This is a sandy plain, 
through which a broad shallow stream, coming from the eastern hills, 
runs. At twenty-five miles they reached the broad valley of Concon. 
Here the road turns to the eastward. This valley varies in width 
from three to six miles. The character of the rocks is granitic, and 
they appear to decompose rapidly when exposed to the air. Sienite 
was frequent, and on approaching the mountains, numerous varieties 
of trap formation, greenstone, porphyry, &c., were met with. 

Ten miles before reaching Quillota, the road passes over a level 
plain, which extends beyond that place. The hills which bound the 
valley to the south, are of low elevation until approaching Quillota. 
Near Quillota, in the south and southeastern direction, a lofty ridge 
rises, adjoining the campagna of Quillota, which is one of the high 
cones used as sea-marks for the harbour of Valparaiso. This is lost 
sight of at the town, in consequence of it being shut out by an inter- 
vening ridge. The town, or city of Quillota, occupies the centre of the 
valley, and is twenty miles from the sea. They reached it about one 
hour before sunset, when they stopped at Mr. Blanchard's, who keeps 
a house for the accommodation of foreigners. 

On the 18th they arose at daybreak, at which time the thermometer 
stood at 36 in the open air, seventy feet above the sea. 

The town of Quillota, (according to Mr. Blanchard,) is embraced 
within a circumference of three leagues. It contains several churches, 
of simple construction. The " Calle Largo," the longest street, is 
upwards of a league in length. The same authority gives its popula- 
tion at ten thousand inhabitants. The houses are all of one story, and 
are built of adobes, with thatched roofs. There is an abundance of 
fine building-stone, but in this land of earthquakes, it is considered 
safest to use the lightest materials. Almost every house has a vineyard 
attached to it, the grapes of which were of good quality, and very 
abundant. At some places, although the vintage was half gathered, 
yet the crop still on the vines was such as would have been considered 
elsewhere an abundant yield. A portion of the grapes rot upon the 
vines, as the inhabitants have not the industry or inclination to manu- 
facture them, although by proper attention they would yield a good 
wine. As it is, they only manufacture some into a hard and acid wine, 
called Masta, or boil the juice down to the favourite drink of the lower 
classes, called Chicha, which somewhat resembles perry or cider in 



188 CHILI. 

flavour. The small quantity that is not consumed, is distilled into 
aguardiente, and disposed of at Valparaiso. Besides grapes, consider- 
able quantities of wheat and Indian corn are cultivated. Apples, 
pears, and quinces, are also raised. The former are inferior to our 
own, the latter much superior, and in great plenty. 

Oranges were also abundant, but of indifferent flavour. 

Quillota is well supplied with water from the river Concon or 
Aconcagua. The water is led through all the streets and gardens of 
the place. It is used for all household purposes, as taken directly from 
the gutters, which are the recipients of dirt of every description from 
the town. For drinking, it is allowed to settle in large jars kept for 
the purpose. 

The intercourse with strangers at Quillota, has been much less than 
at Valparaiso or Santiago, and consequently they are less liberal, and 
more bigoted. This was particularly shown, about four years previous 
to our visit, by their burning in the public square, a large number of 
Bibles in the Spanish language, along with a heap of immoral and 
indecent pamphlets, in the presence of the civil, military, and ecclesi- 
astical authorities. These Bibles had been distributed by our country- 
man, Mr. Wheelwright, who has done so much by his enterprise in 
introducing the communication by steam along the western coast of 
South America. 

In the morning early, the thermometer stood at 36. The greatest 
cold is experienced just before sunrise and after sunset. 

On leaving Quillota, they went through the " Calle Largo," and took 
the southern side of the valley, passing along the foot of the Mellacca 
Hill, a smooth and rounded elevation, about three hundred feet in 
height, and a mile and a half in circumference. This hill is covered 
with a thin soil, formed from the decomposition of its own rocks. The 
valley now narrows, and in some places is not more than a few hun- 
dred feet in width. At about a league from Quillota, they ascended a 
cuesta of the Quillota ridge, one thousand feet above the plain. On its 
top, they were much gratified with the beautiful prospect. The fruitful 
plain or vega of Aconcagua, varying in width from one to six miles, 
extends to the west some twenty miles to the ocean, and is lost in the 
other direction in the mountains ; it is watered by pure streams, and 
covered with farm-houses and hamlets, surrounded by trees and vine- 
yards. To the northeast are the Andes, heaped as it were on each 
other, until the towering and distant peak of Tupongati, with its giant 
form, crowns the whole. One feature of the plain was peculiar : the 
mountains seemed to sink into it as if it were the ocean itself. In 
some cases the line was so well defined, that one foot could be placed 



CHILI. 



189 



on the plain, and the other on the base of a mountain, rising six or 
seven thousand feet high. The sketch will give a better idea of it than 
any description. The distance of Tupongati is about forty leagues. 




VIGA OF THE CONCON, WITH TUI'ONGATI IN THE DISTANCE. 

Captains King and Fitzroy have made the height of this peak 
several hundred feet above Chimborazo. The surrounding mountains, 
though from ten to twelve thousand feet high and much nearer, sink 
into insignificance when compared with it. Indeed all the objects are 
upon such a grand scale, that they fail to excite the notice that they 
would attract if situated elsewhere. On the top of this cuesta, Mr 
Couthouy obtained, in a torpid state, a small quadruped of the size of 
a mouse, a very interesting specimen of the order Marsupia. A 
description of it, with a spirited drawing by Mr. Peale, will be found 
in the department of Mammalogy. 

The road over the cuesta was narrow, steep, and broken. It de- 
scended into a plain, which was found well cultivated and watered by 
a branch of the Aconcagua. 

The ridges on the northern side of the valley now became more 
lofty and precipitous, exhibiting the columnar structure more distinctly. 
The trap dikes were in some places four feet wide ; and in one place, 
where the rock had been cut to form the road, fourteen dikes were 
counted within three hundred feet. On their way up the valley, the 
peon*s horse gave out, and they were obliged to stop and hire another 
at a farmer's house, who was called Evangelisto Celidono. This 
rancho, twenty feet by ten, was rather better than others that weie 
met with, but at the same time bore a strong resemblance to them. It 



190 CHILI. 

was constructed of large adobes, or rather blocks of clay, and finished 
in the inside neatly with the same material. It consisted of but one 
apartment, the floor of which was clay. It had a thatched roof, which 
was open in several places. There was no window. The door and 
the holes in the roof supplied all the light. The furniture, if such 
it could be called, consisted of a rude bedstead and an apology 
for a table, at one end ; the other was divided into three bins, one to 
contain corn, another beans, and the third potatoes, with saddles and 
various kinds of horse-gear, and a bag or two of wheat. On one 
side was a clay seat, three feet broad by six long, and the height of 
an ordinary seat, whilst from the rafters hung in nets a good supply of 
bread, cheese, and numerous strings of onions, garlic, and red Chili 
peppers. There were besides two chairs and a bench. All the cook- 
ing is done in a small detached building; and a small clay oven in the 
yard is an accompaniment of every rancho. Bread and an abundance 
of grapes, of which they could not eat more than a third, were supplied 
them for a " medio." The second cuesta was shortly afterwards 
mounted, of about five hundred feet elevation, and on the top they 
were gratified by witnessing the mode in which the Chilians capture 
the wild horses. A party of four or five horsemen, with about twenty 
dogs, were seen formed in an extended crescent, driving the wild 
horses towards the river with shouts. All were armed with the lasso, 
which was swinging over their heads, to be in readiness to entrap the 
first that attempted to break through the gradually contracting seg- 
ment ; the dogs serving with the riders to head the horses in. They 
continued to advance, when suddenly a horse with furious speed broke 
the line, passing near one of the horsemen, and for a moment it was 
thought he had escaped ; the next, he was jerked round with a force 
that seemed sufficient to have broken his neck, the horseman having, 
the moment the lasso was thrown, turned round and braced himself for 
the shock. The captured horse now began to rear and plunge furiously 
to effect his escape. After becoming somewhat worn out, he was 
suffered to run, and again suddenly checked. This was repeated 
several times, when another plan was adopted. The dogs were set on 
him, and off he went at full run, in the direction of another horseman, 
who threw his lasso to entangle his legs and precipitate him to the 
ground. The dogs again roused him, when he again started, and was 
in like manner brought to a stand; after several trials, he became 
completely exhausted and subdued, when he stood perfectly still, and 
allowed his captors to lay hands upon him. The shouts of the men, 
the barking of the dogs, and the scampering of the horses, made the 
whole scene quite exciting. 



CHILI. 191 

Shortly afterwards, it was suspected their peon was leading them 
astray ; this was evident by their crossing and recrossing the river, and 
wandering at random on a road which was apparently but little 
travelled. After a toilsome route of three and a half hours, they found 
themselves surrounded by many branches of the river, whose banks 
were but a few inches above the water. The peon then acknowledged 
himself bewildered, and that he had missed his way. Crossing the 
streams was attended with some danger, for owing to their rapidity 
and depth they were near sweeping the horses off their legs. Return- 
ing a league or two, they fortunately met a muleteer, who put them in 
the road ; but their horses were now so exhausted that they were 
compelled to seek lodgings at a rancho. After applying at several, they 
succeeded in getting a place to lie in, after making many promises of 
liberal payment. A similar course, notwithstanding a positive refusal 
or denial of having any provisions, procured them a casuela, served in 
a large wooden bowl, with wooden spoons. This is a sort of Chilian 
chowder, with a plentiful supply of garlic, onions, Chili pepper, &c., 
and one of the favourite dishes of the country. In three days' ride 
they had passed over about sixty miles ; the highest temperature expe- 
rienced was 65*5, the lowest 35'7. At the rancho where they stopped 
for the night, the temperature fell 20*5 in three hours. 

They passed the night with the usual annoyance in most houses in 
Chili, for fleas were found in great abundance. In the morning the 
temperature was 35*5, and the ground covered with hoar frost. The 
rancho was supposed to be about one hundred feet above the level of 
the sea. The mountains in the immediate neighbourhood were from 
six to seven thousand feet high, exhibiting a gorgeous appearance as 
the sunbeams lighted them up, and at times the brilliancy was so great 
as to dazzle the eye. They left the rancho at seven o'clock, and 
although it was only ten miles distant, they did not reach San Felipe 
before eleven. The road passed over a third cuesta, which exhibited 
a regular columnar structure. The hills inclining to the northward 
open and present to view the broad plain of Aconcagua. San Felipe 
de Aconcagua stands about fifteen miles from the foot of the Andes, 
and the mountains are seen from thence in all their grandeur. The 
peak of Tupongati is, however, lost sight of as the town is approached, 
disappearing behind the nearer snowy peaks. This mountain is situated 
on the dividing or eastern ridge of the Cordilleras, and within the 
United Provinces of La Plata. 

On arriving at San Felipe, they proceeded at once to the house of 
Mr. Henry Newman, an English gentleman resident there, and engaged 
in mining operations, to whom they had letters. Mr. Newman was 



192 CHILI. 

not at home, but they were hospitably received by his lady, a native 
of Chili, who treated them with great kindness and attention. In the 
absence of her husband, she made them acquainted with an American 
gentleman, a Mr. Chase, who happened to be on a visit there, from 
Santiago. He had been in Chili since the failure of the expedition of 
Carrera, when he, with several of his companions, settled in Chili, and 
afterwards engaged in mining operations. He had several times 
amassed a large property, and as often lost it, by the revolutions that 
had taken place in the country. He is now engaged in working a silver 
mine, in the vicinity of Santiago, and attempting the German process 
of smelting, as there are vast quantities of ore, containing a large per 
centage of silver, which have hitherto been neglected, from the imprac- 
ticability of separating the silver by the usual method. There is now 
only one survivor from among the thirty persons who settled in Chili 
with Mr. Chase. From his operations he expects in a few years to 
realize a large fortune. 

The town of San Felipe is laid out with great regularity, in the 
form of a square, surrounded by extensive alamedas, which are planted 
with Lombardy poplars. Mr. Newman gave the population at from 
twelve to thirteen thousand. In the centre of the town is a large open 
square, one side of which is occupied by the town hall, and offices 
connected with the muncipality. Opposite are the church and bar- 
racks, and the remaining sides are occupied with shops and private 
dwellings. The houses are all of one story, and are in a good style of 
building. The better class of houses stand some distance back from 
the street, and are decorated tastefully with paintings in fresco on the 
walls. Roses and jessamines were seen in every court-yard, and the 
gardens are well filled with various fruits, apples, peaches, pears, 
grapes, pomegranates, oranges, lemons, and quinces; the latter are 
remarkably fine, and in great plenty. The houses, as in other parts 
of Chili, have no fire-places, in lieu of which they use brazeros, or 
pans of live coal when heat is required. Mr. Chase took them to a 
friend of his, to see the process of manufacturing the acida and aguar- 
diente of the country. The whole process is carried on in a large 
court behind the house. The grapes are brought in large baskets, or 
on hand-barrows, made with poles and raw hide, and are emptied in 
heaps, under an open shed. Here several small boards are placed, on 
which the grapes are laid by the men, who separate them from the 
stalks, by rolling them rapidly in their hands, the grapes falling along 
the boards, which are inclined into a large vat, where they are trodden 
out by men. The juice, which runs off through a rude strainer at one 
end, is received into large earthen jars ; the pumice, or residuum, is 



CHILI. 193 

from time to time taken out of the vat, and placed on a platform, when 
more juice is expressed, by laying boards and heavy stones upon it. 
That part which is intended for wine proper, or the " must," is received 
like the first into earthen jars, where it undergoes the requisite fermen- 
tation, and receives a small quantity of brandy, or the aguardiente 
of the country, to give it body. The chicha is made by boiling down 
the clear grape-juice after fermentation, for several hours, over a slow 
fire. After this process, it was put in enormous earthen jars, contain- 
ning sixty to one hundred and twenty gallons, which are covered 
over, and tightly luted. The portion not required for consumption, 
is afterwards distilled with the pumice into aguardiente of the country. 
The stills were of the simplest construction, being nothing more than a 
number of large earthen pots, holding from eighty to one hundred 
gallons, placed in the ground over a long narrow oven. Instead of a 
worm, a straight pipe of copper is used, about twenty feet long ; one 
of these was inserted into each pot or jar, and to effect the condensa- 
tion, a stream of water from the river was led so as to pass over them. 
All the agricultural implements are equally rude and primitive. The 
ploughs are nothing more than a crooked stick, with the share-end 
pointed, and hardened by charring. Notwithstanding these disadvan- 
tages, they are enabled to raise large crops, and bring their farms 
into tolerable condition. 

In the evening they had the pleasure of seeing Mr. Newman, who 
returned ; and his reception of his guests was, if possible, even more 
kind than that of his good lady. Learning that our gentlemen wished 
to visit some of the mines in the neighbourhood, he immediately made 
arrangement to send his agent to his own establishment, five leagues 
beyond San Felipe, and provided them horses and mules, in order that 
their own might recruit for their return journey. The temperature at 
San Felipe varied, between noon and 10 p. M-, from 63 to 49. The 
night was remarkably clear and fine. 

The next morning they started, with Mr. George Alderson, for the 
mines, which are near the summit of the first Cordillera, on the 
Mendoza road, and about three thousand feet above the level of the 
sea. They were here informed, that in consequence of the late heavy 
falls of snow, the roads were all covered and congealed, and that it 
extended several thousand feet below the limit of perpetual snow. 
They had no use for the neglected barometer, and had some satisfac- 
tion in feeling they had not been troubled with it. About a league 
from San Felipe they passed a large porphyritic mass, some specimens 
broken from which contained grains of quartz. They then passed up 
a singular gully, about twenty feet deep and as many wide, for about 

VOL. i. R 25 



194 CHILI. 

a league. On leaving the gully, they gradually ascended until they 
reached the ranches at Jaquel, at the foot of the mountain where the 
mines were situated. It being too late to make the ascent to the mines 
that night, the running streams in the neighbourhood were visited, but 
nothing was found. They were entirely destitute of fluviatile shells 
and mollusca. Other objects of interest were, however, obtained, in 
the classes of insects and reptilia, which will be described in the 
reports of these different departments. At sunset the snowy mountains 
exhibited a magnificent sight ; lighted up and glistening in the sun- 
shine, it appeared as though some tremendous conflagration had 
broken out. After this, the progress of night produces a peculiar 
effect. It was quite dark in the valley, while the lofty summits were 
yet tinged by the setting sun. The limit of darkness was distinctly 
seen advancing upwards like a dark wall, and as it ascended, peak 
after peak became lost to view, until the whole was enshrouded in 
obscurity. 

The part of this valley where the ranches are situated is called La 
Vega of Jaquel. This is the principal smelting-place, the ore being 
brought here by mules from the foot of the mountain, down whose 
sides it is thrown from the mines. The descent is about two thousand 
feet, and very steep. Mr. Alderson stated that it took thirty seconds 
for the ore to descend. The face of the mountain from long usage in 
this way is worn quite smooth. The ranches at the mine, about six 
hundred feet below the summit, on the steep mountain side, are visible 
from the smelting huts. The Jaquel valley is said to contain a few 
sulphur springs, which are reported as poisonous. Our gentlemen had 
not time to visit them. The temperature, before leaving San Felipe, 
at six o'clock, A. M., was 45, at 10 A. M., 54; at Jaquel, three hundred 
feet above the sea, at 5 h 30 m , it was 55, at 11 P. M. 51. 

Mr. Newman had previously lost much property here by the burning 
of his whole establishment, excepting two buildings, fire having been 
communicated to the thatched roof by the sparks from the furnace, 
during a tornado that passed over. So rapidly had the flames spread, 
that it was with difficulty that Mr. Newman and his agent saved their 
lives. Besides the loss of buildings, a large quantity of machinery, 
lately imported from England, was destroyed. 

On the 21st May, they set out on mules for the mines, accompanied 
by Mr. Alderson, and reached them about ten o'clock. Their first 
act was to change their boots for a pair of raw-hide shoes, such as 
are used by the miners, in order to insure a safer footing. They now 
entered the principal gallery, which was about seven feet high and five 
broad, excavated for about twenty yards horizontally ; it then divides 



CHILI. 195 

into several branches, and these again into others, from fifteen to 
twenty yards in length. 

The greatest extent of any one gallery is about thirty feet. The 
mountain has been penetrated horizontally to about four hundred feet, 
in the direction of northeast to east-northeast, as the veins run, and 
vertically to a depth of about one hundred and fifty feet. Each person 
was provided with a tallow candle, stuck in the end of a split stick 
six feet long, and caution was given not to lose sight of the guide, for 
the galleries, although small, are so numerous, and communicate with 
each other so frequently, that a person might easily be lost. 

The ladders, or rather posts, by which the descents are made, are 
not a little dangerous. They are not all secured, so that it becomes 
necessary for one person to hold the ladder whilst another descends, 
and it causes no small uneasiness to see the foot of it resting on a 
mere ledge. These shafts are at times crossed by a gallery, where 
but a single post is laid over them, and the men pass over it by 
steadying themselves against the side-wall. At the bottom of one of 
the shafts, at about three hundred feet from the mouth of the mine, the 
thermometer, after remaining for half an hour, stood at 52, the air 
outside being 56. This may be considered a fair test of the tem- 
perature. They report that they perceive no difference in the mine, in 
winter and summer. 

There appears to be little system in working the mines, and little 
knowledge of the structure of the rock or the courses of the veins. 
Mr. Alderson mentioned that a few months previously, they had been 
working for several weeks, extending a shaft, without meeting a 
particle of ore to repay their labour, and they were just about giving 
up the search, when the mayoral, or master-workman, declaring he 
would have a last blow for luck, struck the rock with all his force. 
This detached a large fragment, and to their surprise and delight, laid 
open a vein which proved the largest and richest that had been worked 
for many years. From this it would appear that the employment is 
attended with much uncertainty; and after exhausting one of these 
treasure deposits, there are no means or signs known to them by which 
they can ascertain the best direction to take to discover another. 

This mine is situated in claystone, the sedimentary rock of the 
region, where it is intersected by a dike of compact clinkstone. The 
dike is about six feet wide. The adjoining claystone has a dark 
greenish brown colour, and resembles a wacke. It is so much fissured 
that it is difficult to break off a small piece which will present a fresh 
surface. The green carbonate of copper, and silicious carbonate of 



196 CHILI. 

copper (chrysocolla), stain the rock for one hundred feet from the 
vein, occupying the fissures, and giving the surface a green or bluish 
tinge. In some places chrysocolla forms in small botryoidal incrusta- 
tions on the face of the rock. The ores of copper occur in veins in 
the claystone and the rock of this dike, but most abundantly near the 
junction of the two rocks. The veins are very irregular, and are more 
or less elongated. They are occasionally connected, but in the excava- 
tions frequently run out. In order to discover new ones, they follow 
the lines of the green carbonates, or the seams of calcareous spar and 
quartz. The name of metal is given as a general term to all the ores, 
that of quizo to the lode in which they are contained. 

The ores contain more or less sulphur, and often a portion of arsenic. 
Some silver is also occasionally mixed with the copper. Some of the 
ores found at this mine have been very rich, yielding sixty-five to 
seventy per cent, of pure copper. The average yield is about forty- 
five per cent. The various qualities are denominated, metal-regio, 
platiado, bronze, and piedra bruta. The last, as the name implies, is 
worthless. 

The mines, by the light of the numerous candles, exhibited all the 
shades of green, blue, yellow, purple, bronze, &c., having a metallic 
and lustrous appearance. The confined air, with the heat of so many 
candles, made it quite oppressive; and persons who have not often 
visited mines, are subject to faintness and vertigo from this cause. Mr. 
Alderson and Mr. Dana were both affected by it. It was the first time 
the former had ever penetrated so far, Mr. Newman and himself being 
governed by the report of the mayoral, and the ore brought up in their 
operations. The miners were not a little astonished at our gentlemen 
loading themselves, besides the specimens of ores, with the piedra 
bruta, which they considered of no value. The manner of labour in 
the mines is in as rude a state as it was found in the agricultural 
branches of industry. A clumsy pick-axe, a short crowbar, a stone- 
cutter's chisel, and an enormous oblong iron hammer, of twenty-five 
pounds weight, were the only tools. The hammer is only used when 
the ore is too high to be reached with the pick or crowbar. The 
miners, from the constant exercise of their arms and chest, have them 
well developed, and appear brawny figures. When the ore is too 
tough to be removed by the ordinary methods, they blast it off in small 
fragments, not daring to use large blasts, lest the rock should cave in 
upon them. Only a few weeks previous to their visit, the mayoral, 
while at the farthest end of the gallery, was alarmed by the rattling 
down of some stones, and before he could retreat, the walls caved in 



CHILI. 197 

for several yards outside of where he was, leaving but a small space. 
It required eighteen hours of unceasing effort by nearly a hundred men 
to extricate him from his perilous situation. 

The ore is brought to the mouth of the mine on the backs of men, 
in sacks made of raw hide, and holding about one hundred pounds. 
Whenever a sufficient quantity to load a drove of mules is extracted, 
it is thrown down the mountain slide, and then carried to the furnace 
at Jaquel. Only seventeen miners were employed; previous to this 
the number employed was one hundred. Whenever a richer vein was 
struck a larger number were employed, who could always be easily 
obtained by foreigners, the natives preferring to work for them, as 
they say whatever the profits or losses may be, they are sure of being 
regularly paid. The wages are small from three to four dollars per 
month, in addition to their food. They are allowed to draw a third 
of their pay on the last Saturday of every month, and full settlement is 
made twice a year. They are supplied with clothing and other 
necessaries, out of which the agent makes a per centage, and which is 
charged against their wages. 

There is one admirable regulation of the Chilian government, that 
of not permitting liquors to be brought within a league of any mine, 
under a severe penalty, which is strictly enforced. The cost of the 
maintenance of each workman is not great; they are allowed as 
rations for breakfast four handfuls of dried figs, and the same of 
walnuts : value about three cents. For dinner they have bread, and 
fresh beef or pork. Small stores, as sugar and tea, they find them- 
selves. One of the greatest inconveniences, and which is attended 
with some expense, is the supply of the miners with water, which has 
to be brought up the mountains. 

The miners' huts are the last dwellings on the Chilian side of the 
Andes. Mr. Alderson mentioned, that in five hours' ride from thence, 
a lake was reported to exist, three leagues in circumference, on the 
summit of a conical mountain, which is surrounded by a beach of 
sand and gravel, and has no outlet. Several persons confirmed this 
statement as to the existence of the lake, that it had no visible outlet, 
and that the water was always at the same level. Although desirous 
of visiting so interesting a spot, they found they had not time left to 
accomplish it. They therefore determined, instead, to make a visit to 
the coal-mine which was reported as existing about two leagues farther 
on the Cordilleras. They reached this in about three hours. Leaving 
their mules, they scrambled up the face of a cliff for some two hundred 
feet, where some fragments of coal, more, however, resembling lignite, 
and retaining perfectly the structure of the original wood, were found, 

R2 



198 CHILI. 

Other pieces had the form of coal, and on ignition burned quite freely, 
showing the presence of bitumen and sulphur. The last was always 
found in small lumps, resembling the siftings of coal, and was em- 
bedded in a friable earth, containing saltpetre. No coal was found in 
situ; their time did not adm\t of any extended examination. Coal 
would indeed be a most valuable discovery for the Chilian mines, 
where wood is so scarce that they are prevented from reducing the 
ore, and in consequence, as I have before remarked, they are obliged 
to send it to Valparaiso for shipment. The principal ores which the 
mine of Mr. Newman affords, are the vitreous, gray, and variegated 
copper. Copper pyrites and the red oxide of copper, also occur, and 
the silicious carbonate (chrysocolla) is abundantly disseminated through 
the rocks. These ores are generally massive, or exhibit only imperfect 
traces of crystallization. Native copper is rarely found at this mine. 
Its occurrence is not welcomed by the miners, as they consider it a 
sure sign that the vein will soon run out. It is usually found with 
large quantities of red oxide of copper. According to Mr. Dana, this 
would seem to indicate that the native copper and red oxide have 
originated from the reduction of other ores by heat, and this would 
account for the above fact, which seems to be well established among 
miners. 

Copper ores occur sparingly at other localities in this part of Chili; 
the valuable mines are chiefly confined to the northern provinces. 

After again returning to Jaquel, they mounted their horses, and 
reached San Felipe, in about two hours' hard gallop. The temperature 
during the day varied from 44 at six o'clock in the morning, at 
Jaquel, to 58 at noon, on the hill at the mines ; and at 10 p. M., at San 
Felipe, it was at 47. 

On the 22d, they set out on their return, after a good deal of delay, 
owing to the stupidity of their peon, who had indulged too much in 
his favourite chicha. Nothing could exceed the kindness and attention 
shown them by Mr. Newman, his lady, and Mr. Chase. Mr. Alderson, 
the agent, devoted himself to them for two days, during which time he 
left nothing undone that could promote and forward the object of their 
visit. It affords me great pleasure to bear testimony also to the 
numerous fine specimens of copper, &c., from other mines, which Mr. 
Newman presented to the Expedition, and to return him our thanks for 
them and the kind attention of his lady. Our gentlemen returned to the 
rancho of Evangelisto Celidono, where they passed the night, and were 
furnished with a like casuela as before. All the farmers they met 
were a simple, good-hearted set, caring for little beyond their own 
immediate neighbourhood, and knowing little but to supply their own 



CHILI. 199 

wants. Celidono informed them that he had been at the Port (Val- 
paraiso) only once in five years. He seems to have all that is needful. 
His wife was engaged in spinning with the distaff and spindle. There 
being but one room, they were accommodated on the clay floor, spread 
with their pillions and saddle-cloths, while Celidono and his wife occu- 
pied the bed. The temperature varied from 65-30 on their arrival, at 
5 h 30 m , to 53, at 11 P. M. 

On the morning of the 24th, the thermometer stood at 51, on the 
summit of the cuesta, and at 58 between nine and ten o'clock. Here the 
scene was very different from what they had before witnessed. The 
plain they had just left was in broad sunshine, showing distinctly its 
many cultivated farms; that to which they were about descending was 
a sea of dense white clouds, extending seaward as far as the eye could 
reach, as though a vast body of white cumuli had descended and filled 
the whole extent of the Quillota valley. These clouds kept rolling off 
towards the sea, before the light wind, and rose gradually as they passed 
off. They reached Mr. Blanchard's, at Quillota, at noon, when the 
temperature was 60, and taking their biloche, they arrived at Val- 
paraiso in the evening. 

Having heard much about the rise of the coast, from the effects of 
earthquakes, I was desirous of gaining all the information in relation to 
this subject. From the residents, the accounts are so contradictory, 
that no correct intelligence can be obtained. The decrease in the 
depth of the bay, I have before said, can be accounted for, and 
undoubtedly is owing, so far as it has taken place, to the wash of the 
hills ; and the formation of a new street which has been reclaimed from 
the bay, has given rise to the idea, and it is pointed out as having been 
built upon ground left dry by the earthquake of 1832. Several of our 
naturalists made a close examination of the coast in the neighbourhood, 
the result of which on the minds of all was, that there was no proof of 
elevation. That changes in the beaches, through the agency of the 
heavy rollers and the northers that yearly occur, are constantly going 
on, is quite evident ; but these, as one would naturally suppose, increase 
the shore only in some places, while in others they are wearing it 
away. 

Earthquakes do not appear to happen at any particular season. 
The great one of 1730 was in July ; that of 1751, in May; and those 
of 1822 and 1835, both of which did much damage, in February. 

Slight shocks of earthquakes are experienced very frequently through- 
out Chili. One during our stay, on the 28th of May, started every one 
from their beds, but the shock was not repeated. No peculiar state of 
the weather, or other phenomenon, seems to precede them. That of 



200 CHILI. 

1835 nearly destroyed the towns of Concepcion, Talcahuana, Arauco, 
Angeles, Coluna, Chillian, Talca, and Cauquenes. It was very slightly 
felt in Valparaiso, and scarcely at all farther north. The sea receded in 
Valparaiso two feet, and returned immediately. The ground seemed 
to swell under the feet. In Juan Fernandez, it was very severely 
felt ; and the following extract from the report of the then governor of 
that island, to the supreme government, is interesting. " I was walking, 
at the Castle of Santa Barbara, with the commandant of the garrison, 
when we suddenly observed that the sea had come over the mole. 
Fearing great damage, I hastened to have the boats drawn from under 
a shed, and prepared for use. At the same moment we heard a loud 
roaring, as of thunder, and saw a white column, like smoke, rise from 
the sea, a short distance from the place called * El Punto de BacallaoJ 
and then felt the earth move. The sea retired about two hundred 
feet, when it commenced returning with great violence. This time it 
carried nearly every thing with it; broke down all the houses and 
huts but the one recently built of stone and mortar to contain pro- 
visions. Happily, this withstood its violence, although the water 
ascended more than six feet up its sides. It then retired again to its 
usual height. Constant shocks were felt during the night ; and the sea, 
at the place before mentioned, continued throwing up water and 
smoke like a volcano." 

Chili abounds with volcanic mountains, but few of them are in an 
active state of eruption; which may account for the frequency of 
earthquakes. The peak of Tupongati is the only one in activity in 
this section. Our travellers to the Cordilleras were not fortunate 
enough to get a sight of it at night. 

Although by the constitution the Catholic religion is the established 
one, yet they have become so far enlightened as to tolerate that of the 
Protestant Episcopal form. A license could not be given to build a 
church, but the authorities, on being asked if the worship would be 
permitted, readily gave an assurance that it would not be interfered 
with ; that although they could not allow a church to be put up, there 
could be no objection to their worshipping in a private dwelling. 
Since then, a very convenient room has been prepared, and a resident 
chaplain, Mr. Rowlandson, has been called, who officiates regularly 
on the Sabbath. The effect that it has produced on the habits of the 
foreign residents, of whom there are about three hundred, is marked. 
About one hundred and eighty of them are constant attendants on the 
service. 

What is somewhat remarkable, the person most in favour o*f tolera- 
tion and building a church, is the priest of Valparaiso ; and the only 



CHILI. 201 

vote recorded for toleration, on the adoption of the constitution, was 
given by a Catholic bishop. 

The influence of the clergy is great, and they have much political 
power in the state. The people may generally be called bigoted, and 
under the control of the priests. The clergy as a body stand very 
fair ; they encourage schools. The inhabitants are ignorant as yet ; 
their opportunities for instruction are limited. There is no impediment 
in the way of Protestants teaching. 

Although it may be somewhat Irite to mention it, yet one cannot 
but admire the sight of the Oration, or sunset prayer. Whatever may 
be our idea of Catholic worship, no one can witness it here without 
feeling the solemn and impressive scene of a whole community, on the 
striking of the evening bells, instantly stopping employment, both 
within and without doors, and uncovering their heads to offer up their 
thanks or prayer for a few minutes. It must bring reflection, unless 
habit so blunts the mind and feeling as to make it callous to impres- 
sions well calculated to make men consider their evil ways, and feel 
thankful for the blessings they enjoy. 

The commerce of Chili is increasing rapidly. Valparaiso numbers 
sixty coasting vessels, of from fifty to three hundred and fifty tons, 
part of which are engaged in the trade from Valdivia and Chiloe to 
the northern ports, with timber and staves ; and part are charged from 
Maule and Concepcion with grain, returning in ballast to Valparaiso, 
to load with foreign manufactures for the various ports of the republic. 
The exports are taken away in foreign vessels, and consist of copper? 
hides, wool, hemp, and plata pifia. About sixty thousand quintals of 
copper are exported from Huasco, Coquimbo, and Valparaiso annually ; 
one hundred and fifty to two hundred thousand quintals of 100 Ibs. in 
copper ores are shipped annually to England, and one hundred 
thousand marks of 8 oz. in bar silver. The returns from sales of 
English goods are made mostly in bullion. 

Thirty thousand hides are exported, principally from Valparaiso. 
Five to six hundred quintals of wool are shipped annually from Con- 
cepcion. The grain and country produce are generally sent to Peru 
and Guayaquil. Very little silver is coined in the country, dollars 
being an article of merchandise, worth from seven to nine per cent., 
according to the supplies from Bolivia or Peru. From eight hundred 
thousand to one million silver dollars come annually from Cobija to 
Valparaiso, and are shipped thence to England. Gold coins are issued 
from the mint at Santiago, doubloons, half, quarter, and eighth doubloon 
pieces ; the current value of the ounce is seventeen dollars twenty-five 
cents. 

VOL. r. 26 



202 CHILI. 

The annual imports into Chili and Peru have averaged 

From England, $6,000,000 

" the United States, 1,500,000 

" France, 600,000 

" Germany, 500,000 

" other quarters, .*.... 2,000,000 



Total, ..... $10,600,000 
The returns from Chili are in 

Copper and copper ore, ...... $2,000,000 

Bullion, ..... ... 1,800,000 

Hides, wheat, hemp, wool, ..... 700,000 

Bullion and dollars, received in payment for goods 
sold for other ports, and transported to Valparaiso, 

for United States and Europe, .... 1,700,000 

Total, ..... $6,200,000 
The revenue of the government is largest from commerce : 

The custom-house receipts are fully . . . $1,000,000 

Tobacco and wines, monopolies of government, . 400,000 

Diezmos, or tithes, .... . 600,000 

Alcavales, or internal sources of revenue, . . 200,000 



Making a total of ..... $2,200,000 

The ordinary expenditure is about $1,800,000. 

The number of foreign vessels employed in the trade is about two 
hundred and seventy, the same vessels arriving generally twice. They 
are of the following nations : 

English, .......... 90 

American, .......... 80 

French, ... ....... 70 

Hamburg, Dutch, and Sardinian, ..... 20 

Mexico, Colombia, and Sandwich Islands, . . . . 10 

Total, ....... 270 

The population of Chili may be estimated at one million two hun- 
dred thousand. 

Santiago contains about sixty thousand inhabitants, and is one of the 
few South American capitals, perhaps the only one, that is increasing 
in wealth and population. It has various private seminaries for both 
sexes, a national institute or college, on a liberal footing, an extensive 
hospital, a medical college, and a military academy. The Congress 
meets on the 1st of June, every year, when the President delivers his 
message. 



CHILI. 203 

Valparaiso numbers thirty thousand inhabitants, and is one of the 
most flourishing seaports in the world. Its population has quintupled 
within the last twenty years, and it is rapidly advancing in every 
improvement, growing out of an increasing foreign commerce, and 
the enterprise of its inhabitants, fostered and encouraged as they are 
by government. 

The mining districts are to the north, and the grain country to the 
south. Extensive flour-mills are now at work in Concepcion and its 
neighbourhood : the machinery is brought from the United States. 

The recognised internal national debt is about $2,000,000, of which 
sum 8800,000 is consolidated, bearing an annual interest of from two 
to six per cent. The government was about to consolidate the re- 
mainder, when their attention was called to other expenses abroad. 
The foreign debt is a loan from England, taken in 1822, of 1,000,000, 
with the interest now due, will not fall far short of $8,000,000. 

There is very little variation in the climate. During what is called 
the winter, when the rains prevail, between the 1st of May and the 1st 
of September, the thermometer occasionally falls for a few hours to 
52, but the mean of it throughout the year, at mid-day, would be 65. 
During the dry season, from September to May, the thermometer at 
times reaches 78 to 80. In the evening and morning, it is at 60. 

Fruits are abundant in their season : apples, pears, apricots, necta- 
rines, plums, peaches, cherries, &c. ; figs, grapes, strawberries, oranges, 
limes, and every variety of vegetable. 

The present administration is composed of 

General Joaquim Prieto, President : term of office five years ; eligible 
for a second, but not a third successive term. 

Don Joaquim Torconal, Minister of Foreign Relations, and Acting 
Minister of the Hacienda, or Treasury. 

Don Ramen Cavareda, Minister of War and Marine. 

Don Mariano Egano, Minister of the Interior and Justice. 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

The President of the Supreme Court of Justice, 

The President of the High Court of Appeals, 

The Reverend Bishop of Santiago, and Apostolic Vicar, 

A General of Division, 

The Minister of the Estanco, or Government Monopolies, 

Two Ex-Ministers, 

Two Judges, and 

A Secretary of the Council. 



204 CHILI. 

THE SENATE 

Consists of nineteen members, elected for five years, representing 
ten provinces. 

THE HOUSE OF DEPUTIES 

Consists of eighty-two members, elected for three years, representing 
thirty-five departments. 

Foreigners require ten years' residence to obtain citizenship, if 
unmarried ; six years, if married ; three years, if married to Chilenos. 

According to present calculation, the militia force of the republic 
reaches forty-five thousand : forty battalions of infantry, eighty 
squadrons of cavalry, and eleven companies of artillery. 

THE ARMY, 

Agreeably to the constitution, in time of peace consists of three 
thousand men : eight companies of foot and horse-artillery, two regi- 
ments of cavalry, and three battalions of infantry. 

OFFICERS. 

One Major-General, 
Eight Colonels, 
Twenty Lieutenant-Colonels, 
Twenty-five Majors, 
Thirty-four Captains, 
Nine Adjutants, 
Twenty-one Lieutenants, 
Sixteen Sub-Lieutenants, 
Two Surgeons-in-chief. 

THE NAVY 

Consists of the Brig Achilles, twenty guns; Schooner Colocolo, 
eight guns. 

OFFICERS. 

One Post-Captain, 

Two Commanders, 

One Lieutenant of Marines, 

Three Pursers. 

The late war with Peru has increased both the army and navy to 



CHILI. 205 

the following, in round numbers : eight thousand troops, six thousand 
of whom are still in Peru, but about to return ; two thousand in Chili, 
with officers complete, all under the command of General Bulnes, 
nephew of the President. 

The navy, increased by capture and purchase, consists of, and now 
in service, four ships, two brigs, two schooners, and a new forty-four 
gun frigate, expected daily from France. 

During the time of our visit, June, 18 39, the President, in his message, 
resigned the extraordinary powers conferred upon him, and recom- 
mended a reduction of the army to a peace establishment. Since that 
time he has been succeeded by his nephew, General Bulnes, who from all 
accounts retains the high reputation and popularity he gained in Peru. 
From G. G. Hobson, Esq., United States' Consul at Valparaiso, and 
our countrymen resident there, we received every kindness and 
assistance, and from them we derived much information respecting 
the country. To the former I feel myself under many obligations for 
his great kindnesses, and the attention he gave to our business, the warm 
interest he took in the Expedition, and the manner in which he for- 
warded our views, and aided in procuring the necessary supplies. 
To him I feel bound to acknowledge my indebtedness for much 
valuable information, and the many agreeable hours spent in his family 
will long be remembered. He not only stands deservedly high with 
our countrymen, but has the respect and high consideration of the 
Chilian government. An American cannot but feel proud of such a 
representative abroad. 

Our departure from Valparaiso was delayed for some days, owing 
to the non-arrival of the Sea-Gull, and the prevalence of north winds 
and calms, together with fogs. These often prevent vessels from 
sailing in the winter season. 

During this time, one morning as the fogs lifted, a brig] was disco- 
vered in a dangerous situation near the beach of Concon ; boats were 
immediately despatched to her relief; she proved to be the English 
brig Superior; the master was found dead drunk on his cabin-floor! 
She was towed to the anchorage, and placed in safety. 

Lieutenant Craven was left at Valparaiso, to take command of the 
Sea-Gull when she should arrive. After a delay there of some months, 
he joined the Pacific Squadron, and was transferred to the Schooner 
Boxer, Lieutenant-Commandant Nicholson, which vessel made strict 
search for the Sea-Gull in all the places she could have possibly met 
with disaster, in conformity to the orders of Captain Clack, then in 
command of the Pacific Squadron. 

I cannot resist the opportunity when speaking of Lieutenant Craven, 



206 CHILI. 

to refer to his praiseworthy conduct in being instrumental in saving the 
crew of the Chilian vessel of war, the Monteguedo, that came near 
being lost. By his exertions, seconded as they were by the officers of 
H. B. M. ship Fly, they were rescued from a watery grave. It gave 
me great pleasure some time afterwards to receive the highly compli- 
mentary notice of it by the Hon. J. K. Paulding, then Secretary of the 
Navy, which will be found included in Appendix XXXIV. 

On the 17th of May, the United States' ship Falmouth, Captain 
M'Keever, arrived from Callao ; and it is with much satisfaction and 
pleasure I refer to my meeting and acquaintance with this officer, 
whose liberal views, and the aid rendered the Expedition, were of 
essential service in forwarding our duties. The manner in which the 
aid was given, rendered it doubly welcome. 

As before mentioned, the Flying-Fish arrived on the 19th, having 
left Orange Harbour on the 28th of April, in company with the Sea- 
Gull. At midnight, the Sea-Gull was last seen. Shortly afterwards, 
it began to blow in strong squalls, and rapidly increased to a gale ; by 
half-past eight of the 29th, it was " blowing furiously." At one 
o'clock, False Cape Horn was made under the lee, when Passed 
Midshipman Knox determined to run for a harbour. At 4 p. M. they 
anchored under the south point of Scapenham Bay, where they dragged 
their anchors, and were obliged to remove to Orange Bay. There 
they anchored, and rode out the remainder of the gale, which lasted 
with violence until the morning of the 1st of May, on which day they 
again took their departure, and shortly afterwards fell in with a 
whaler, who seemed not a little surprised to find a New York pilot-boat 
off the Cape, and to have an interrogatory put to him, to know if he 
wanted a Cape pilot. 

Although I felt some uneasiness about the Sea-Gull, I did not appre- 
hend that she had met with accident. The time that has since elapsed, 
and the careful search that was made, leaves no doubt of her loss, and 
a strong belief that all on board perished in that gale. Nothing since 
that time has been heard of her. How, or in what way, disaster 
happened to her, it is impossible to conjecture. I had the greatest con- 
fidence in the officers who had charge of her ; they were both well 
acquainted with the management of the vessel. Their loss and that 
of the vessel, were a great disadvantage to the Expedition, which was 
felt by me during the remainder of the cruise, these vessels being well 
calculated for the southern seas, particularly in the low latitudes, though 
much exposed in boisterous weather. 

They were principally intended to be engaged with the boats in 
surveying operations, and were well adapted to that service. 



CHILI. 207 

Messrs. Reid and Bacon were among the most promising young 
officers in the squadron, and I was extremely well satisfied with the 
performance of their duty in the vessel. The crew consisted of fifteen 
persons. 

Passed Midshipman James W. E. Reid was the son of the late 
Governor Reid of Florida. He was a native of Georgia, and entered 
the service in September, 1831. He was ordered to the Exploring 
Expedition in 1837, and appointed to the command of the Sea-Gull, 
one of the tenders attached to the Expedition, previous to sailing, in 
August, 1838. 

Passed Midshipman Frederick A. Bacon, entered the service in 
May, 1832. He was a native of the State of Connecticut, where his 
highly respectable relatives reside. He joined the Expedition in 1838, 
and was attached to the Sea-Gull, previous to leaving the United 
States. 

Both of these young officers brought with them into the Expedition a 
high character, and, during the short period which they were attached 
to it, they were distinguished for their devotedness to the arduous 
service in which we were engaged. Their deportment was that of 
ardent and zealous officers, and of upright and correct gentlemen. 

Mr. Bacon left a widow and one child. 

In the family of Mr. Reid there has been a remarkable fatality 
during our absence. His respectable father, the Governor of Florida, 
and three or four other members of his family, have since died. 

During our stay at Valparaiso, the Chilian army was daily ex- 
pected to arrive from Peru, and all were rejoicing over its success. 
All opposition to the existing administration had died away. The 
manner in which the government of General Prieto had carried 
through its plans, both of war and peace, had met with the appro- 
bation of all parties. One of the first acts of the government was to 
restore to their ranks, Generals Pinto, Borgono, and others, whose 
conduct had been extremely praiseworthy, though opposed to the 
government for the last eight years. They, although believing 
themselves ill used by it, discouraged all attempts at revolution, pre- 
ferring to suffer themselves, rather than be instrumental in producing 
changes. Attention was now paid to the building of custom-houses, 
and other public works at Valparaiso, and elsewhere. The whole 
seemed to have given a fresh impulse to every thing in Chili. Those 
who had been at all doubtful of the stability of the government, lost 
their fears, and became its warmest supporters, while happiness and 
joy seemed to reign every where. 

The Congress met on the 1st of June, when the President delivered 



208 



CHILI. 



his annual message, resigning the extraordinary powers with which he 
had been clothed in January, 1837. All Chili will bear testimony, 
foreigners as well as native born, that in no one instance has he 
abused them, but so conducted himself, and his administration, as to 
entitle him to the thanks and rewards of a grateful country. 

Chili, with such rulers, and so moderate and energetic a government, 
must rise rapidly in the scale of nations. 




OX-CART. 



CHAPTER XL 



CONTENTS. 

WANT OF CORRECT HISTORICAL RECORDS O'HIGGINS DECLARED SUPREME DICTA- 
TORRESIGNS IN 1823 COUNCIL OP STATE APPOINTED GENERAL FREYRE LANDS 
AT VALPARAISO-ARREST OF O'HIGGINS HIS RELEASE-GENERAL RAMON FREYRE 
ASSUMES THE GOVERNMENT RETIRES TO PRIVATE LIFE ADMIRAL BLANCO 
PRESIDENT-BLANCO RESIGNS-SUCCEEDED BY VICE-PRESIDENT-HIS RESIGNATION 
FREYRE AGAIN CHOSEN PRESIDENT FREYRE RESIGNS PRIETO BECOMES PRESIDENT 
RESIGNS PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE ACTS ELECTION HELD PRIETO ELECTED 
REFUSES TO SERVE VICUNEA PRESIDENT OF SENATE-TROUBLES-JUNTA APPOINTED 
CIVIL WAR ABANDONMENT OF THE CAPITAL FREYRE CALLED IN JOINS THE PRE- 
SIDENT'S PARTY BATTLE OF LIRCAI, APRIL, 1830 DEFEAT OF FREYRE HIS BANISH- 
MENT TO PERU NEW ELECTION DON FRANCISCO TAGLE RETURNED AS PRESIDENT 
OVALLE AS VICE-PRESIDENT BOTH RESIGN-PRESIDENT OF SENATE AGAIN ACTS- 
NEW ELECTION GENERAL PRIETO ELECTED, JULY, 1831 STATE OF THE COUNTRY 
HIS ADMINISTRATION DIEGO PORT ALES SYSTEM OF REFORM MILITIA SYSTEM 
ESTABLISHES PUBLIC CREDIT-CIVIL RULE TRANSACTIONS WITH PERU- RATIFICA- 
TION OF TREATY, AND RECEPTION OF MINISTER CIVIL WAR IN PERU DEFEAT OF 
SALAVERRY NEW ORGANIZATION OF PERUVIAN GOVERNMENT RUPTURE BETWEEN 
CHILI AND PERU SECRET EXPEDITION UNDER GENERAL FREYRE INTELLIGENCE 
OF IT RECEIVED IN CHILI ACTIVITY OF GOVERNMENT CAPTURE OF FREYRE 
HIS SECOND BANISHMENT POPULARITY OF THE ADMINISTRATION SEIZURE OF 
PERUVIAN VESSELS SUSPENSION OF HOSTILITIES CONVENTION CHILI REFUSES 
TO RATIFY THE PROCEEDINGS CHILI SENDS HER FLEET CHILI DECLARES WAR 
EXPEDITION ORGANIZED DECREE OF PRESIDENT PRIETO EXPEDITION FITTED 
OUT UNDER ADMIRAL BLANCO TROOPS dUARTERED AT QUILLOTA PORTALES' 
INSPECTION OF TROOPS HIS ARREST-VIDAURRE'S MUTINY ACTA OF OFFICERS 
NEWS REACHES VALPARAISO CONSTERNATION CONDUCT OF MILITIA VIDAURRE'S 
DEMANDS -PORTALES' NOBLE CONDUCT VIDAURRE'S ATTACK ON VALPARAISO 
HIS DEFEAT AND, FLIGHT PORTALES' DEATH VIDAURRE CAPTURED AND BROUGHT 
TO VALPARAISO TRIAL AND EXECUTION EXPEDITION SAILS TO PERU ITS 
FAILURE -TREATY OF PAUCARPATA EXPEDITION RETURNS BLANCO DEPRIVED 
OF HIS COMMAND-BULNES-NEW EXPEDITION-ITS DEPARTURE. 



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82 



CHAPTER XL 

POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 
1839. 

OP the early political history of Chili, we found it difficult to obtain 
any correct information. There is no publication existing at this date, 
which furnishes any satisfactory account of the republic in its first 
struggles to establish itself. 

Nearly all the principal actors in its busy scenes are yet living, and 
not so advanced in age, but they entertain hopes of a change from day 
to day, that may restore them to power and importance. These, 
together with the factions that were connected with them, watch with 
anxiety every turn of public opinion ; and with one or the other of 
them, most of the educated Chilians, who alone are capable of giving 
an account, are more or less identified. 

For this reason, only partial statements can be obtained from any of 
them. Those who keep aloof from party, are too timid to express any 
opinion on political subjects, as it might involve them in difficulty. 
The few foreigners whose long residence in the country would enable 
them to furnish facts, are so biassed by their prejudices towards 
different administrations, that no dependence can be placed upon their 
statements. The inequality of rule of the Chilian administrations 
makes it difficult to follow their history, and one is left to the barren 
sources of information afforded by government proclamations, and the 
official reports of the day, always more or less erroneous and exagge- 
rated, in favour of the ruling party. Under these difficulties, it will not 
be surprising if the following outline of its history for the last twenty 
years, should in a few particulars be erroneous ; it is, however, believed 
to be correct, having been drawn from sources that are most to be 
relied on and entitled to credit, and that were at the time attainable. 

After the battle of Chacabuco and Maypo, in which O'Higgins 

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212 POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 

commanded, he was unanimously proclaimed Supreme Director of 
Chili, in April, 1817. He continued to fill the situation until 1823, 
when, in consequence of his allowing great abuses to exist in the 
subordinate branches of government, and not listening to the respectful 
remonstrances sent him from all quarters of the country, a meeting of 
the principal inhabitants of the capital and neighbourhood took place 
at the town hall. 

The subject was discussed freely, and his deposition was determined 
upon. It was agreed, however, to notify him, for few men were more 
esteemed than O'Higgins. He received the commission courteously, 
and when satisfied that they really expressed the voice of the people, 
he without hesitation resigned his power, and departed for Valparaiso, 
with the intention of proceeding to Peru. A council of state was 
named by the assembly at Santiago, composed of three distinguished 
citizens, until the supreme power could be disposed of. 

When O'Higgins arrived in Valparaiso, he found General Ramon 
Freyre had landed from Concepcion, with three hundred men, having 
come up from the south to depose him. 

Although the latter was no longer in his way, he arrested him on 
the plea of making him give an account of his administration. This 
step was not popular. The Junta in Santiago directed his release, and 
ordered Freyre to furnish him with the necessary passport. This was 
done in the most complimentary manner; and this distinguished 
individual, admitted by all to be the first soldier of his country, de- 
parted for Peru, without complaint. There honours were showered 
upon him as testimonials of his worth, and what was far better, the 
Peruvian government gave him a hacienda. 

He still lives in Lima, respected by every one, not having engaged 
in politics since his retirement from Chili. He has been invited back, 
but refuses to come. He was succeeded by Ramon Freyre, considered 
as the champion of liberal institutions, who was named Supreme 
Director and Captain-General, 31st March, 1823. He resigned in 
July, 1826, retiring to private life, after a popular rule. His opposition 
to O'Higgins is justified by its being said that he was left to perish 
from want of supplies to his troops on the frontier. Though he had 
been constant in his representations of the fact to O'Higgins, he had 
been neglected, and was compelled to appear himself and claim 
attention. There is believed to be much truth in this O'Higgins 
having many corrupt creatures about him, who are said to have been 
the cause of it. Freyre is much respected, though not considered a 
man of talent. He never mixed in public life after the resignation of 
his dictatorship, unless when called on as a mediator. 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 213 

Admiral Blanco was next named President by the Congress then 
in session, and Don Augustin Azyguine Vice-President. Blanco was 
one of the vainest of men. Fortunately for the country, he was so 
much mortified at the opposition shown to some of his fancies, that he 
resigned, two months and three days after his appointment. The 
Vice-President succeeded him. Such dissensions, however, prevailed, 
that he also became disgusted and resigned. Pinto was charged with 
the presidency, which he exercised from the 5th of May, 1827, till 
14th July, 1829, when, on the plea of ill health, he resigned, and went 
to his estate. 

In conformity with a law of 1826, the President of the Senate acted 
as president until the middle of October, when the elections took place, 
and General Pinto was returned to the office. During his acting 
presidency, two military revolts had occurred, and the country was 
full of factions. As the elections to Congress were considered to have 
been illegally conducted, the general opposition to its measures was 
ascribed to that cause. Pinto, therefore, on being elected, informed 
them, that he would only accept on condition that the Congress should 
be dissolved, and that new elections, according to the constitution, 
should take place. They did not concur in this, when he declined 
occupying the office, and it went begging again. Vicunea, President of 
the Senate, entered upon the duties of President ; the clamours through- 
out the country increased ; the whole population was in movement, a 
party behind pushing it on. Town meetings were held, and repre- 
sentatives sent to Santiago. 

The government refused to receive their committee, and on this 
being communicated to the meeting, a junta gobernativa was ap- 
pointed, and the country was pronounced to be against the Congress, 
as an unconstitutional body. Collecting a great number of all classes, 
they again went to the President's house, and found he had set out in 
the night, with all his ministers, for Valparaiso. The greatest confu- 
sion prevailed in the capital ; orders were received at the public offices 
from the Junta and from the acting President, both claiming to be 
representatives of the people. In the mean time, the southern army, 
under General Prieto, approached the city. It had declared for the 
Junta. The troops in the city, under General Lastra, considered 
themselves subject to the order of the President for the time. The 
armies met on the field of Ochagavia, and the first blood in civil war 
was shed. Both parties claimed the victory, after a sharp contest. A 
convention was, however, entered into, and Freyre was again called 
forward, to aid in restoring tranquillity to the country. Nothing 
satisfactory grew out of this arrangement. Freyre became disgusted 



214 POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI/ 

at some non-compliance with his orders as captain-general; but 
instead of returning to his family, started off to join the party of the 
President in Valparaiso, setting himself in opposition to the Junta, and 
calling upon all the officers to join him. Unfortunately, some of the 
foreign officers did so. He embarked from Coquimbo with troops, 
and thence proceeded to the south, landed, arid was met at Lircai by 
General Prieto's army, on the 17th April, 1830, when Freyre was 
entirely defeated. This offence resulted in his banishment. Most of 
the foreign officers were killed ; it is said, after they had surrendered. 

The elections now went forward; Don Francesco Tagle was re- 
turned President, and Don Tomas Ovalle as Vice-President : both ex- 
tensive land proprietors and respectable men. The first soon resigned, 
and Ovalle exercised the honour but a short time, dying soon after his 
accession. The President of the Senate acted until elections were 
again held, when General Prieto was returned President, July 14th, 
1831, and continued to hold the office at the time of our visit. 

It appears throughout the history of the different administrations 
which have ruled the country since its separation from Spain, that all 
have been directed by a common spirit of advancement to the country. 
All their decrees prove this, and under any one of them, had they 
retained power but a few successive years, it would have prospered. 
As the people of Chili (that is to say, the mass of the population,) are 
proverbial for their apathy, and disposed to submit to authority without 
questioning its origin, the main error of the early administrations was 
their extensive lenity towards political offenders, whose turbulent spirit 
and restless ambition no clemency checked. The impunity with which 
such disorganizers returned to their intrigues after repeated pardons, 
and the too liberal, or, more properly speaking, visionary schemes of 
government, no doubt operated to produce the sudden and frequent 
changes of government, before any one of them had had time to 
mature plans of improvement or organize a system of legislation, or a 
mode for the proper administration of laws. A want of energy and 
resolution of purpose encouraged factions to hope for success in their 
attempts to gain the ascendency. Imaginary abuses were charged 
home against each successive ruler, and the country was a prey to 
convulsions. This state of affairs prevailed in a greater or less degree 
till 1831, when the present administration came into power. Its course 
was totally different from its predecessors. It adopted at once the 
most energetic measures to establish order ; introduced a necessary 
severity, which produced a hue and cry against it, in the country. But 
it was not diverted from its purpose. It went on reforming abuses, 
nipping revolution in its bud, and banishing the most refractory ; by a 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 

salutary terror awed the many factions, and pursued vigorously its 
career of improvement in every branch of government. No one felt 
disposed to give it credit. All its acts were ascribed to one or other 
of the former parties. Every one spoke of them as being proposed, 
projected, or introduced by O'Higgins, Freyre, or Pinto, forgetting 
that their good intentions were never carried out, and that it was the 
abuses permitted by them that led to civil war. The present adminis- 
tration proved itself fit to rule. It wielded its power energetically but 
beneficially. Its vigilance never slept ; and the parties which occa- 
sionally showed symptoms of movement, have at last made up their 
minds to come into the fold of good citizens. 

The actual president at the time of our visit, was General Joaquim 
Prieto, a man of umblemished private character, full of benevolence, 
but who, no doubt, had he been left to the direction of his own feel- 
ings and judgment, at several periods of his official career, would by 
his mistaken lenity have brought upon his government the fate of all 
the preceding ones. Fortunately for the lovers of order, he had for 
several years to aid him, as minister of war and the interior, Diego 
Portales, one of those master spirits a country but rarely produces ; a 
man whose early life was engaged in commerce, but who, in the pro- 
gress of revolutions, evincing more than ordinary ability, became a 
prominent politician, and eventually one of the leading men of the 
country. From his resolute and unbending temper, he was permitted 
to become the head of a party, and soon gained such an ascendency, 
that they abandoned themselves to his guidance. He might have 
obtained the presidency, had ordinary ambition directed him ; but, 
impelled by a more noble one, he chose to attach himself to the ad- 
ministration as one of its ministers, in order, as subsequent events 
proved, that he might be better able to carry out the plans he medi- 
tated. He possessed a resolution in his political career which never 
swerved from what he conceived his duty, or what he thought the 
interests of his country required. He had the unyielding temper of 
a reformer ; and never was one more wanted in any country. He 
recommended the establishment of a militia system, with a view to 
check every future military interference in the government ; and when 
it was opposed, on the ground that it would only endanger the peace 
of the country to place arms in the hands of the people, he answered, 
" No ! depend upon it, the only way to secure permanent order, is to 
create a power in the people which may be enlisted on their side; and 
if this should declare against the government, it would be evidence 
enough that it ought no longer to rule, for such a power should consist 
of the best portion of the population of the country. The first object 



216 POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 

must be to counteract military influence ; for it too frequently happens 
amongst us, that when we make a colonel, and give him a regiment, 
his aspirations soon extend to supreme command." 

His counsel was listened to : a militia system was organized ; the 
army was reduced ; numerous generals and other officers were struck 
off the list ; the number of civil officers in the various departments was 
diminished, salaries cut down, and the most rigid economy observed in 
every branch of the government. Setting an example of unwearied 
industry in the discharge of his duties, he exacted from those under 
him a strict performance of theirs. He corrected abuses which had 
the countenance of time for their practice ; he aroused his countrymen 
from their indolence ; corruption ceased, persons were selected to fill 
office from their fitness, and not, as formerly, from family influence. 
His militia system worked admirably ; it produced a feeling of order 
among a population notoriously irregular in their private habits and 
domestic economy; it became a national guard, exercising a certain kind 
of police over the whole land. Indeed, all his energies were called into 
play, to improve and advance his country ; roads were planned to open 
communications to the coast, from sections abounding in agricultural 
wealth, but remote from the seaboard. He set about raising the public 
credit by husbanding the revenue, so as to enable it, after consolidating 
domestic and foreign debt, to appropriate a certain amount, first 
towards the periodical payments on account of interest, and then to 
effect an arrangement with the English-bond-holders. For the latter 
purpose, an agent was named to proceed to England. 

To accomplish such radical changes great perseverance and firm- 
ness were requisite, and these qualities eminently characterized 
Portales. It is surprising how well he adapted his march to the actual 
state of the country, and its prejudices of education. He supported 
the clergy, to obtain their instrumentality as a moral power to 
strengthen the government, knowing that otherwise they would, as 
they frequently had, become its most formidable opponents. All this 
created much discontent among many speculative politicians, who 
fancied they could establish a refined system of government over 
an uneducated and prejudiced mass of men like the Chilians ; a popu- 
lation that had but a few years emerged from a political state little 
different from that of Europe in the middle ages, whose predilections 
were deeply rooted, whose habits only change by an increasing inter- 
course with nations more enlightened than themselves, and who 
gradually and almost imperceptibly yield to such an influence. 

This government came into power after military rule had been in 
possession of authority almost ever since the nation became indepen- 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 317 

dent. It had been the custom to consult military men on every change 
of government ; the rivalry of generals consequently kept up a constant 
revolutionary propensity. A government, to establish civil rule supreme 
in the land, and in order to have its laws obeyed, would be obliged to 
exercise more severity with it than pre-existing circumstances had 
called for. Portales incurred the sole odium of this severity. His 
activity and energy were ever present and before the public. He had 
a difficult task to perform in reconciling jarring interests, and pushing 
out this system of reform, but he did it fearlessly. No selfish feeling 
seemed to actuate him. His enemies admit that his disinterestedness 
was extraordinary, and that neither himself nor his family were bene- 
fited by his public employment. The remains of that unquiet military 
spirit, the growth of revolution, would occasionally show itself; but 
the government instantly crushed it, and sent the offenders out of the 
country. A good understanding was sought with foreign powers. 
A treaty was effected with Mexico, and one with the United States ; 
and a mission to accomplish one with Peru, sent up by President 
Orbejoso, was met with confidence. Unfortunately, when the ratifi- 
cation of the latter was about being exchanged, a military revolt broke 
out in Peru, headed by a Colonel Salaverry, which succeeded in 
driving the legal government from Lima, and established one there of 
which Salaverry declared himself supreme chief. 

The Chilian government, too anxious to complete the treaty, which 
was advantageous to the two countries, sent it to Peru, and exchanged 
ratifications with Salaverry, who was at the time acknowledged to be 
the de facto ruler, as far as decrees and possession of the capital went. 
In this view of the case, Chili had an undoubted right to conclude the 
treaty, and to expect that it would be observed. The ratification of 
the treaty by Salaverry was followed by his sending a minister to 
Chili, although the ambassador of the former government (Orbejoso's) 
was still there. This was the germ from which grew the misunder- 
standing that occurred on the restoration of Orbejoso's government, 
which was effected through the intervention of the President of Bolivia, 
General Santa Cruz, who had been called upon by Orbejoso for 
assistance. This resulted in the defeat of Salaverry, the establishment 
of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, and the naming of Santa Cruz 
as Supreme Protector, for life, by assemblies convoked by him, and 
the appointment of Orbejoso as President of North Peru. 

While these matters, however, were in progress, Orbejoso, who had 
returned to Lima after the battle of Socabaya, immediately on his 
arrival annulled the treaty with Chili, with no other notice to the 
latter government than the public decree, by which she was informed 

VOL. i. T 28 



218 POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 

that four months were allowed her to renew it or not, otherwise it 
would be of no effect. 

Chili took umbrage at this abrupt mode of proceeding, and allowed 
the time to pass, when both governments restored the former retalia- 
tory duties on their respective products. 

Santa Cruz framed a new commercial code for Peru, and among 
its articles, was one imposing double duties on all vessels touching at 
any Chilian port, before going to Peru. This measure was odious 
to Chili, and was considered as evincing unfriendly feelings. Whilst 
Chili was in the full tide of prosperity, and attending to her own 
internal regulations, the administration, satisfied that all was quiet at 
home, appears to have been utterly regardless of the course things 
were taking in Peru. President Prieto at this time was re-elected for 
a second term, upon which General Ramon Freyre, the former director 
of Chili, but for some years banished the country, and living in Peru, 
set out with a few other exiled Chilian officers, on a revolutionary 
adventure to Chili. Embarking in two Peruvian government vessels, 
hired from Orbejoso ostensibly for a trading voyage to Central 
America, his real intention was to proceed to the south of Chili, and 
make a descent upon the coast. He entertained the expectation of 
being joined by the old military, and other dissatisfied persons, and 
was in hopes of finally establishing himself again in power. Some few 
days subsequently to Freyre's departure from Lima, the Chilian consul- 
general hearing of it, despatched a fast-sailing vessel to apprise his 
government. The vessel had a very short passage, and the intelligence 
took the government entirely by surprise. They were wholly unpre- 
pared for an attack from any quarter. Their only armed vessel was 
a small schooner, and this was employed at the time to bring the 
electoral returns from Chiloe. The intelligence, however, caused 
government no alarm. With a promptitude characteristic of Portales' 
system, which was now fairly established, a dismantled brig-of-war 
was rigged, a crew shipped, and made ready for sea in four days. 
Gun-boats were armed, and every precaution taken to guard against 
surprise. At the same time the government received tenders of service 
from people of property and influence throughout the whole republic, 
and few felt any doubts that the result of the affair would be in favour 
of the government. 

Soon after, the largest of Freyre's vessels, with some of his best 
officers on board, was brought in by her crew, and delivered up. It 
was ascertained that the rendezvous was to be Chiloe. No time was 
lost in sending off the prize, with a good equipment, to decoy Freyre, 
if possible. He was found in possession of Chiloe. The stratagem 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 319 

was successful, and they returned with him prisoner, and the other 
vessels as prizes. Thus ended, in the short space of two months, an 
expedition headed by one who had been the most popular ruler Chili 
ever had. Though possessing still many friends in the country, he 
found himself a prisoner and not a voice raised to his rescue. His 
life was considered forfeited, as he had been banished by the present 
government, and had come to introduce anew all the horrors of civil 
war into a peaceful country. The recollection of his distinguished 
services to the nation in times past, his having with honour to himself 
and credit to his country filled its highest office, and no doubt some 
sympathy for his changed situation, obtained for him the clemency of 
the government. He and his adherents were again banished, and no 
person connected with him otherwise punished. He was also per- 
mitted to see his family frequently during his confinement. 

The result of this attempt had the effect of strengthening the admi- 
nistration. People of property and respectability, even of opposite 
parties, rallied around it : a satisfactory proof that there was a love of 
order rising, and that the supremacy of civil rule would no longer 
submit to changes effected by arms. 

In the meanwhile, circumstances seemed to justify the belief of the 
connivance of the Peruvian government in Freyre's plan. It had been 
notified by the Chilian consul-general, a few hours after the vessels 
sailed, of the true objects of the voyage, and there was still time to 
prevent Freyre's success. They shuffled out of the affair, and on 
learning that the consul-general was despatching a vessel to inform 
his government, they put an embargo on the port of Callao. The 
vessels however, had sailed before the order reached the port; on 
understanding which the embargo was immediately raised. 

This was publicly commented on at the time by foreigners in the 
place, and afforded conclusive evidence that the Peruvian government 
was concerned in the plot. The Chilian vessels of war, Achilles and 
Colocolo, the only ones possessed by the government, were despatched 
suddenly on secret service. A confidential agent accompanied them. 
They went to Callao, and seized upon three Peruvian vessels of war 
lying in the harbour, to take away the only means of offence in the 
power of a government which had proved itself so unfriendly. This 
being done, the vessels were taken over to the island of San Lorenzo, 
and anchored under the guns of the Chilian vessels. The Chilian civil 
agent demanded explanations respecting Freyre's expedition. Before 
these were given, great excitement prevailed on shore, at what was 
conceived to be an outrage against civilized nations; for it was said 
that the Chilian vessels had entered under the guise of friendship, and 



220 POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 

while partaking of the hospitality of a nation at peace with their own 
had basely taken advantage of it to insult the country. The Chilian 
consul-general, when the news first reached Lima, was subjected to a 
short arrest. Finally, matters settled down, and the parties agreed to 
discuss the subjects of complaint on board the English sloop-of-war 
Talbot. Santa Cruz sent one of his principal officers, and a conven- 
tion was agreed upon for the suspension of hostilities on both sides for 
the term of four months. The Peruvian vessels were to remain in 
possession of the Chilians, and no warlike preparations during the time 
were to be made by either party. Santa Cruz disavowed any partici- 
pation in Freyre's plans, and expressed his willingness to pay Chili the 
expenses of suppressing the attempt. He also bound himself to the 
performance of his part of the convention, leaving the Chilian agent 
subject to the approbation of his government, and assured him of his 
earnest desire for a good understanding with Chili. 

The vessels returned to Chili, a diplomatic agent of Santa Cruz 
accompanying them. The Chilian government refused to ratify the 
convention when informed of it, and proceeded in the most active 
preparations for fitting out all the captured Peruvian vessels. At this 
time it might have dictated any terms to Santa Cruz, who was anxious 
to secure his newly-acquired power. Chili, however, had no confi- 
dence in him, and prepared for the coming struggle. Santa Cruz's 
minister returned to Peru. He was followed by the Chilian fleet, 
having a high diplomatic agent on board, with the government sine 
.qua non, viz., the abandonment of the Confederation, and the restora- 
tion of the independent sovereignties of Peru and Bolivia. Santa Cruz 
refused to receive a minister attended by an armed force, which had 
the appearance of a menace. In vain did the Chilian minister offer to 
send them away, and remain in the smallest vessel of the squadron, 
saying the latter was merely to guard against a repetition of Freyre's 
expedition. Nothing was done. The Chilian minister returned home, 
and Chili then declared war against the Confederation, on the 12th ot 
December, 1836. Freyre's attempt had been crushed in August, 1836. 

Chili became sensible, too late, of her error in not protesting at first 
against the armed interference of Santa Cruz in the affairs of Peru ; by 
not doing which she tacitly assented, and thus encouraged him. But, 
occupied with her internal concerns, she heeded little what was passing 
around her, and had not Freyre's expedition been fitted out in Peru, 
Santa Cruz's plans of government would have been unmolested. She 
felt too late that no confidence could be placed in her new neighbours. 
Determined, therefore, on his downfall, an expedition against him was 
planned, composed of naval and land forces ; and numerous banished 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 

Peruvians living in Chili were permitted to join, who formed them- 
selves into a separate body, under General Lafuente, a distinguished 
Peruvian revolutionist. The first ill effects of a revival of a military 
spirit in Chili were now experienced. As before mentioned, one of the 
reforms of the government was the reduction of the army to a number 
barely sufficient to protect the southern frontier against the Indians. 
To create a force, therefore, it became necessary to raise recruits in 
every direction. Congress being in session, granted extraordinary 
powers to the President, a very necessary step to give effect to exe- 
cutive decrees. 

The following is a translation of a decree of the President, issued by 
Portales, as Minister of the Interior, at the breaking out of the war : 

Department of the Interior. 

In consequence of the power that the 43d and 82d articles of the 
Constitution have conferred upon me, I have well considered and 
approved the following resolution of the National Congress. 

1st. He who has been condemned to remain in a particular part of 
the Republic, or exiled from it by the judicial sentence, and for the 
crime of sedition, conspiracy, and riot, will suffer death if he breaks 
his confinement or exile. 

2d. In whatever part of the Republic any one of the criminals 
included in the foregoing article may be apprehended, without the 
limits that have been assigned to him, the authorities will seize and 
shoot him, within twenty-four hours, without any other proofs than 
may be necessary to identify the person, and without suffering any 
appeal to a higher authority. 

3d. The present law will begin to act, respecting all those who are 
expelled the Republic for the crimes which are expressed in the first 
article. 

On this account I direct it to be promulgated, and to take effect in 

all parts, as a law of the state. 

(Signed) PRIETO. 
DIEGO PORTALES. 
Santiago, January 28th, 1837. 

Inasmuch as the National Congress has declared the state to be in 
actual war with Peru, and in consequence clothed the President of 
the Republic with all the necessary powers that his prudence may find 
necessary for the exigency of the state, without any other limitation 
than that he shall not condemn or give punishment of his own will, but 
leave these to be judged by the established tribunals, or those which 
this present government may hereafter establish. In consequence of 

T2 



222 POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 

the authority conferred upon me, I promulgate, by the articles forty- 
third and eighty-second of the Constitution, sanction, approve, and 
order the foregoing decree to be made public, through the press. 

PRIETO. 

DIEGO PORTALES. 
Santiago, 31st January, 1837. 

This decree did not fail to renew the complaints of old parties 
against the government as despotic, &c. To carry on the war, part 
of two battalions of a veteran regiment from the south arrived at 
Valparaiso, under the command of Colonel Vidaurre, a brave and 
distinguished officer. They were ordered to Quillota, where recruits 
were to join them, until the regiment should be full, and where they 
were to be drilled and disciplined, for embarkation. Vidaurre was 
appointed head of the staff of the army, under Admiral Blanco Enca- 
lada, commander-in-chief. A regiment of one thousand four hundred 
men was soon completed, and reported to be in fine order. The navy, 
composed of seven vessels, was ready to sail. At this time Portales, 
being minister of war, came to Valparaiso, to hasten the departure of 
the expedition, and to give his personal inspection to its materiel. 
Vidaurre was his protege, and an invitation to a ball, said to be about 
being given in Quillota, sent by Vidaurre, was accepted by Portales, 
who intended going there to examine the condition of the troops. At 
the same time, he determined on carrying Vidaurre his epaulettes and 
promotion as brigadier and chief of the staff. On the afternoon of the 
3d of June, 1836, Vidaurre ordered the troops into the square for 
Portales' reception. When all were assembled, Vidaurre made a 
signal ; some soldiers advanced, surrounded and seized Portales, who 
was not allowed to say a word, but was hurried to prison, and heavy 
irons put on him. An acta, or declaration, was drawn up and signed 
by about forty officers, all subalterns, containing the usual phraseology 
of such documents, about tyranny, injustice, suffering country, &c. A 
servant of Portales escaped unseen, and brought the astounding intelli- 
gence to Valparaiso, soon after midnight, creating the greatest conster- 
nation. It was naturally supposed that an officer of Vidaurre's energy 
and character would push for Valparaiso without delay. If he had 
done so, he could have taken it. Alarm-guns were fired, and before 
daylight the militia were under arms, and not long after the squadron, 
consisting of some seven vessels, were hauled towards the Almendral. 
In the course of the day, some few hundred men, sent by Vidaurre, 
were met and repulsed by a body of militia. Not long after, a flag of 
truce was sent to the town, demanding the delivery of the " Port" and 
vessels, threatening, in the event of a refusal, to execute Portales, and 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 

in case the town was taken, to give it up to plunder, besides shooting 
every officer found in arms. It is said that Vidaurre offered to save 
Portales' life if he would write an order for the surrender of the town. 
This he refused with indignation. The authorities, nevertheless, 
lemained firm, and allowed the flag to return. The greatest anxiety 
prevailed in the Port, as a night-attack was apprehended, and it was 
feared the militia, new to warfare, would give way, or perhaps join 
the revolters. The measures taken to defend Valparaiso were admi- 
rable. No confusion was observed, and the greatest alacrity was 
manifested by every officer of the government, and citizens, to aid the 
cause of order. The foreign merchants, however, sent their books, 
papers, and money, on board the English frigate Blonde, the only 
foreign vessel of war in port. Vidaurre came on, confident of success. 
He encountered the militia, at the entrance of the Port, about two 
o'clock in the morning, and met with so warm a reception that he was 
compelled to fall back. The militia pushed on, directed by Admiral 
Blanco. The governor, Colonel Vidaurre, a cousin of the revolutionist 
chief, followed him up so closely that it ended in a complete defeat, 
Vidaurre's troops scattering themselves in every direction, himself 
flying with a few officers. When the fate of his troops was decided, 
his step-son, who was in the rear, where Portales was in a gig, heavily 
ironed, had him taken out, with his secretary, and shot. Portales not 
being killed by the first fire, was bayonetted, with savage brutality, in 
various parts of his body, which they left in the road, covered with 
thirty-five wounds. The pursuit continued throughout the day; the 
soldiers were left without officers, and gradually returned to their old 
quarters, where they were incorporated with other regiments. Some 
days elapsed before Vidaurre and his accomplices were taken. 
Although a feeling of horror pervaded the community at the fate of 
Portales, yet the most perfect order and confidence continued. Neither 
on his examination, nor that of his officers, did it appear that the move- 
ment had been encouraged by any party in the country. In fact, it 
could only be inferred that he was ambitious to play the part of a 
second Salaverry. 

Order triumphed most completely. The militia had arrayed itself 
on its side, and increased confidence was felt in the government, 
though there were not wanting some who predicted its speedy down- 
fall, now that it was deprived of its most efficient member. Vidaurre 
was replaced by a much more respectable person, General Aldunate, 
a man characterized as the Don Quixote of honour by those less 
scrupulous than himself. The government gained by this exchange, 
but the loss sustained in the death of Portales was irreparable. He 



224 POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 

stood alone ; he worked for his country ; and his fate was most un- 
merited. Deeply did every true friend of Chili deplore it. He had 
taught that the civil authority could be made supreme, and he 
will have one of the most conspicuous places in the history of Chili. 
He was in the prime of life, about forty-two years of age, unmarried, 
and at no period were his services more required. His energy, how- 
ever, seemed to have been imbibed by the whole administration, and 
no abatement took place in the preparations for war. 

Vidaurre and his officers were tried by a court-martial held in 
Valparaiso, and condemned to be executed. Twelve were shot, the 
rest were banished. This was the first execution of such a sentence 
for political offences that had ever occurred in Chili. Some pretended 
to bode ill from it, but its effects so far have been salutary ; and these 
desperate characters will not be so much inclined to run headlong into 
revolutionary movements after seeing the fruits of it. 

The expedition, composed of three thousand men, finally sailed, and 
disembarking at Islay, proceeded to Arequipa, the second city of Peru, 
of which they took possession. Santa Cruz's troops retired to the 
interior. Lafuente was here proclaimed Supreme Chief, according to 
prescribed forms in such cases provided, and set about organizing his 
government, filling offices without a real of revenue, or any source 
from which he could raise any. No disaffected Peruvians joined 
them, and their situation became very critical, as Santa Cruz was 
concentrating his forces, and threatened to cut off the communication 
with their ships. Thus hemmed in, they would have been obliged to 
surrender at discretion. These advantages were possessed by Santa 
Cruz, and the Chilians saw no way of escape. Why Santa Cruz 
should have lost this opportunity to strike a decided blow, is incon- 
ceivable. He did, however, waive it, and proposed to treat. Commu- 
nications passed for some days. Santa Cruz's army augmenting daily, 
was now double that of the Chilian general, who seemed to have no 
alternative but submission. Still he put a brave countenance on the 
affair, and signed at Paucarpata a treaty with Santa Cruz, having 
previously held a council of war, which was attended by the minister 
plenipotentiary which the Chilian government had sent with the ex- 
pedition. There was no voice raised against the treaty. It was 
honourable to the Chilians, and saved their whole army. Festivities 
followed, after which the Chilian forces embarked and returned home. 
Neither the government nor the people were satisfied. Blanco landed 
secretly, and was received coldly. The President refused to ratify the 
treaty. It was considered disgraceful, as the object of the war had 
not been gained, and singularly enough, the war now became popular 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 225 

with all parties. The army landed in perfect order. Blanco was 
deprived of his command, and a court-martial ordered. The troops 
were again sent to Quillota, and the greatest enthusiasm seemed to 
prevail. A new and more formidable expedition was determined on ; 
and General Bulnes, the President's nephew, who commanded the 
troops on the frontiers, and was known as a bold dashing officer, was 
appointed to the command. Many thought the government mad, fore- 
saw forced loans, and all the attendant evils, great financial difficulties, 
and, eventually, revolution. Still the government moved steadily on. 
Six thousand men were soon got together, well officered, well equipped, 
and with a military chest well filled. It is generally believed that the 
church made a loan to the government for this war, and it is said that 
it possesses one-eighth of the landed property of the country. This 
second expedition sailed, confident of success. No loans were asked 
for by government, nor any funds other than the ordinary revenue 
used, yet no account remained unpaid. This was and continues to be 
the marvel of every one. The greatest regularity was observed in all 
the dealings of the government agents ; no complaints of extortion or 
abuses were heard. The internal affairs of the country went on as if 
no war existed. Improvements were not neglected ; lighthouses built ; 
roads improved ; and no interruption took place in the usual operations 
of government. With this last expedition went General Gamarra, one 
of the fathers of Peruvian revolution, grown gray in the service. 
Lafuente went as his adjunct, though he had once made a revolution 
against him. With these went a host of military leeches, Peruvian 
exiles, ready to bleed their country to its last gasp. High-sounding 
words of patriotism, oppressed country, self-devotion, &c., flowed 
from them in most extravagant terms. From their local information 
it was expedient for the Chilians to have them, but if considered as 
a constituent part of the army, they were like fire-brands. Bulnes, a 
plain blunt soldier, it was thought would use no ceremony with any 
of them if he found them troublesome, which those who knew their 
characters thought would be the case. 

The remaining part of the operations of the Chilian army in Peru, 
will be treated of when I give the sketch of the history of that country. 




STIRRUPS, SPURS, ETC., OF CHILI. 

VOL. i. 29 



CHAPTER XII. 



CONTENTS. 

PORPOISE SAILS ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS - DIFFICULTIES OF LEAVING THE 
BAY -REGULATIONS OF PORT BADLY OBSERVED - CONDUCT OF THE CAPTAIN OF 
HAMBURG VESSEL DEPARTURE PART COMPANY WITH PEACOCK AND TENDER- 
EVENTS ON PASSAGE TO CALLAO ZODIACAL LIGHTS MAKE THE COAST OF PERU 
-TEMPERATURE OF WATER - ENTER BOUdUERON PASSAGE - ANCHOR AT SAN 
LORENZO GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF ISLAND BUR YING-GROUND ARRIVAL OF 
FALMOUTH- CAPTAIN M'KEEVER-HIS KINDNESS-DESERTERS-CONDUCT OF CREW 
OF RELIEF -PUNISHMENT -EFFECTUAL SUPPRESSION OF SUCH CONDUCT - COURT 
MARTIAL-JUSTIFICATION-CHANGE OF ANCHORAGE TO CALLAO-HEIGHT OF LIMA- 
MOLE-CALLAO-VESSELS IN PORT-CASTLE-DESCRIPTION OF HOUSES RELIGIOUS 
PRACTICES-MARKET-REVIEW OF TROOPS-OLD CALLAO-EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKE 
VAULTS FOR DEPOSITING THE DEAD-POPULATION OF CALLAO-FOURTH OF JULY 
-ROAD TO LIMA-DEVASTATIONS-BELLA VISTA-APPROACH TO LIMA-ENTRANCE 
AND APPEARANCE ITS PLAN-AMUSEMENTS-SAYA AND MANTA-ITS PRIVILEGES 
-DESCRIPTION OF IT-HOUSES - PORTALES OR ARCADES PALACE - FOUNTAIN 
CATHEDRAL -CRYPT -NOVEL HEARSE MARKET CONVENT OF SAN FRANCISCO- 
LIBRARY-SIGNATURE OF PIZARRO-FOUNDING OF LIMA-THEATRE-NAVAL SCHOOL- 
CLASSES OF NATIVES-POPULATION-NEWSPAPERS-HAND-BILLS-FESTIVAL-CORPUS 
CHRISTI-MR. MATHEWS-MANUFACTORIES-FESTIVAL OF ST. JOHN'S-AMANCAES- 
CELEBRATION- EARTHQUAKES -EFFECTS PRODUCED-GATEWAY, NAVAL SCHOOL- 
CLIMATE - RAIN-MEAN TEMPERATURE-HEALTH-RIMAC-IRRIGATION-HAR VEST- 
CHILIAN ARMY-STATE OF THE COUNTRY-MANNER OF RECRUITING THE ARMY- 
TREATMENT OF SLAVES-DEATH OF BENJAMIN HOLDEN-SMALL-POX-PRECAUTIONS 
ADOPTED. 



(227) 



CHAPTER XII. 

PERU. 
1839. 

ON the 26th of May, the Porpoise sailed for Callao, in order that 
some repairs might be made on her, which our time here did not 
admit of. At Valparaiso the weather was extremely unfavourable for 
astronomical observations. I had been in great hopes of being able to 
obtain a series of moon culminating stars, and occultations, but no 
opportunity occurred, so that I had to content myself with those for 
rating the chronometers, and to connect this port with Callao. The 
longitude adopted for Fort San Antonio, was 71 39' 20" W., which 
is the last determination of it by King and Fitzroy. 

On the 4th, we made an attempt to get out of the bay, but were 
obliged again to cast anchor. At this season of the year, light 
northerly winds usually prevail, and a heavy swell frequently sets in 
the bay, making the roadstead very uncomfortable, and at times dan- 
gerous. The vessels are too much crowded, and the regulations of 
the port are not sufficiently attended to. 

I was not a little amused with the master of a Hamburg barque, 
who dropped his anchor so as to foul the berth of my ship, and when 
he brought up, swung close alongside. He seemed perfectly satisfied 
with his situation, and apparently knew little about his business, show- 
ing all the doggedness of his countrymen. The weather looking 
threatening, I sent him word to move, stating that in case of a change 
of wind, he would be greatly injured. He quietly replied that his 
vessel was made of teak, and that his underwriters or my government 
would pay his damages, and that he could stand a good deal of grind- 
ing ! Without more ado, I sent an officer and men, and put him at 
once out of my way. 

On the 6th, we had a breeze from the southward and eastward, and 

U (229) 



230 PER U. 

immediately got under way with the squadron, and succeeded in 
making an offing. As we opened the land to the southward, my view 
and thoughts wandered in that direction, hoping that still, and at the 
last moment, the missing tender might heave in sight. But no white 
speck was seen, nor any thing that could cause a ray of hope that 
she might yet be in existence ; and my fears foreboded what has since 
proved too true, she and her crew had perished. 

On the second day after leaving Valparaiso, we had a fresh gale 
from the northward, accompanied with much sea. During the night, 
in thick weather, we lost sight of the Peacock and Flying-Fish. On 
the 9th we got beyond the wind, which blows along the coast from 
the northward, and our weather improved, exchanging fog, rain, mist, 
and contrary winds, for clear weather, and winds from the southwest. 

The current was found west-by-north, nine miles in twenty-four 
hours. The wind, however, continued variable. On the 12th, in 
longitude 74 40' W., latitude 28 34' S., we took the trades, but they 
proved very unsteady. They were very strong for a few hours, and 
then again light and almost calm, with squally appearances all around 
the horizon. The sea was quite smooth, and the weather pleasant. 
During the days that the trade-winds were not strong, we usually had 
the wind to vary to the northward and eastward for a few hours. 

On the morning of the 19th, the zodiacal light was quite brilliant, 
resembling the aurora borealis, but without its radiating, vacillating, 
and transitory appearance, and having the form of 'a distinct narrow 
cone. At its base it was 20 ; the apex could not be ascertained, on 
account of the intervention of clouds. As the dawn increased, the 
cone grew broader, until it was lost in the daylight. Its whole dura- 
tion was about forty-five minutes. The stars were seen through it, as 
though covered with a transparent veil. On the same day, we found 
the temperature at bottom, in eighty- three fathoms, 57, whilst at the 
surface it was 63. We were then abreast of Point Sola, and San 
Lorenzo bore to the north, distant twenty-five miles. 

On the 20th, in the evening, we passed through the Bouqueron 
Passage, having got several casts of the lead in three and a quarter 
fathoms water ; and by the assistance of the lights of the other vessels, 
anchored near the rest of the squadron at San Lorenzo, after a passage 
of thirteen days. We found them all well, and proceeding rapidly 
with their repairs. The Peacock and Flying-Fish arrived two days 
before us. We found the current generally with us, but not strong. 
The temperature of the water varied at sea from 58-27 to 66-5 ; that 
of the air, from 57-3 to 63-04 : a rise of eight degrees in the former 
and six degrees in the latter, in twenty-one degrees of latitude. 



PERU. 231 

On receiving the reports of the commanders of the different vessels, 
active operations were at once begun to refit, replenish our stores, and 
complete our duties. The necessary changes in officers and men were 
made, in consequence of my determination to send the Relief home. 
This I resolved to do on several accounts. I have stated that from 
the first I found her ill-adapted to the service ; her sailing I saw would 
retard all my operations, and be a constant so'urce of anxiety to me ; 
and I felt that I already had objects enough without her to occupy 
and engross my attention. The expense was another consideration, 
which I conceived myself unauthorized to subject the government to, 
particularly as I found on calculation, that for one-tenth of the sum it 
would cost to keep her, I could send our stores and provisions to any 
part of the Pacific. 

We found it necessary to have the Relief smoked, in order to destroy 
the rats with which she was infested, to save our stores from further 
damage. During this time the repairs of the Porpoise had been 
completed, and the usual observations for rating our chronometers, and 
with the magnetic instruments, were made on shore ; and such officers 
as could be spared allowed to visit Lima. The naturalists were also 
busy in their several departments. We remained at San Lorenzo ten 
days, during which time its three highest points were measured with 
barometers at the same time. The result gave eight hundred and 
ninety-six feet for the southern, nine hundred and twenty for the 
middle, and twelve hundred and eighty-four for the northern summit. 
Upon the latter the clouds generally rest, and it is the only place on 
the island where vegetation is enabled to exist. The others are all 
barren sandy hills. It is said that the only plant which has been 
cultivated is the potato, and that only on the north peak. This becomes 
possible there from the moisture of the clouds, and their shielding it 
from the hot sun. 

The geological structure of the island is principally composed of 
limestone, clay, and slate. It presents a beautiful stratification. Gyp- 
sum is found in some places between the strata, and crystals of selenite 
are met with in one or two localities. Quantities of shell-fish are 
found on the shore, and the waters abound with excellent fish. 

The burying-ground is the only object of interest here. The graves 
are covered with white shells, and a white board, on which is inscribed 
the name, &c. They appear to be mostly of Englishmen and Ameri- 
cans, and it would seem that the mortality had been great. But when 
one comes to consider the large number of men-of-war which have 
been lying in the bay, and the period of time elapsed, the number of 
interments do not seem large. 



232 PERU. 

It was with much pleasure we greeted the arrival of the Falmouth, 
Captain M'Keever, whose kindness in supplying our wants, and 
forwarding our operations, we again experienced. The essential and 
timely aid he gave me, in exchanging the launch and first cutter of 
his ship, for materials to build one, which I had brought from Valpa- 
raiso for that purpose, prevented our detention here. 

The Falmouth brought from Valparaiso three deserters from the 
squadron, who had been apprehended by Lieutenant Craven, and 
from whom I received a report, stating that two of them, Blake and 
Lester, had been guilty not only of desertion, but that their desertions 
had been attended with very aggravated circumstances. Just about 
this time the stores were delivering from the Relief. Among them 
was a quantity of whiskey for the other vessels. The marines who 
were placed on duty over the spirit-room as guard, with six persons 
employed in moving it, got drunk by stealing the liquor, and her whole 
crew became riotous. The delinquents were ordered on board my 
ship in confinement. These were court-martial offences, but the duties 
of the squadron would not permit me to order a court for their trial, 
without great loss of time and detriment to the service. To let such 
offences pass with the ordinary punishment of twelve lashes, would 
have been in the eyes of the crew, to have overlooked their crime 
altogether. I was, therefore, compelled, in order to preserve order 
and good discipline, to inflict what I deemed a proper punishment, and 
ordered them each to receive twenty-four lashes, excepting Blake and 
Lester, who received thirty-six and forty-one. This was awarding to 
each about one-tenth of what a court-martial would have inflicted; 
yet it was such an example as thoroughly convinced the men that they 
could not offend with impunity. This was, I am well satisfied, consi- 
dered at the time as little or no punishment for the crimes of which 
they had been guilty ; but I felt satisfied that the prompt and decided 
manner in which it was administered, would have the desired effect of 
preserving the proper discipline, and preventing its recurrence. In 
this I was not disappointed. I should not have made this statement, 
had it not been that this was the sole charge, out of eleven, spread out 
into thirty-six specifications, on which a court of thirteen members, 
after an investigation of three weeks, could find I had transgressed the 
laws of the navy in the smallest degree. In justification of my course 
on this occasion, I could not but believe that the following clause of 
my instructions from the Hon. J. K. Paulding, Secretary of the Navy, 
ought to have sufficed : " In the prosecution of these long and devious 
voyages, you will necessarily be placed in situations which cannot be 
anticipated, and in which sometimes your own judgment and discre- 



PERU. 233 

tion, arid at others necessity, must be your guide." Under this I 
acted. I am fully satisfied that in this case circumstances did occur, 
which in the language of my instructions did make " necessity my 
guide," and I fully believe that in so doing I saved the results of 
the Expedition, the honour of the navy, and the glory of the country. 

On the 30th of June, the squadron went over to Callao. 

The Bay of Callao is too well known to require much to be said of 
it. The climate, combined with the prevailing winds, make it a fine 
harbour. The island of San Lorenzo protects it on the west from the 
swell of the ocean, but its northern side is entirely exposed ; there is 
no danger to be apprehended from that quarter. A few miles to the 
north the influence of San Lorenzo ceases ; the surf there breaks very 
heavily up on the beach, and prevents any landing. 

The gradual manner in which the extensive plain rises from Callao 
towards Lima, seems to give a very erroneous idea of the situation of 
the city. From the bay it is seen quite distinctly, about six miles 
distant, and does not appear to be elevated ; yet I measured the height 
of Mr. Bartletfs house above the level of the sea by sympiesometer, 
and found it four hundred and twenty feet. The rise would be scarcely 
perceptible to a stranger passing over the road, or one who had not a 
practised eye. 

The tide at Callao is small, generally of three and four feet rise. 
The temperature of the water during our stay was 60 ; of the air 
from 57 to 63. 

Since my visit to Callao in 1821, it had much altered and for the 
better, notwithstanding the vicissitudes it has gone through since that 
time. A fine mole has been erected, surrounded by an iron railing. 
On it is a guard-house, with soldiers lounging about, and some two or 
three on guard. 

The mole affords every convenience for landing from small vessels 
and boats. The streets of Callao have been made much wider, and 
the town has a more decent appearance. Water is conducted from 
the canal to the mole, and a railway takes the goods to the fortress, 
which is now converted into a depot. This place, the seaport of 
Lima, must be one of the great resorts of shipping, not only for its 
safety, but for the convenience of providing supplies. The best idea 
of its trade will be formed from the number of vessels that frequent it. 
I have understood that there is generally about the same number as 
we found in port, namely, forty-two, nine of which were ships of war : 
five American, two French, one Chilian, and thirty-five Peruvian 
merchantmen, large and small. 

The Castle of Callao has become celebrated in history, and has long 

VOL. I. U2 30 



234 PER U. 

been the key of Peru. Whichever party had it in possession, were 
considered as the possessors of the country. It is now converted to a 
better use, viz.: that of a custom-house, and is nearly dismantled. 
Only five of its beautiful guns remain, out of one hundred and forty- 
five, which it is said to have mounted. During our visit there the 
Chilian troops had possession of the country, which they had held 
since the battle of Yungai. Most of the buildings are undergoing 
repairs since the late contest. 

It is said that the fortress is to be demolished, and thus the peace 
of Callao will in a great measure be secured. 

The principal street of Callao runs parallel with the bay. There 
are a few tolerably well-built two-story houses on the main street, which 
is paved. These houses are built of adobes, and have flat roofs, which 
is no inconvenience here, in consequence of the absence of heavy 
rains. The interior of the houses is of the commonest kind of work. 
The partition walls are built of cane, closely laced together. The 
houses of the common people are of one story, and about ten feet 
high ; some of them have a grated window, but most of them only a 
doorway and one room. Others are seen that hardly deserve the name 
of houses, being nothing more than mud walls, with holes covered 
with a mat, and the same overhead. 

The outskirts of Callao deserve mentioning only for their excessive 
filth ; and were it not for the fine climate it would be the hot-bed of 
pestilence. One feels glad to escape from this neighbourhood. 

The donations to the clergy or priests, at two small chapels, 
are collected on Saturdays from the inhabitants. On the evening of 
the same day, the devotees of the church, headed by the priest, carry 
a small portable altar through the streets, decorated with much tinsel, 
and various-coloured glass lamps, on which is a rude painting of the 
Virgin. As they walk, they chaunt their prayers. 

The market, though there is nothing else remarkable about it, ex- 
hibits many of the peculiar customs of the country. It is held in a 
square of about one and a half acres. The stands for selling meat 
are placed indiscriminately, or without order. Beef is sold for from 
four to six cents the pound, is cut in the direction of its fibre, and looks 
filthy. It is killed on the commons, and the hide, head, and horns are 
left for the buzzards and dogs. The rest is brought to market, on 
the backs of donkeys. Chickens are cut up to suit purchasers. Fish 
and vegetables are abundant, and of good kinds, and good fruit may 
be had if bespoken. In this case it is brought from Lima. Every 
thing confirms, on landing, the truth of the geographical adage, " In 
Peru it never rains." It appears every where dusty and parched up. 



PERU. 235 

We had a good opportunity of visiting the far-famed fortress. It is 
said to be able to contain ten thousand troops, and from its extent, 
would appear capable of accommodating that number with ease. 
What engaged our attention most, was a review of the soldiers of the 
garrison. They are about eight hundred strong, and every one seemed 
to be " acting on his own hook," as they are said to have done in the 
late battle. The officers, instead of swords, carried cowhides, about 
five feet in length, which they applied with earnestness to the men, 
and indeed, from appearances, they seemed to require it, if they were 
ever to be changed into soldiers. 

The situation of old Callao is still visible under the water, and though 
an interesting object, becomes a melancholy one, when one thinks of 
the havoc a few minutes effected. The very foundation seems to have 
been upturned and shaken to pieces, and the whole submerged by a 
mighty wave. The wonder is that any one escaped to tell the tale. 

Two crosses mark the height to which the sea rose. The upper 
one, one-third of the way to Lima, indicates the extreme distance to 
which the water flowed ; the lower one marks the place whither the 
Spanish frigate was carried. I very much doubt the truth of either. 
I can easily conceive that a great wave would be sufficient to carry a 
large vessel from her moorings half a mile inland, but I cannot imagine 
how the water should have reached the height of one hundred and 
fifty feet at least above the level of the sea, and yet permitted two 
hundred inhabitants of old Callao to have escaped on the walls of a 
church which are not half that height. 

Outside the walls of the fortress are several large vaults, filled with 
the dead, in all stages of decay, and on which the vultures were 
gorging themselves: this was a revolting spectacle. Indeed, it is 
truly surprising that the higher classes, and those in immediate au- 
thority, should not feel the necessity of appearing more civilized in 
the disposition of their dead. Many are thrown in naked, and covered 
only with a few inches of sand. Great numbers of skeletons are still 
seen with pieces of clothing hanging to them. Dogs and vultures in 
great numbers were every where feeding upon the dead, or standing 
aloof fairly gorged with their disgusting repast. If any thing is calcu- 
lated to make a people brutal, arid to prevent the inculcation of proper 
feeling, it is such revolting sights as these. 

Callao is said to contain between two and three thousand inhabi- 
tants, but this number, from the appearance of the place, seems to be 
overrated. Several pew buildings are going up, which proves, that 
notwithstanding the times of revolution, they still persist in carrying 
on improvements. The principal street is about a third of a mile in 



236 PERU. 

length, and is tolerably well paved, with sidewalks. Billiard-signs 
stare you in the face. This, I presume, may be set down as the great 
amusement, to which may be added the favourite monte at night. 
There is no lack of pulperias. 

Coaches, or rather omnibusses, run several times a day to Lima. 
The old accounts of robberies on the road to Lima, are still fresh in 
the mouths of strangers. In times of revolution it was infested by 
robbers, but the steps taken by government have effectually put a stop 
to them. 

The 4th of July was duly celebrated. The Falmouth, Captain 
M'Keever, fired a salute in honour of the day, and the Vincennes was 
dressed with national flags. 

On the road to Lima is Bella Vista ; but it is in ruins, and has been 
so ever since the revolution. It was generally the outpost or battle- 
ground of the two parties, and although the soil in the plain which 
borders the sea is extremely fertile, consisting of decomposed rock, 
containing the elements of fertility in the greatest abundance, it now 
appears a neglected waste. Attention to its cultivation and irrigation 
would make it a perfect garden. On approaching Lima, the gardens 
and fields are found to be cultivated and well irrigated. Fields of 
Indian corn are seen, some fully ripe, some half-grown, and others 
just shooting up, a novel sight to us. This bears testimony not only 
to the fineness of the climate, but to the fertility of the soil. The 
gardens near the city are filled to profusion with fruits of all descrip- 
tions. 

The road, on its near approach to the city, forms an avenue of about 
a mile in length. This, in its prosperous days, was the usual evening 
drive, and afforded a most agreeable one. On each side are gardens 
filled with orange trees, the fragrance of whose flowers, and the beauty 
and variety of the fruit, added to its pleasures. It is now going to 
decay from utter neglect. Its rows of willows, and the streams of 
running water on each side, though forming its great attraction, will, 
if suffered to remain without attention, be completely destroyed. No 
one seems to take interest in the public works. So marked a diffe- 
rence from Chili could not but be observed. 

At Lima I was struck with the change that had taken place since 
my former visit. Every thing now betokens poverty and decay; a sad 
change from its former splendour and wealth. This appearance was 
observed not only in the city, but also among the inhabitants. Whole 
families have been swept off, and their former attendants, or strangers, 
have become the possessors of their houses and property. 

The country has been a scene of commotion and revolution for the 



PERU. 237 

last twenty-five years, of which Lima for a long time was the centre. 
The fate of Lower Peru being entirely dependent on it, and the fortress 
of Callao, the alternate possessors have stripped it and its inhabitants 
in every way in their power. It may with truth be designated a 
declining city. 

The neglected walls and ruined tenements, the want of stir and life 
among the people, are sad evidences of this decay. The population is 
now said to be about forty-five thousand, although in former times it 
has been supposed to amount to as many as sixty-five or seventy 
thousand. 

The aspect of the city, especially a bird's-eye view from the neigh- 
bouring hills, gives to the eye of the stranger the appearance of ruins. 
There are few buildings that have the look of durability, and no new 
ones have been put up for the last forty years. The plan of the city 
combines more advantages than any other that could have been 
adopted for the locality. The streets are at right angles, and all 
sufficiently broad. Those which run with the declivity of the ground, 
northwest and southeast, have water flowing through their middle. 
They have not, however, a very clean appearance ; but this is certainly 
not to be imputed to the want of the facility of being made so. The 
uses to which these streams are put, and the numerous buzzards that 
frequent them, gives the stranger any other idea than that of cleanli- 
ness. The buzzards are protected by law, and may be seen fighting 
for their food in the gutters, regardless of passers ; or sitting on the tops 
of the houses, thirty or forty in a row, watching for more food. 

Great attention has been paid to laying out the Alameda, which is 
on the north side of the city. Its centre is ornamented with a number 
of fountains ; its walks are well shaded on each side with trees ; and 
the running water adds to its freshness : all unite to form a delightful 
promenade. In the cool of the evening it is much frequented, and its 
stone seats are occupied by numbers of citizens. This is the best place 
to get a view of the inhabitants ; and notwithstanding their internal 
commotions, they appear fully to enjoy their cigarittas, which they are 
constantly smoking. The peculiar dress of the ladies is here seen to 
the best advantage, and, however fitted it may be to cover intrigue, is 
not, certainly, adapted to the display of beauty. A more awkward and 
absurd dress cannot well be conceived. It is by no means indicative 
of the wearer's rank, for frequently this disguise is ragged and tattered, 
and assumed under its most forbidding aspect to deceive, or carry on 
an intrigue, of which it is almost an effectual cloak. 

I never could behold these dresses without considering them as an 



238 PERU. 

emblem of the wretched condition of domestic society in this far-famed 
city. 

The saya and manto were originally intended as a retiring, modest 
dress, to mark reserve, to insure seclusion, and to enable ladies to go 
abroad without an escort. The general term for the wearers is 
Tapada, and they were always held sacred from insult. Tapada is 
likewise applied to a dress which is also frequently seen, viz., a shawl 
worn over the head, so as to cover the nose, mouth, and forehead. 
None but the most intimate friend can know the wearers, w r ho frequent 
the theatres in this disguise. It is to be regretted, that it is now worn 
for very different purposes from its original intention. Intrigues of 
all kinds are said to be carried on under it. It enables the wearer to 
mix in all societies, and to frequent any place of amusement, without 
being known, and, even if suspected by her husband or relatives, the 
law of custom would protect her from discovery. In this dress, it is 
said, a wife will pass her own husband when she may be walking with 
her lover, and the husband may make love to his wife, without being 
aware it is she. 

The saya is a silk petticoat, with numerous small vertical plaits, 
containing about thirty yards of silk, and costing fifty or sixty dollars. 
It is drawn in close at the bottom of the dress, so that the wearer is 
obliged to make very short steps (ten inches). It is a little elastic, and 
conforms to the shape, whether natural or artificial, from the waist 
down. The manto is a kind of cloak, of black silk. It is fastened to 
the saya at the waist, and brought over the head and shoulders from 
behind, concealing every thing but one eye, and one hand, in which is 
usually seen a cross, or whose fingers are well ornamented with 
jewels. Before the manto is arranged, a French shawl of bright 
colours is thrown over the shoulders, and brought between the open- 
ings of the manto in front, hanging down nearly to the feet. The 
loose saya is also much worn : this is not contracted at the bottom, 
and in walking has a great swing from side to side. 

The walk of the Lima ladies is graceful and pretty, and they 
usually have small feet and hands. 

The houses are built of. sun-burnt brick, cane, and small timber. 
All those of the better class have small balconies to the second story. 
Most of the houses are of two stories, and they generally have an 
archway from the street, secured by a strong portal, leading into an 
open court. The lower, or ground-floor, is used as storehouses, 
stables, &c. This peculiar manner of building is intended as a 
security against the effects of earthquakes. The housetops are a 



PERU. 239 

depository for all kinds of rubbish, and the accumulation of dust is 
great. The staircase leading to the upper story is generally hand- 
some, and decorated with fresco paintings, which are, however, far 
below mediocrity. This style of building is well adapted to the 
climate. 

The Portales or Arcades is one of the most attractive places for the 
stranger. He is there sure at all hours to see more of life in Lima 
than at any other place. They are built on two sides of the Plaza. 
The ground-floor is occupied as shops, where all kinds of dry-goods 
and fancy articles are sold. Between the columns, next the Plaza, 
are many lace and fringe-workers, &c. &c. ; and without these again 
are sundry cooks, fresco-sellers, &c., who are frying savoury cakes 
and fish for their customers, particularly in the morning and late in 
the evening. 

The Arcades are about five hundred feet long, well paved with 
small stones, interlaid with the knuckle-bones of sheep, which produces 
a kind of mosaic pavement, and makes known the date of its being 
laid down as 1799. This place for hours every day is the great resort, 
and one has a full insight to every store, as they are all doors, and con- 
sequently quite exposed, to their remotest corner. The second story 
is occupied as dwellings. 

The Palace of the Viceroy occupies the north side of the Plaza. 
The lower part of it is a row of small shops, principally tinkers and 
smallware-dealers. On the east side is the Archbishop's Palace and 
the Cathedral. 

The fountain in the centre of the Plaza is a fine piece of work, and 
was erected, according to the inscription, in 1600, by Don Garcia Sar- 
miento Sotomayer, the Viceroy and Captain-General of the kingdom. 

" El que bebe de la pila sequenda in Lima," is the usual saying. 

" He that drinks of the fountain will not leave Lima." 

The Cathedral is a remarkable building, not only from its size, but 
its ornaments. Most of the decorations are in bad taste, and I should 
imagine its former riches in the metals and precious stones have con- 
tributed chiefly to its celebrity. Certainly those ornaments which are 
left cannot be much admired. 

Its great altar, composed of silver, might as well be of lead, or 
pewter, for all the show it makes. In a chapel on one side of the 
building, there is a collection of portraits of the Archbishops. They 
are good faces, well painted, and all are there but the one who at the 
breaking out of the revolution, proved faithful to his sovereign and the 
Spanish cause. They all have had the honour, except him, to be 
interred in niches, in the crypt, under the great altar. Many of the 



240 



PERU. 



coffins are open, exposing the dried-up reniains of the saints, clothed 
in leather jackets and shoes, which the sacristan made no difficulty 
about disposing of for a trifle. Two skulls and a hand were obtained. 
There is some good carving about the choir of the Cathedral. 

A hospital is attached to this church. A novel sort of hearse was 
seen employed here, with four drawers as temporary coffins. 




HOSPITAL HEARSE. 



The market of Lima is kept in an open square. It is a strange 
place to visit, and the scene that is witnessed there cannot fail to 
amuse the stranger. It is well supplied, and many purchasers fre- 
quent it. There are no stalls, and mats are used in their stead. The 
meat is laid on them in rows, and the vegetables heaped up in piles. 
Some of the piles consist of only one kind, but they are generally all 
mixed together. The meat, as at Callao, is cut with the grain, and 
into small pieces, to suit the purchasers ; and poultry is cut up in a 
similar manner. But what will most attract a stranger's notice, are 
the cooking establishments. These are in great request ; stews, fries, 
and olla podridas, are in constant preparation by some brawny dame, 
who deals out, with much gravity and a business-like air, the small 
pieces to the hungry Indians who stand by waiting for their turn. The 
fried dishes seemed to claim their preference, if one could judge by 
the number in waiting. The expertness of the woman who officiated 
was truly wonderful, twisting and twirling the dough in her hand, 
placing it upon a stick, dipping it in the hot oil, and slipping it as soon 
as cooked dexterously into the dish for her customers. Then again 
was a frier of pancakes close by, equally expert. The variety of 
dishes cooking was surprising, and those who fried fish exhibited 
undoubted proofs of their freshness, by consigning them to the pan 
before they ceased to live. 

I was surprised at the variety of fish, meats, vegetables, and fruits ; 
the latter particularly. These were in season, and included oranges, 






PERU. 241 

cherimoyers, pomegranates, paltas, plantains, bananas, papaws, gra- 
nadillas, apples, figs and ananas. 

The above are the usual articles crowded into the market, but were 
I to stop here, one half would not be told. All sorts of goods, jewelry, 
cottons, woollens, laces, hardware, linen fabrics, handkerchiefs, shoes, 
slippers, hats, &c., are hawked about by pedlers with stentorian lungs, 
who, with the lottery-venders, with tickets, ink-horn, and pen, selling 
the tickets in the name of the Holy Virgin and all the saints, make 
an uproar that one can have little idea of, without mixing in or wit- 
nessing it. 

The convent of San Francisco occupies six or seven acres of 
ground. In its days of prosperity it must have been a magnificent 
establishment. Its chapels are very rich in gilding, carved work, &c., 
and the cloisters are ornamented with beautiful fountains and flower- 
gardens. Part of it is now occupied by the soldiers as barracks, and 
their muskets are stacked on the altar of one of its chapels. It has 
long since been stripped of its riches and deserted, but it seems once 
to have possessed all that wealth, luxury, and taste could effect or 
suggest. The good Father Anculus, who showed the building, was 
shrewd and obliging. The gallery of paintings contains it is said 
many fine Murillos. The remains of its former splendour, even now, 
justifies what Father Feiiillee asserted, that there was nothing of the 
kind to compare with it in Europe. There are but few friars here at 
present, but it is said to have formerly maintained five hundred, living 
in the greatest luxury and licentiousness. The most remarkable object 
in the church, was the shrine and image of a black Virgin Mary, with 
a white infant Saviour in her arms. 

The public library is composed of rare and valuable books, both in 
French and Spanish, taken from the Jesuits' College and convents. 
They are in good order, and among them are many manuscripts which 
are beautifully illuminated. The librarian, a young priest, deserves our 
thanks for his attention and civility. 

The public museum has been but lately commenced. It contains a 
collection of curious Peruvian antiquities, some native birds, and the 
portraits of all the Viceroys, from Pizarro down. At the cabildos or 
city hall, are to be seen some of the archives of Lima, kept until 
recently in good order. Many signatures of the old Viceroys and 
Governors are quite curious ; among others, that of Pizarro is shown. 
As few of them could write, they adopted the Rubrica, made by 
placing the finger of the left hand and making the flourish on each 
side of it, the clerk filling in the name. This method has since been 
generally adopted among the South Americans, in signing official 

VOL. I. V 31 



242 p E R u - 

documents, being considered full as binding as if the name was 
written. 




The book in which the signatures were written, was entitled : 

LIBRO 10 DE LOS CABILDOS 

DE ESTA CIUDAD DE LOS REYES, 

QUE CORMIENZA, 

EL ANO DE 

1534. 

This would make it appear that the city was founded a year before 
the date given in Herrera, Garcilaso, Calancha, Montalvo, and others, 
who dispute about the day of the month, without having regard to the 
year. This book bears evidence that the municipality was organized 
a year prior to that given by them as the year in which the city was 
founded. Very little doubt can exist that the city must have been 
founded before the municipality existed. 

The theatre is a handsome building, although much out of repair. 
It was brilliantly lighted the night we visited it, and was crowded with 
numerous officers in full uniform. Among them were many Chilians 
of rank. The ladies in the boxes were in full costume, and made a 
great display of jewels. In the parterre there were many " tapadas." 
The horrors of the Inquisition formed a prominent part of the subject 
of the play. For the performance I cannot say much. 

Near the Alameda, on the north side of the city, is a large oblong 
enclosure of nearly eight acres, with thick stone walls, and a large 
gateway at each end. It was intended for a naval school, and theatre 
to exhibit sea-fights. It contains large reservoirs, which were intended 
to be filled with water from the Rimac, to float a tiny fleet, some of 
which it is said were actually constructed. This was a favourite 
project with one of the last Viceroys, and a more absurd one could 
scarcely have been conceived. The water is now used for a much 
better purpose, namely, to turn the machinery of some adjacent mills. 
There are three classes of inhabitants, viz.: whites, Indians, and 



PERU. 243 

negroes. The union of the two first produces the cholo ; of the two 
last, the zambo ; and of the first and last, the mulatto. The Spaniards, 
or whites, are a tall race, particularly the females. They have brown 
complexions, but occasionally a brilliant colour, black hair and eyes. 
Some of them are extremely beautiful. The cholos are shorter, but 
well made, and have particularly small feet and hands. All classes of 
people are addicted to the smoking of cigars, even in carriages and at 
the dinner-table. It does not seem to be considered by any one as 
unpleasant, and foreigners have adopted the custom. 

The cholo women partake of the dark brown skin of the Indian, 
have low figures, short round faces, high cheek-bones, good teeth, and 
small hands and feet. Their whole figure is robust. 

There does not appear to exist any accurate account of the popula- 
tion of Peru; but it is generally believed to have decreased, particularly 
as regards the whites and negroes. The best information gives but 
little over a million inhabitants, viz. : about one hundred and twenty- 
five thousand whites; natives and cholos, eight hundred thousand; with 
ninety thousand negroes and ranches, of whom about thirty-five 
thousand are slaves. This does not vary much from the number given 
by the geographies forty years ago. The country appears, from all 
accounts, not only to have decreased in population, but to have 
diminished in wealth and productiveness. A much less proportion of 
the soil is now cultivated than formerly under the " Children of the 
Sun." 

There are half a dozen newspapers published in Lima, two of which 
are issued daily. They are, like the Spanish, small sheets. They 
have a good deal of control over public opinion. Few or no advertise- 
ments are seen in them. These are deemed unnecessary in Lima, 
and all the amusements, such as the theatre, cockfighting, &c., are pla- 
carded on the portals. A high price is asked for the newspapers. 

On the 30th of May there was a grand procession, on the festival 
of Corpus Christi. It was preceded by a party of negroes, dressed in 
the most gaudy colours, singing, dancing, and keeping time to a 
native tune, somewhat like Mumbo Jumbo, to testify their joy that the 
blessings of Christianity had reached them. Then followed some 
priests, bearing lamps covered with artificial flowers, and swinging 
censers. Next came the shrines of the Virgin and saints, covered 
with tinsel and gold, mounted on large pedestals, and borne on the 
shoulders of men. After this came the host, and on its passing every 
one uncovered and kneeled down. Then came the military, who were 
aH out, and offered us a fine opportunity of viewing the recruits, the 
greater proportion of whom were Indians. The government had been 



244 PERU. 

ferreting out the Indians in a manner hitherto unpractised. There was 
much mixed blood among the Peruvian soldiers, cholos, zambos, and 
some few negroes, while the Chilian troops had very little. Among 
the Chilians, the regiment of Portales was pointed out, which had left 
Chili six hundred strong, and was now reduced to four hundred. 

During my stay at Lima, I had the pleasure of an introduction to 
Mr. Mathews,* whose researches in natural history are so well known. 
Combined with his being a good naturalist, he has great talent as an 
artist. His portfolio contained many beautiful drawings of plants, 
flowers, and birds, from beyond the Cordilleras. He owned an estate 
of thirty miles square, at the foot of the eastern slope of the Cordilleras, 
for which I think he had paid one thousand dollars. He is married to 
a woman of the country, is extremely enthusiastic in his researches, 
and has lately recovered some of the unpublished manuscripts of Ruiz 
and Pavon. 

There are several small manufactories of gold lace, &c., but nearly 
all the goods sold and consumed in the country are foreign. Lima is 
the great retail place. There has been lately set up a manufactory of 
glass, but too recently to judge of its success. The mechanical employ- 
ments are numerous, but all are in a rude state. When it is considered 
that Lima was founded nearly a century before the settlement of our 
own country, it shows a marked difference in favour of the enterprise 
of the Anglo-Saxon race. 

On St. John's day, (24th of June,) the patron saint of Lima, a great 
festival among the lower classes the cholos, natives, zambos, and 
blacks takes place. It is held in the valley of Amancaes, about three 
miles north of the city. Previous to the day, a number of tents and 
booths are erected in the valley, which is about half a mile long, and 
one-third of a mile wide. These are decked out with flags and 
banners. There are tents for refreshments, strong drinks, dancing, 
gambling, &c., in every direction. 

On the road leading to this scene are erected shrines of the saint, 
where all who pass are expected to pay their contributions. 

On this day, every horse and vehicle in Lima is engaged, and at 
exorbitant rates. The whole road leading to the valley is crowded 
from an early hour in the morning. The higher classes generally 
frequent it early and return soon, while those of the middle and lower 
classes continue to keep it up until a late hour. Every one is decked 
with the flowers of the Pancratium Amancaes, which grows in great 

* In the death of this gentleman, science has lost one of her most zealous and enthusi 
astic labourers. 



PERU. 



245 



abundance in the place where the festival is held ; and the decoration 
extends even to the horses and mules, as well as to the booths and 
vehicles. As the day advances, the crowd increases. No 4th of July 
in our own country could equal the uproarious drunkenness that ensues. 




AMANCAES 1 FETE. 



Dancing is the favourite amusement. The dance in which they most 
delight is a national one, called the samacueca, and no words can give 
an idea of its vulgarity and obscenity. I think it a happy circumstance 
that it is confined to this country. One Amancaes' day would upturn 
a whole year of morals. As intoxication ensues, it goes to extreme 
lengths. Italia, or rather, pisco, is pledged to every one, and many 
are seen with bottle and glass passing about, and pledging happiness 
and prosperity, in the hope of getting a small reward. The music to 
which they dance consists of a small guitar, accompanied with the 
voice, and beating of time ; the time is quite monotonous, somewhat 
resembling the Spanish seguidilla. The crowd is great, consisting of 
cholos, zambos, negroes, and whites, variously dressed and jumbled 
together ; some singing, some begging, fighting, swearing, laughing ; 
no order, all confusion. This is the centre of the fray. On the out- 

V2 



246 PERU 

skirts are seen groups of the better classes, sitting down to their 
pic-nics. 

The acting President and Governor of Lima, Lafuente and staff, 
honoured the place with their presence, to please the people. He did 
not, however, appear to receive any honours, nor was his arrival 
greeted with marks of approbation or enthusiasm. Towards evening, 
when the inebriated mass is returning, the great sport of the day 
occurs. The cholo women, who ride astride, are remarkably good 
horsewomen, and extremely expert in managing their horses. Their 
dress is peculiar : a large broad-brimmed hat, with flowing ribands of 
gay colours, short spencer or jacket of silk, a gaudy calico or painted 
muslin skirt, silk stockings, blue, pink, or white satin shoes, and over 
the whole is sometimes worn a white poncho. Large wooden stirrups, 
ornamented with silver, numerous pillions, a saddle-cloth, and richly 
ornamented bridle, all decked with amancaes, form the caparison of 
the steeds. 

Nothing can exceed the confusion of the return of this great throng, 
moving over a dusty road, shouting and racing. The cholo women 
are always on the lead, and actively engaged in taking care of their 
drunken partners, who are frequently seen mounted behind them, with 
their faces flushed from the effects of pisco, forming an odd contrast 
to the beautiful yellow flowers that adorn their hats. The great feat 
of the women who ride single, is to unhorse their companions, which 
they frequently succeed in doing, to the great amusement and sport of 
the pedestrians, and the discomfiture of their male associates. They 
are seen while at full gallop to stop suddenly, whirl round two or three 
times, and go off again at full speed, covering themselves and the 
bystanders with dust. Just before reaching the city, the road is lined 
with vehicles, not unlike our cabs, in which are seated ladies in full 
costume. 

The Alameda, as well as the streets leading into it, is crowded on 
this occasion with all the fashion of the city. Though the crowd 
would lead to the belief that every body was abroad, yet the doors 
and windows are filled with heads, more or less decorated with 
amancaes. This is a festival nowhere surpassed in drunkenness and 
uproar. 

Most of the buildings in Lima have suffered more or less from 
earthquakes. It was the season of earthquakes during our stay, and 
three were felt. Some of our gentlemen complained of a sickening 
sensation during the first. It did not, however, do much damage. 
The second took place on the 5th of June, and was sensibly felt ; a 
third was experienced on the 10th of June, with a continued shaking 



PERU. 



247 



of the walls and floors. The last was reported as having been more 
severe to the northward. At lea, an official statement reported that 
about one thousand jars of pisco had been broken. They are usually 
set up on end in contact with each other, and contain from seven to 
ten gallons each. It is truly surprising how long the churches have 
stood, with their lofty towers. Curious effects have been produced in 
some places. Two conical adobe caps of the Franciscan convent 
have been shifted from their places ; one as if by a rotary motion or 
force apparently in a direction from left to right ; the other is turned 
half round, and seems ready to fall. Another instance was noted 
at the gateway of the naval school before spoken of. A large block 
has been turned one-fourth round, while those under it remain in 
place. 

These adobe blocks have generally a large iron rod running through 
them. A representation of the latter is given in the annexed figure. 




GATEWAY OF THE NAVAL SCHOOL. 



With the name of Peru the want of moisture is generally associated. 
The general impression is that it never rains there. This, however, is 
far from being strictly true, except in certain parts of it. Were it 
not, however, for irrigation by the mountain streams, a great portion 
of Peru would certainly become nearly a desert. Indeed, the upland 
is so now, not yielding any herbage whatever until the pasture region 
of the Cordilleras is reached. We are not to imagine, however, that 
the atmosphere is very clear, or that sunshine always prevails. It is 
extremely difficult to get a clear day. Father Feuillee has put upon 
record, more than a century ago, that the heavens were generally 
obscured. I can bear testimony to the truth of this remark, for 
although a glimpse of the sun was usually had some time during the 
day, yet it was almost as difficult to get equal altitudes at Callao 
during our stay as it was at Terra del Fuego. 



248 PERU. 

The dew (almozo) of Lima is never so great as to produce running 
water, yet it is more like rain than a Scotch mist. 

The peculiarity of there being no rain, has been accounted for in 
several ways, but not to me satisfactorily. The prevailing cold and 
dry winds from the southward sweep over the western shores of the 
continent ; having a great capacity for moisture, they absorb it as they 
advance to the northward, from every thing. On reaching the latitude 
of 12 S., they cease, and having become saturated, now rise to a 
sufficient height, where they are condensed by the cold strata, and 
again deposited on the mountains in almost constant rains. This will 
account for the aridity in the high Cordilleras of Chili, as well as for 
the existence of the Desert of Atacama, the want of rain on the coast 
of Upper Peru ; and at the same time, for the moisture of the high 
Cordilleras of Peru, which will be shortly spoken of. It will be remem- 
bered that our parties on the Cordilleras of Chili found the aridity to 
increase on ascending, to the very edge of the perpetual snow, and all 
the plants were of a thorny character. 

The records of Lima mention the falling of rain only four times in 
the eighteenth century, and the occurrence of thunder and lightning an 
equal number of times. But this applies to a small part of Peru only, 
namely, the country bordering the coast, some fifty or sixty miles in 
width, around Lima. It will be seen that our party who visited the 
interior, when at the height of ten thousand feet, entered a region sub- 
ject to rain, and on the crest of the mountains the soil was kept 
perfectly moist by the frequent snows and rain. 

Mr. Bartlett, our Charge d' Affaires, gave me the range of the ther- 
mometer at Lima throughout the year, as being from 60 to 85 ; during 
our stay, which was in their winter months of May and June, the range 
was from 65 to 69. 

Fire is not used often, but from the continual dampness there is a 
cold and clammy feeling, that is exceedingly uncomfortable and preju- 
dicial to health. Lima has certainly the reputation of being a healthy 
place how obtained I know not but it certainly does not deserve 
it. The interments have annually averaged over three thousand five 
hundred, in a population amounting by the best accounts to no more 
than forty-five thousand. Many of these deaths are those of strangers, 
and the climate has always been fatal to the Indians. 

During our stay at Callao, the temperature of the air varied from 
57 to 63. On July 4th, it stood at the same point in both places. The 
temperature of the Rimac on the llth of June, was 69 to 71, on the 
4th July, 64. 

The Rimac derives its waters exclusively from the snows of the 



PERU. 249 

Cordilleras. It is a mountain torrent throughout its whole course. The 
quantity of water in it is small. The width at its mouth is about thirty 
feet, and one foot deep. It has not sufficient force to break a passage 
through the beach to the sea, and the water filters through the pebbly soil. 

In Peru, when the land is irrigated, it is one continued vegetation 
throughout the year. Harvests are gathered in every season, and 
flowers and fruit may be seen at the same time. On the east side of the 
Cordilleras the harvest takes place about the middle of June. Tarma 
and Jauja are the first cultivated districts. The " montanas," as they 
call the forests, are situated at the eastern base of the Andes. Their 
crest is estimated to be thirty or forty leagues from the coast, and it is 
about fifteen leagues farther to the montanas. The thermometer during 
the jaunt to the Cordilleras ranged from 50 to the freezing point of 
Fahrenheit. 

During our visit, the Chilian troops were in possession of the country, 
and Lima was garrisoned by them. They were a sickly and worn-out 
body of men, the tertiana prevailing to a great extent among them. 
They were apparently well clad, new clothing having been issued to 
them at the expense of the Peruvian treasury. They were all, I was 
told, extremely anxious to return to Chili. Although the nominal power 
was in the President, Gamarra, or the acting Governor, Lafuente, until 
his arrival, yet Bulnes commanded and watched over their proceedings. 
The Peruvians are to all intents and purposes a conquered people, 
although they profess to think the Chilians their friends, and say that 
the war was only against Santa Cruz and his policy. No favourable 
accounts can now be given of the state of Peru. A want of confidence 
exists every where. The government is bankrupt in principle and 
funds. The tenure of property is uncertain, and oppression, extortion, 
and want of principle have brought the country to the verge of ruin, 
The people are harassed by the frequent changes ; and the government, a 
military, and constantly changing one, gives rise to all kinds of disorder. 
This is to be imputed to the ambition of the various rulers or generals, 
who endeavour to keep old and little understood controversies in con- 
tinual agitation, for their own benefit. Revolution is the order of the 
day. One broke out again in Payta a few days before we sailed, and 
Peru was raising troops to attack Bolivia. 

The manner of recruiting the army is not unlike the employment of 
press-gangs in England. They scour the country far and near for 
recruits, and if not obtained, compel every poor Indian met with, to 
serve against his will. Agriculture, and every other kind of honest 
industry, has fallen into disrepute, if not into entire neglect, and the 
whole country is left in a continued state of anarchy and confusion. 

VOL. i. 32 



250 



PERU. 



Yet, extraordinary as it may seem, one would never suspect, from the 
outward appearance of its inhabitants, that the country could be in 
such a state. All their pastimes go on as usual. Among these, the 
festivals of the church are most conspicuous ; for they yet claim the 
outward respect of all, both high and low, and constitute the only 
bond that holds society together. All are subservient to the rites of 
the church. Even the Chilian general officers dismount and kneel 
when the procession passes; and all the different guards, with their 
officers, not only give the military salute, but also drop on their knees. 

I was much struck with the sight of a mistress and her slave, who 
had followed her to the cathedral, kneeling on the same piece of cloth, 
telling their beads, and saying their prayers together. This I was told 
was quite common. It seemed a tacit acknowledgment that religion 
reduced all to the same level. From what I could learn, the slaves 
are treated with great kindness. 

During our stay here, we had the misfortune to lose one of the 
marines, Benjamin Holden, who had been transferred but a few days 
from the Relief to the Peacock. He was interred at San Lorenzo. 
One of the servants on board the Peacock, a boy, was discovered to 
have the small-pox. He was immediately removed to a tent at San 
Lorenzo, and every thing provided for him, until he could be sent to 
Lima, Mr. Bartlett, our consul, having procured permission for his 
removal there. 

Every precaution against this disease had been taken, by vaccina- 
ting the crews after leaving the United States. 

I felt great uneasiness, lest we might carry it with us to the Islands, 
where it might spread among the natives, and render our visit ever 
memorable by the introduction of that dreadful scourge. All the 
clothing, and every thing that had been in any way connected with 
the sick boy or his nurses, was destroyed, in the hopes of rendering 
us exempt from the contagion. 




LIMA HOUSE. 



CHAPTER XII L 



CONTENTS. 

A PARTY FOR THE INTERIOR-PREPARATIONS FOR THE JOURNEY PASSPORTS-MR. 
BIGGS DEPARTURE EFFECT OF OFFICIAL PAPERS FACE OF COUNTRY RUINS OF 
INCA TOWNS PONCHORUA CABALLEROS CONVOY OF SILVER ACCOMMODATIONS 
EARTHQUAKE- ROUTE UP THE VALLEY OF CAX AVILLO FACE OF COUNTRY-ST. 
ROSA DE QUIVI-YASO-OBRAJILLO-DIFFICULTIES IN PROCURING MULES-BEAUTY 
OF SITUATION LLAMAS RIOTERS PLUNDERING OF INHABITANTS CULNAI LA 
VINDA VEGETATION MULETEERS ENCOUNTERED REACH THE CREST OF THE 
CORDILLERAS - CASA CANCHA-ITS ACCOMMODATIONS - COOKING-RANGE-SICKNESS 
OF PARTY SNOW-STORM ALP AMARCA COMPANY OF PERUVIANS THEIR ATTEN- 
TIONS-PROCESS OF AMALGAMATION OF ORE MR. BEVAN- VISIT TO THE MINE 
FACE OF THE MOUNTAIN ROAD BANGS HOT SPRING BEAUTY OF VALLEY- 
VEGETATION THREATENED ATTACK OF A CONDOR PORTRAIT INCIDENTS RELA- 
TING TO IT DESCRIPTION OF BANGS ITS HABITATIONS STATE OF HORSES 
RETURN TO CASA CANCHA-CHILIAN CONVOY FROM PASCO-PASCO-MINES VEINS 
OF ORE-NUMBER OF MINES IN OPERATION-LAWS IN RELATION TO SILVER MINED- 
DUTIES HILL OF RACO NEW SPECULATIONS IN 1840 DIFFICULTIES IN PURCHASING 
MINES -THE POLITICAL STATE OF -THE COUNTRY ADVERSE TO THIS BUSINESS - 
TEMPERATURE -BEAUTY OF SITUATION OF CASA CANCHA THEIR DEPARTURE ON 
THEIR RETURN-LINE OF PERPETUAL SNOW-AMMONITE-CHICRINE-TRAVELLING 
PARTIES FRENCHMAN HIS COMPLIMENTS CULNAI CULTIVATION HOSPITALITY 
OBRAJILLO ACCOMMODATIONS WANT OF GALLANTRY GUIDES SETTLEMENT 
BRIDAL PARTY YASO ROBBERY YANGA HOSTESS ANGELITA CABALLEROS 
RETURN TO LIMA BOTANICAL REVIEW GEOLOGICAL CHARACTER OF THE COUNTRY 
-FLYING-FISH SENT TO P ACH AC AMAC- LANDING -TEMPLE- TOWN TOMBS-THEIR 
CONTENTS-EMBARKATION-RETURN TO CALLAO. 



(851) 



CHAPTEK XIII. 

PERU CONTINUED. 
1839. 

ON the arrival of the Relief at Callao, Messrs. Pickering, Rich, 
Agate, and Brackenridge, requested permission to make a jaunt to the 
Cordilleras of Peru, for the purpose of making botanical collections. 
I felt much gratified that this object had been effected, although I 
could not but regret that they were suffered to depart without the 
necessary instruments for obtaining the altitudes, which had been put 
on board the Relief at Orange Harbour, for that very purpose. 

Mr. Rich spoke the Spanish language well, which afforded the 
party many facilities for overcoming the difficulties that were thrown 
in their way. 

In Lima the journey was considered as a very serious undertaking, 
arid likely to be attended with much danger, from the banditti who 
frequent the route they intended to pass over, that to the mines of 
Pasco. Through the friendly assistance of Mr. Biggs, of the house of 
Messrs. Bartlett & Co., every thing was made easy. By his advice, 
they supplied themselves, not only with blankets and horse-furniture, 
but with all sorts of provisions, and particularly with bread, of which 
they took as much as they could carry, notwithstanding the country 
was described as well inhabited. As a preliminary step, it was 
necessary to provide themselves with passports, for which they lost no 
time in applying. After the delay of a day, the passports came in the 
form of a letter of protection and recommendation from Lafuente him- 
self, to the local authorities throughout all Peru, couched in the most 
liberal terms, and treating the affair with as much importance as if it 
were a national one. It is a regulation that the names of all who 
receive passports, shall be published in the official gazette; their 
intention, therefore, became known to all Lima. From the few who 

w (253) 



254 PER U. 

are gazetted, it would appear that but a small number travel into the 
interior, or else that the regulation is not very strictly complied with. 

The injunction to render the party assistance in case of need was 
very strong, and among other things specified to be furnished, was 
clothing, which was thought to look somewhat ominous in this country 
of banditti. In spite of the positive terms in which the passport was 
expressed, it was found of little effect in procuring them mules or 
horses ; and it was not till after much trouble and disappointment on 
many sides, that horses were at last obtained from the post establish- 
ment. 

On the 16th May they were ready to set out, and were accompanied 
for some miles by Mr. Biggs, whose friendly advice and assistance 
they had often, during the jaunt, reason to be thankful for. It saved 
them much inconvenience, and was the cause of their being provided 
with many little comforts, without which they would have suffered 
privation. 

Their proposed route was up the valley of the Rio de Caxavillo, 
the river next to the northward of the Rimac. Leaving Lima, they 
passed through the suburbs of San Lazaro, at the gate of which, and 
for the only time during the journey, they were desired to show their 
passports. Some little difficulty arose, and an intention was expressed 
to unload the baggage-mule for examination. This, however, was 
soon removed by the reading of the passport, and the examination 
ended in many bows, and the repeated exclamation, " Go on, go on ! 
God speed you !" Such was the talismanic effect of an official docu- 
ment, at the period of our visit. 

After leaving the city, their route lay along the margin of the 
extensive plain that borders on the sea, at the foot and over the low 
hills which skirt it. Many columns of dust and loose particles of sand 
were seen rising from the heated plain, stirred by the action of the 
wind, forming vortices of considerable diameter and elevation. Clouds 
of smoke, too, were visible in the distance, proceeding, according to 
the information of their guides, from the burning of the cane-brakes. 
The Peruvian willow, so much resembling the Lombardy poplar in its 
form, was much admired, and the contrast in the landscape between 
the barren clay-coloured hills, and the bright green of the irrigated 
fields, was quite remarkable. 

At the distance of three leagues from Lima, they passed through 
the ruins of an Inca town, situated (as they uniformly found them 
afterwards) just on the border of the irrigated valley. The walls of 
the town were very thick, built of mud and unburnt brick, at right 
angles, very much after the modern manner ; the hills, also, were seen 



PERU. 255 

covered with the ruins of Indian buildings, some of them resembling 
fortifications. 

They now turned up a beautiful valley, on the irrigated fields of 
which were seen herds of horned cattle, horses, and goats, a proof 
that the irrigated land is not exclusively used for tillage. 

At six leagues from Lima they reached Ponchorua, the first stop- 
ping-place; but the party concluded to go a league beyond it to 
Caballeros, where they passed the night. They arrived there in 
sufficient time to make a short excursion to the banks of the Rio de 
Caxavillo, which appeared a larger stream than the Rimac. 

Around Caballeros are very extensive meadows and fields of clover. 
The posada was found occupied by the guard and muleteers who 
acted as a convoy of silver from Pasco. They gave up the only room 
in the house for our gentlemen, into which they were shown, and 
where a good supper was provided for them, while the guard took 
up their quarters in the yard. The metal, it was observed, was in 
large masses of pina, some of them heavy enough to be a load for a 
mule, and an inconvenient burden to run away with. 

They passed the night on the tables and rude seats, under cover, a 
luxury they had not yet learned to appreciate. 

At midnight they felt the shock of an earthquake. A distant hollow 
sound was at first heard, which seemed to approach, increasing 
rapidly, and before they could spring to their feet, the house was rolled 
and shaken as if it had been on an agitated sea. Mr. Rich says that 
it was with difficulty he could hold himself on the table where he had 
been lying. The natives of the adjoining huts ran out into the road, 
uttering horrible shrieks, striking their breasts, and offering up prayers 
to the Holy Virgin to protect them. The shock continued severe for 
forty seconds, but lasted altogether about two minutes ; it produced a 
slight nausea, like sea-sickness, which continued for some time after- 
wards, and a bewildering sensation, that rendered it difficult to collect 
their ideas to speak. The sound resembled that produced by throwing 
stones over precipices, so as to roll on hollow ground beneath. This 
earthquake was the most violent that had been experienced for some 
time, and was felt sensibly at Lima and through all Lower Peru. No 
material damage was done, in consequence, according to the people 
of the country, of its not getting to the surface. 

Early on the 17th the party set out up the dry mountain valley, 
the soil of which is composed of stones and loose powdery earth. 
This kind of ground continued for five leagues, with not a drop of 
water, nor was a plant or bird collected ; nothing was seen growing 
but a few Tillandsias. On this route they passed many crosses, mark- 



256 PERU. 

ing the spots where there had been loss of life : a sight that was not 
calculated to excite pleasing thoughts, and bringing to mind not only 
the great number of murders that had taken place, but the daily 
occurrence of attacks upon small parties of travellers by the despera- 
does of Peru. 

Immediately on the confines of this dreary waste is Yanga, a 
deserted-looking place, but having some good gardens and orchards. 
At noon they reached Santa Rosa de Quivi, a small place, where they 
procured some good fruit. After travelling two leagues, they at dark 
reached Yaso, and stopped at the postmaster's house ; he was not at 
home, but they were permitted to sleep in the porch or veranda. No- 
thing edible was to be found in the village, except a few potatoes, after 
supping on which they disposed themselves on the clay and stones, 
with their arms ready for service, a precaution necessary at times, 
even in the most frequented places, in Peru. 

During the day, they had been much annoyed by sand-flies, and 
fleas were as usual in myriads at night ; besides these, they had a few 
musquitoes, but the latter are seldom felt in Peru. 

The screaming of parrots during the night had announced that 
some change had taken place in the vegetation. In the morning they 
found this to be the case. The land in the vicinity of the town was 
cultivated, and some good orchards and fields of clover were seen ; 
the mountains, which had hitherto been gray with Tillandsias, had 
now assumed a greenish tinge. Agaves made their appearance here, 
and a few miles beyond, the hills became entirely green : all showed 
that a different region had been entered. The inclined roofs of the 
huts proved that rains were experienced, and that it was found neces- 
sary by the inhabitants to protect themselves from them. 

The valley had now become more contracted, and level ground was 
seldom seen ; the mountains increased in elevation, the roads and 
scenery partaking of the character of Madeira. Cascades were seen 
springing from almost the very summits of the high peaks ; cattle were 
grazing, and occasional cultivated patches were mingled with the 
pasture-grounds ; the aid of irrigation was no longer necessary ; and 
the Cordillera plants of the Flora Peruviana, with the vegetation made 
known by Humboldt and Bonpland, were recognised. At noon, after 
travelling six leagues, they reached Obrajillo, the rendezvous of the 
two celebrated Spanish botanists, Ruiz and Pavon, authors of the 
Flora Peruviana. 

There are three towns, Obrajillo, Canta, and San Miguel, about a 
mile distant from each other, said to contain three or four thousand 
inhabitants. At Obrajillo, the general to whom they had letters of 



PERU. 257 

* 

introduction, was not at home ; some difficulty in getting mules 
occurred in consequence, and it was not until much time and patience 
had been exhausted, that our gentlemen understood the real difficulty, 
which was, that the horses they had brought from the low country 
were not considered capable of standing the cold and fatigue of the 
mountains, the owners at Lima having refused to allow their mules to 
cross the mountains. They were assisted in procuring mules and 
guides by the general's son. 

Obrajillo, the largest of the three towns, contains about one hundred 
cottages. It has a stone church, with two towers, apparently of some 
age, which fronts on the open square. The dwellings are of one story, 
without floors, and almost without furniture ; yet it is said to be the 
residence of many wealthy people. How true this may be, it was 
impossible from appearances to determine, for the high and low, the 
rich and the poor, all seem to live in the same style. 

The difficulties that occurred in procuring mules for their journey, 
had delayed them so long as to place it out of their power to proceed 
oefore the next day. The opportunity of visiting the environs was 
taken, and a large collection of plants was obtained, the annuals being 
found in the right season for making collections. The cascade which 
was seen as they approached, was visited, and exhibited a picturesque 
and beautiful appearance, even when it was four miles distant. 

At Obrajillo there are many pretty gardens and fields, under a good 
state of cultivation. The roadside itself looked like a flower-garden, 
and flowers of almost every hue were seen on either side, Calceolarias, 
Lobelias, &c. 

Here was the first point where they had met the llama used as a 
beast of burden ; the load which they carry is from seventy to ninety 
pounds. 

On the 19th, at an early hour, some vagabonds, assuming the name 
of Chilians, went the rounds of the village, helping themselves to 
every thing they desired, to the utter dismay of the inhabitants, who 
made no resistance. The consequence was, that having neglected to 
supply themselves with bread the evening before, they lost the oppor- 
tunity of doing it. This was a serious inconvenience, for Obrajillo 
supplies the upper country with bread, as Lima does the lower, and it 
is procured with difficulty, except at these two places. Potatoes were 
therefore taken as a substitute, though a very inconvenient one, from 
their great weight and bulk. 

They were on the route by six o'clock, and an hour's ride brought 
Them to a spot where the river formed a very picturesque rapid, soon 

VOL. i. W2 33 



258 PER U. 

after which they entered into a wild and romantic pass, between steep 
acclivities and precipices of immense height. 

At ten o'clock they reached Culnai, a distance of five leagues ; it 
contains about thirty cottages ; its height is believed to be ten thousand 
feet above the sea, and here cultivation ceases, ending with the potato, 
Tropseolum, Oxalis, and Basella. The second region of plants also 
terminates here, and now ensued the " Paramera," or pasture region 
of the Andes, avoided by the inhabitants of the lower districts on 
account of the cold. This third region gives growth to a set of plants 
which make a gradual transition from those of the second region to 
low alpine scraggy bushes, none of which exceed two feet in height. 
The Paramera is remarkable for a dense sward of coarse grass, and 
low herbaceous plants, principally of the order Compositse. The 
flowers of the latter, it was remarked, were particularly large in pro- 
portion to the plant. These form a rich pasturage for the flocks and 
herds, which are seen feeding in the valleys and along the sides of the 
hills. 

No cultivation is attempted beyond Culnai, and but two species of 
Cacti were met with above this point. 

They had hitherto for the most part followed a northerly direction, 
but now they diverged more to the northeast. The temperature was 
falling as they ascended, the air was clear and bracing, and the 
scenery as they advanced become more interesting, and even sublime. 
To its wild and precipitous features was now added the high snowy 
peak of La Vinda in the distance, and some few spots of snow were 
occasionally seen in places sheltered from the sun's rays. The mule- 
paths had become narrow, and when they met with mules, which was 
often the case, it became necessary to turn under the rocks, until the 
path was clear. On one occasion, one of the party allowed his mule 
to take the outside ; the consequence was that a muleteer shoved mule 
and rider several feet over the bank. No injury was received, and the 
dilemma passed off with a good laugh at the fright. 

The sagacity of the mules on these occasions is remarkable. They 
endeavour always to cling to the wall side, and will succeed in doing 
it, if not prevented by the rider. Their caution is great when they 
apprehend danger in passing over steep places ; the instant danger was 
anticipated, the nose and fore feet were used to ascertain its extent, 
which done, the animals cautiously proceeded, and reached the bottom 
with great care and ease both to the rider and themselves. 

About three o'clock they had gained the fourth or alpine region, 
where they were met with sharp and cutting winds, accompanied with 



PERU. 



259 



hail and snow, that proved very uncomfortable to their sunburnt faces : 
this was supposed to be at an elevation of about fifteen thousand feet. 
Our gentlemen now felt the effects of the elevation in headache, diffi- 
culty of breathing, and excessive lassitude. The crest of the Cordilleras 
is at this 'place a league in width, the surface very uneven, containing 
small lakes without outlets sunk in deep hollows; beyond this, the 
streams which form the extreme sources of the Amazon were running 
to the eastward. After travelling two leagues on a gentle descent, 
they arrived at Casa Cancha about dusk. 

Those of the party who first arrived witnessed a fracas with the 
cuchillo, so often appealed to here when a misunderstanding occurs ; 
no injury, however, resulted from it. 

Casa Cancha consists of three huts, and is nothing more than a 
muleteers' rendezvous ; the place was in charge of two women, who in 
expression, if not in form, might have been taken for witches. The 
accommodations, if they may be so called, were an apartment common 
to all the inmates, with no fastening to the door or windows, without, a 
fire, and nothing but the hard ground to lie upon. 




COOKING AT CASA CAXCHA, PERU. 



At night, the thermometer frequently falls to the freezing-point, and 
the climate is like that of winter ; there is not, however, a stick of wood 
nor any resinous Umbelliferoe, as on the Chilian Andes, to be had, and 



260 PER U. 

the cooking is done with turf, when it can be obtained, but dry cow- 
dung is most commonly used for this purpose. This is the only and 
the best establishment the place affords ; even the first females in the 
country can procure no better accommodations, and will bear it for the 
night with contentment. 

As a special mark of distinction, a smaller apartment was assigned 
to our gentlemen, in a hut adjoining that in which their supper was 
cooked, of which they witnessed the preparation. The cooking range 
was of peculiar construction, and might serve as a pattern for a modern 
cuisine. It occupied one corner of the apartment, and appeared to be 
convenient and well adapted to the wants of the inmates. The vignette 
on the preceding page is a representation of it and the occupant. 

After a time the fore-quarter of mutton made its appearance, in the 
hands of their landlady, scorched to a cinder. Being unprovided with 
a knife, she began to tear it into small pieces with her fingers. Our 
gentlemen remonstrated, but nothing would stop her until nearly every 
morsel of it had passed through her dirty hands. This, added to her 
state of intoxication, caused some of them to lose their supper from 
sheer disgust, though all agreed that she carved or tore it into pieces in 
a most dexterous manner. 

After supper they were informed by their guides, in much conster- 
nation, that a band of Chilian marauders were approaching ; the whole 
establishment was in great uproar. The party, however, proved to be 
a convoy. The officer in charge was civil, and engaged freely in con- 
versation on the pending contest between Chili and Peru. 

During the night the party were very much troubled with headache 
and difficulty in breathing ; they passed an uncomfortable night on the 
clay floor. The thermometer in the doorway stood in the morning 
at 33. 

Casa Cancha is in a valley surrounded by lofty mountains. Its 
height, upon the authority of a gentleman at Lima, is fourteen thousand 
five hundred feet above the level of the sea. Pasturage in its vicinity 
is good ; sheep and cattle are abundant : bread and potatoes are brought 
over the mountains from Obrajillo ; of these they have oftentimes but a 
scanty supply, which was the case at this period. The evening previous 
to their arrival a theft had taken place there, a gentleman had had his 
fire-arms stolen ; a great loss when one takes into consideration the 
nature of the country, and the dangers to be encountered in travelling. 

On the morning of the 20th, with one exception, they were all 
affected with vomiting, headache, and fever, and still suffering much 
from difficulty in breathing ; this is usually felt on first visiting these 
elevated regions, and is said to be particularly so at night. 



PERU. 261 

The morning proved so boisterous, with frequent hail-showers, that 
they determined to remain the day, to rest their mules and recruit them- 
selves. Their breakfast was more acceptable than the last night's 
supper ; it consisted of olla-podrida and milk. 

As the weather allowed them to botanize, they set out in two parties, 
but had not been occupied over two hours, before they were overtaken 
by a severe snow-storm, which entirely covered up all small plants, and 
made it difficult for them to scale the rocks. 

On the 21st, they had determined to proceed to Banos, which, from 
the description of their guides, who were ignorant, however, of the 
route beyond Casa Cancha, they had been led to believe was on the 
eastern slope of the mountain. 

They started at an early hour, with the wild geese flying and feeding 
around them, determining to visit Alpamarca, which is distant from 
Casa Cancha about two leagues ; but owing to their guides being unac- 
quainted with the paths, they were led about among the mountains, and 
over extensive plains, covered with coarse herbage. A variety of 
beautiful flowers were found, and many domesticated llamas were seen 
feeding. At eleven o'clock they stumbled, as if by accident, on the 
place, consisting of a number of huts ; one of these showed the welcome 
sign of bread for sale, viz., a basket stuck upon a long pole ; and they 
were fortunate in procuring some small rolls. 

Alpamarca proved to be in the vicinity of a silver mine, and here 
they found a goodly company of Peruvian gentlemen, collected from 
various quarters, and among them the general to whom they had 
brought letters to Obrajillo. They were received with great kindness 
and attention ; the company insisted upon their dismounting, and gave 
them the cheer they had prepared for themselves, which was readily 
partaken of. It was served in a large gourd-shell, and consisted of a 
Spanish hotch-potch, or olla, with carrots, pot-garlic, pepper, and small 
bits of mutton. It was observed, as the eatables were disappearing, 
that the Spanish Dons now and then would partake of the tidbits by 
reaching over their shoulders from behind. This repast was well 
timed, for our party had been fasting sufficiently long to enable them to 
do ample justice to it. 

On further examination, the hut proved to be provided with some few 
of the necessaries of life, although the supply was not large. 

The Peruvians sent for the superintendent of the mine, and in the 
mean time showed the process of extracting the silver, which was as 
follows : the ore is broken up until it resembles earth ; it is then thrown 
into a large round vat and mixed with mercury and water ; six or 
eight mules are then turned in and driven round and round, until the 



202 PERU. 

amalgam is formed ; it is then put into a vessel, and stirred with water 
until the earth mixes with it, and the water being poured off, leaves the 
amalgam, whence the mercury is finally evaporated. 

The ore appears to be taken almost entirely from the surface. It is 
poor, and the mines do not yield much profit. There are many old 
veins that have been extensively worked, but owing to their depth have 
been abandoned. 

The superintendent arrived after a while ; he proved to be an English 
miner (Mr. R. Bevan), who had been twenty years in the country. He 
was delighted to see our party, saying that an American and English- 
man were all the same in Peru, and that he had not heard his own 
language spoken for two years. He informed them that the old 
Spaniards had worked the mines cheaper than any one has been able 
to do since. They were large landholders, and contrived to keep them- 
selves in debt to their tenants ; this they always paid in manufactured 
goods, very much in demand with the Indians who worked the mines, 
thus making a double profit on the wages. At the present time the 
mines are worked by Indians of a mixed blood, who have a language 
of their own. They are much addicted to the use of coca (the leaf of 
the Erythroxylon coco, which is mixed and masticated with " Quinoa") 
and without a supply of this leaf they will not work. 

Mr. Bevan took the party to the mine, which is some distance up 
the mountain. Much difficulty was experienced in breathing the 
rarefied atmosphere, and great fatigue in walking, so much so, that it 
was necessary to stop every few steps to rest; and what was sur- 
prising, Mr. Bevan and the Indians who accompanied them, appeared 
to be more affected than any of the party. He assured them it was the 
same, even with the Indians born on the spot, showing that neither 
time nor other circumstances can acclimatize a constitution to this 
elevated region. On reaching the mouth of the mine, they saw several 
emaciated and ghastly-looking Indians seated near the entrance ; they 
descended a few yards into it, but found that time would not admit of 
the delay necessary to pass down to the places wheie they were at work ; 
and wishing to devote their attention to the interesting region of botany 
in which they then were, they gave up their purpose of descending. 

On no part of their journey did they find so many remarkable plants 
as on this mountain ; for information respecting these, the reader is 
referred to the Botanical Report. 

Towards the middle of the afternoon they returned to the hut, when 
they determined to proceed to Banos. Previous to leaving Alpamarca, 
they had some difficulty with the guides, who were dissatisfied with 
their bargain ; it therefore required some management to prevent them 



PERU. 263 

from deserting altogether, and caused our gentlemen some fear lest 
they might be compelled to return ; but after much dispute, the guides 
consented to proceed, although it must be allowed that the bargain 
was far from being advantageous to them. 

Along the road to Banos they passed some high ridges, with snow 
and ice coming at times down to the path ; also lakes in deep ravines, 
somewhat resembling small craters, which, like all the rest they had 
seen, were tenanted by numerous water-fowl. 

The crest of the Andes did not appear here quite so broad as it had 
been found to be four leagues to the southward, but its elevation was 
thought to be greater. The contiguous ranges of snowy peaks, in the 
direction of Pasco, were very striking. The Indians have names for 
all the most remarkable ones, but the Spaniards embrace the whole, 
together with the principal one, under the name of La Vinda. 

From the direction of the descent to the northward and westward, 
they began to suspect they were descending upon the western slope of 
the Cordilleras instead of the eastern ; this proved to be the case, 
which was no small disappointment, as it was their original intention 
to reach the wooded district on the eastern slope, termed " montanas." 
In this they were therefore disappointed. As they proceeded, the 
country improved, the climate became milder, and the soil richer ; on 
their way they crossed a small stream, which was said to be the 
source of the river Chancai. 

At dark they reached Banos, which is computed to be upwards of 
five leagues from Casa Cancha. Banos is considered to be at about 
the same elevation as Culnai, but the descent is more rapid to the 
former. According to the custom of the country, they applied to the 
alcalde for accommodations, who is obliged, according to law, to fur- 
nish travellers with a house, if the town should possess none for the 
use of strangers, free of expense, and to provide them with a cook ; 
the travellers buy their own provisions, and pay for the cooking, one 
real for each dish. 

Banos is celebrated for its mineral hot springs, from which it 
derives its name; they flow from the base of a high mountain. 

The town consists of about thirty houses, and a church, of which 
the inhabitants are very proud. It is a neat village, situated in a deep 
ravine, by the side of a tumbling stream, bounded on both sides by 
mountains three thousand feet high. The mountain sides appear so 
precipitous, that the remark was made by one of the party, " that he 
could not conceive why the cattle that were feeding on their sides did 
not fall off." 

Along the margin of the stream, carnations, pinks, stock gilly- 



264 PERU. 

flowers, and French marigolds are naturalized; the pinks grow in 
immense numbers in every crack and crevice. 

The cabbages here are woody and arborescent, like the cow or tree- 
cabbage, the trunk and branches being quite hard and covered with 
bark ; they have at a distance some resemblance to the Brugmansia 
suaveolens. 

The thermometer stood at 50, and the weather, in comparison with 
the day before, was quite mild. 

The hot spring is close to the village ; owing to their thermometei 
being for low temperatures, not graduated above 140, they did not get 
its exact temperature ; but eggs put in were cooked in about three 
minutes, and their tea was prepared by a vessel being placed in it, so 
that it could not be far from the boiling point, at ten thousand feet 
elevation. No steam was seen to issue from the orifice, but vapour 
rises afterwards to mark the spot ; there is also a strong smell of 
sulphur, and at night a thick cloud hangs over the spring. The water 
was tasteless, and there was a coating of the red oxide of iron on the 
substances over which the water had passed ; and in some places a 
white powder was observable. A few yards distant from the hot 
spring was a cold one, which, mingled with the hot, is found to have 
a very agreeable temperature for a bath, in which the people bathe 
and women wash clothes ; the hot spring was estimated to discharge 
several gallons in a second. 

The soil in this valley is good, and cultivated in some places with 
care : no fruit was observed. The largest trees were a species of 
Elder, and a Buddlea ; Calceolaria, Salvia, and Heliotropium, abounded. 

On the 22d they determined to remain at Banos. At an early hour 
in the morning they found the village deserted, and it appeared on 
inquiry that all the inhabitants had gone abroad to tend their herds. 
For the purpose of taking as wide a range as possible in search of 
plants, our gentlemen separated, some going up while others descended : 
they all met with great success in their botanical researches. Dr. 
Pickering attempted the ascent of one of the summits ; by noon he 
had reached a high elevation, and looking up, he espied a huge condor 
soaring down the valley. He stopped to observe the majestic bird, as 
it sailed slowly along. To his surprise, it took a turn around him, 
then a second and a third, the last time drawing so near that he began 
to apprehend it meditated an attack. He describes himself as being 
in the worst possible condition for a fight, his strength being exhausted 
by climbing, and his right hand having been lamed for some days 
from a hurt The nature of the ground, too, was any thing but 
favourable for defence ; but there was nothing left but to prepare for a 



PERU. 265 

fight, and with this intent he took a seat and drew his knife. At the 
instant, as if intimidated by the sight of the weapon, the bird whirled off 
in a different direction. Dr. Pickering confessed, however humiliating 
the acknowledgment, that he was at the time very well satisfied with 
the condor's determination to let him alone. 

Condors are numerous here, and many stories are related of their 
attacks upon animals ; but this was a more decided manifestation of a 
disposition to assail the human race than any we heard of. 

Dr. Pickering was enabled to reach the ridge that bounded the 
valley, but there were many higher beyond. The view thence was 
magnificent, overlooking to the west eight distinct ridges between him 
and the sea, which was scarcely defined enough to be made out with 
any certainty. He descended by the same route again to the village. 
The alcalde discovering that one of the party (Mr. Agate) was an 
artist, became extremely anxious that he should make a sketch of his 
father-in-law, an old revolutionary soldier, who resided there. As the 
son-in-law had been so attentive, and offered them so many civilities, 
among others the loan of a silver dish, spoon, and fork, he could do 
no less than gratify these wishes. For this purpose the old man 
dressed himself in his uniform. The task of sitting was almost too 
much for him, and he was nearly overcome with the excitement and 
exertion. The old man was greatly delighted with the picture, as 
were all those about him, except the son-in-law, who expressed great 
dissatisfaction that it should be without legs, it being only a half- 
length, and offered a large price to have them put on ; but time did 
not admit of it. The sketch was given to him, which has placed it 
out of my power to present it to the eye of the reader in a wood-cut. 

Mr. Agate's first effort was deemed so successful that his reputation 
was at once established at Banos, and shortly afterwards he was 
called upon by the sacristan to engage him to paint the four Evange- 
lists for the church. Price was no object, provided he could do it, and 
they would besides consider it as a great favour. 

Some of the bystanders proposed to have the constable painted, and 
pointed to a strapping big negro. 

The houses literally contained no furniture, and the silver lent to our 
party was believed to constitute the only valuables in the place. The 
only articles besides that were seen, were some roughly-made wooden 
spoons, earthen dishes, and water-jugs, a few boards made into a rough 
table, with a stool or two, and a bedstead made of canes and plastered 
with clay. In no part of the United States, whether in the cabins of 
the Far West, or in the poorest suburbs of our eastern cities, are 
persons to be seen living in such a miserable manner. The country- 

VOL. i. x 34 



266 PER U. 

people of Peru, notwithstanding they are surrounded with every thing 
to make them comfortable, want the knowledge and industry to use the 
advantages nature has given them. 

On the 23d they left Bafios on their return. Notwithstanding their 
horses had had some rest, their backs were in a shocking state, but the 
sores did not seem to be regarded much by the guides, who applied 
soap to them ; they scolded and blamed the English saddles, which 
they called " Gallapagos turtles." 

The party had determined to make another visit to Alpamarca, but 
the guides would not listen to it, giving as a reason that they should 
have their horses stolen if they went. While this discussion was 
going on, they met a person who informed them that the only persons 
now there were Indians. As their only inducement to return was the 
agreeable company they had left, they acceded to their guides' views, 
and taking another direction, arrived at Casa Cancha in the afternoon, 
At night some Chilian cavalry arrived,which caused great alarm among 
the occupants of the huts and the guides, for fear of losing their horses, 
a disaster which they said often occurred when such visiters came. 
The commander proved to be a gentlemanly person, and rendered our 
party much assistance* This party had left Pasco, the chief mining 
place of Lower Peru, in the morning, and represented it as a place of 
considerable trade, containing many foreign residents, including English, 
American, French, and German. He stated that the Quichua language 
was spoken there, and that the Spanish was not commonly understood. 

The town of Pasco is at an elevation of thirteen thousand feet, and 
situated in the plain of San Juan, at the head of two ravines or gullies, 
one called Rumiallana, leading to the northward, and the other 
Huanuco, to the eastward, where the two great veins of Colquijirca and 
Pariajirca unite. These are supposed to extend some seventy miles in 
length, and the town of Pasco is situated at their junction, a plot of 
which, taken from the survey of Mr. Trevithick, is given on the next 
page. The part of the ground that has been broken up, and in which ores 
have been found, is about half a mile in length in a north and south direc- 
tion, and about one-fourth of a mile east and west. Within the whole of 
this extent, ores have been mined of greater or less value, and the mines 
formerly worked and now deserted are said to amount to upwards of a 
thousand : some of these are represented on the plan by round marks. 

The town of Pasco is surrounded on three sides northeast and 
south by hills of blue limestone ; on the west the hills are of sandstone, 
and on the southwest of a blue slate. Through the latter rock the adit 
which comes up from the lake of Quilacocha has been driven, until it 
reached the metalliferous ground in the district of Santa Rosa. All 



PERU. 



267 



the ores of the Cerro are ferruginous, and the silver nearest to the 
surface is contained in an ochreous iron-stone. In particular spots the 
silver is found mixed with lead and copper, and at variable depths in 
different localities the ores rest on a bed of solid iron pyrites, which in 
some mines yield silver and in others not. 




Although there appeared to be two veins, crossing each other at 
right angles, yet strictly speaking there is but one, the great vein of 
Colquijirca. This vein comes in from the hill of Uliachim, on the south 
of the town, and runs through the whole metalliferous ground to the 
edge of the plain of San Juan on the north. 

On the course of this lode, generally speaking, the richest ores are 
met with. On each side of the vein an extensive deposit of ore is 
generally found, with little regard to the ordinary regularity of metal- 
liferous formation. 

The plain of San Juan is divided into many mining districts, to which 
names are given to distinguish them more readily. The southernmost 
of these is called Zauricocha, and contains several mines, from which 
great wealth has been produced since the revolution. This is the region 
from which all the richest ores have been produced, and it has been 
always looked upon as the most important district in the Cerro. It is 
believed that farther south, between this point and the hill of Uliachim, 
some good ores exist ; but no attempt has yet been made to mine there. 



268 PER U. 

In the district of Santa Rosa, lying west of Zauricocha, the greatest 
quantity of ore has been raised : it has been worked down to the level 
of the adit ; and in several mines, where good ore has been discovered, 
they have descended to a lower level, drainage having been effected by 
hand-pumping. 

On the east of the Zauricocha is the district called Arenillapata, 
in which few mines are now worked ; the ore which is produced, 
although abundant in particular spots, is not rich. 

Immediately within the town there are some few mines that are 
good, but there has never been any extensive work carried on. It is 
believed that profitable ore yet remains to be discovered. 

Cayac, another district lying north of Zauricocha, is worked to 
some profit ; the upper adit from the northwest reaches it, and several 
mines in it have been yielding good returns. 

To the north of Cayac are the Chucarillo and Zauracancha dis- 
tricts, the working of the mines in which had been impeded by water 
accumulated since the breaking out of the revolutionary war. The 
upper adit, leading from the gully of Rumiallana, is carried above 
them, and they consequently derive no benefit from it. 

To the north of these last two districts lies the plain of San Juan ; 
there are a few small veins running through some parts of it, but no 
important discovery has yet been made, although many mines have 
been opened and carried down to depths of from one hundred and 
twenty to one hundred and fifty feet. The lower adit, from the gully 
of Rumiallana, is to run through it, and may open to the proprietors 
some discoveries to recompense them for their labour. 

The whole number of mines considered rich in the different districts, 
may be enumerated as follows : 

In Zauricocha 12 to 14. 

Santa Rosa 20 to 25. 

Cayac 10 to 12. 

Chucarillo 5 to 6. 

Zauracancha 10 to 12. 

Each of these mines comprises a space of one hundred and eighty 
feet long by ninety feet wide. 

The silver ores are estimated by a measure called a box of ore, 
which contains twenty-five mule-loads of ten arrobas or twenty-five 
pounds each. Each box varies in value from six Spanish marks to 
three thousand ; the former being the lowest which, under the most 
favourable circumstances, will pay the cost of working. The poorest 
is of course the most abundant. 



PERU. 269 

The miner who can raise ores in considerable quantities, which will 
give ten to twelve marcs per box, does well. 

The produce of the mines since the close of the revolutionary war 
has amounted to the following, viz. : 



In 1825, 
1826, 


228 bars, 

818 


MARCS. 

weighing 56,971 
163,852 


oz. 
6 


1827, 


1068 


221,707 


7 


1828, 
1829, 


922 
359 


201,338 
82031 




1830, 
1831, 


457 
635 


96,265 
135139 


3 


1832, 


994 


219,380 


5 


1833, 
1834, 

1835, 
1836, 


1133 
1142 
1148 
991 


256,333 
. . . 267,363 
276,813 
244,404 


2 
4 
2 
1 


1837, 


1172 


234,785 


3 


1838, 
1839, 


1172 
1210 


248,022 
279,260 


6 
3 



To this may be added one-fifth for silver that has not paid duties. 

The first adit of importance driven into the mines was that of San 
Judas, which passed the wall of the vein of Zauricocha in the year 
1794. By means of this adit, very rich ores were raised, especially 
from the king's mine. In the year 1808, the present deep adit, from 
which so much was expected, was begun ; for covering the expenses 
of constructing it, the body of miners imposed a duty of one real per 
marc on all silver melted in the government assay-office. This adit 
reached in 1830 the southwest edge of the metalliferous ground of 
Santa Rosa, up to which time the whole of its course had been in a 
hard rock. An auxiliary adit was then commenced, fifty-four feet 
above the level of the main one, and both of these works have been 
carried on until the present time. The ground above being better 
adapted for driving in, the upper adit is in advance of the lower, one 
thousand five hundred feet, and has arrived at the district of Cayac. 
The lower adit has reached the mines situated upon the vein of Zauri- 
cocha, without having cut a single vein or deposit of ore in its transit. 
There are several rich mines a little in advance of this adit, some of 
which have been hitherto drained by hand-pumps, and which must be 
shortly very much benefited by it ; for, although they extend below the 
level of the adit, yet they will have some fifty feet of pump-lift less. 
It will excite some wonder that steam is not now employed in the 
draining of such valuable mines. It has, however, been tried ; a few 
years previous to the revolution, four steam-engines, of thirty horse 



270 PER U. 

power each, were brought out from England, and three of them put 
up in the districts of Santa Rosa, Cayac, and Zauracancha. That of 
Zauricocha was not set up, but the other three were worked with some 
success. 

A level was driven from the engine-shaft of Santa Rosa, into the 
mines of Zauricocha, and rich ores were raised. The engine of 
Cayac did little more than assist that of Zauricocha, which, on account 
of the greater quantity of water, was barely able to do the work 
required of it. The expense incurred by the house of Abodia in this 
undertaking was upwards of six hundred thousand dollars, and at the 
moment when they had begun to receive a good return for their 
capital, the revolution broke out, and the troubles incident to it put a 
stop to their work, and left them with that amount of loss. Subse- 
quently, at the close of the war, the engine of Santa Rosa was again 
put in operation; and in parts of the years 1826 and 1827, a consider- 
able quantity of silver was produced, by means of the drainage effected 
by it. 

Some abortive attempts were made to use the engine of Zauricocha, 
from 1829 to 1833; but since the latter period they have all been 
abandoned, as unserviceable. 

The establishments for grinding and amalgamating the ores are 
situated at from one mile to three leagues from the mines: those 
nearest the town are deficient in water for several months in the year. 
The construction of all these mills is rude, and much power is lost. 
A mill will grind two hundred boxes of the hardest ore, if it have a 
constant stream of water. The amalgamation of the ore with mercury 
is effected by its being trodden by horses in circular enclosures, 
containing from five to ten boxes. The consumption of mercury, 
including mechanical and chemical loss, is about one pound for each 
marc of silver produced. 

No attempts have yet been made at roasting any of the ores. 

Coal mines are met with in various parts of the country, at the 
distance of from two to seven leagues ; the price is one real for an 
arroba, but might be much reduced if the business were properly 
attended to. 

Various plans have been formed at Lima, and in England, to pur- 
chase and work these mines, but with what success is very uncertain ; 
the attempts have generally been supposed to have resulted in a loss. 
Speculation is always rife in search of these valuable ores, and pros- 
pects of great gain are invariably held out to those who engage in 
them ; but there is much difficulty in getting the business into successful 
operation. The great error committed by all the English companies 






PERU. 271 

established in 1825, for working mines in Spanish America, was in 
saddling themselves with great numbers of people, engaged at high 
salaries, and workmen at extravagant wages ; the expenses attending 
this force swallowed up much of the funds before any work was begun. 
These included not only inspectors and mining-captains, but artisans, 
all of whom were sent from England. From a total change of life 
and circumstances, the mining-captains and artisans almost invariably 
turned out in a short time drunkards, and became good for nothing. 
In some cases miners were brought out, and these turned out still more 
worthless than either of the two former classes. They, indeed, did 
more work than the Indians, but their wages were higher, and the 
expenses for their importation in addition, made them cost much 
more. 

According to the laws of Peru, the silver produced in this depart- 
ment must be sent to the government assay-office, to be melted into 
bars, and thence to the mint at Lima to be coined. The usual price 
of silver as it comes from the mine, is from seven dollars six reals, to 
seven dollars seven reals per marc. If remitted to Lima on account 
of the miner, it yields him about eight dollars one real per marc. 

The duties it pays are six dollars per bar of two hundred and ten 
marcs to the assay-master, one real per marc for the public works of 
the Cerro, and one real per marc to government. 

The mint price is eight dollars two maravedis per marc of eleven 
pennyweights fine. 

Within three leagues of Pasco, on an extensive plain, there stands 
an isolated hill of porphyry, called Raco. From this hill are cut the 
stones used in grinding the ores, which are from two and a half to 
three varas in diameter, and from eighteen to twenty-four inches in 
thickness. The cost for delivering them at the foot of the hill is ten 
dollars for every quarter of a vara in their diameter, and the expense 
of drawing them to the mills varies from seventy to two hundred 
dollars, according to the distance.* 

In 1840, several new attempts were about to be made in mining 
speculations. 

The great difficulty to secure success seems to be in providing for 
the proper drainage, which the present adit will not accomplish alone, 
and great advantages might be derived from steam-power properly 
employed to free the mines of water. The owners of the mines are 
always desirous of inserting in the contracts, that they shall not have 

* Most of the above facts are derived from a person who had long resided on the spot, 
and been engaged in various mining operations. 



272 PER U. 

any water to raise, as this is the most expensive part of the process : 
the ore is very rapidly mined, after the water is drained off. The 
remuneration given to the proprietors of the steam-engines, is one-fifth 
of the ore raised ; this was the sum paid to the old company, and the 
same was stipulated to be paid to the parties who undertook the same 
work in 1829. 

Mines are to be bought at all times, on reasonable terms ; for the 
miners often desire to retire from business, or wish to sell for the sake 
of profit, or are not able to carry them on from want of capital. 
There is, however, one difficulty a purchaser has to contend with, for 
the mines are almost always held in small shares among a number of 
relatives, many of whom refuse to sell their small interest. This makes 
the mines less desirable property, as difficulties almost invariably occur 
with these small proprietors. 

No miner who has worked with reasonable prudence, steadiness, 
and a sufficient capital, has failed to do well since the year 1833. 
The produce of the mines of the Cerro from that time, has not varied 
much from one year to another, as will be seen by the table heretofore 
given. The undertakings which have been carried on upon an extensive 
scale, are those which have prospered most. There were many 
difficulties that the first mining companies had to encounter, that others 
need not again apprehend; the local interests are better understood 
and would be more respected ; a better knowledge of the people pre- 
vails, and of the modes of mining ; and the people themselves have 
lost some of their prejudices against foreigners. Persons may now be 
obtained to assist in the direction as well as to afford advice to the 
agents who may be entrusted with the affairs of the company, so that 
the prospects of success in the operations are decidedly more favour- 
able than they were fifteen years ago*. But although the actual 
operation of mining may be more advantageous, yet the country in its 
political and commercial character has very much deteriorated, and 
it is to be apprehended, that but little capital will be invested in 
it until there is a great change in its rulers as well as in its people, 
and until government, the laws, and good order, become as well 
established as they are in Chili. All the friends of Peru, seem, how- 
ever, to be well satisfied, from appearances, that the day is not far 
distant when she will see the restoration of permanent tranquillity. 

To return, after this digression, to our party: they had much 
agreeable conversation with the Chilian officers, and passed a pleasant 
evening. As I have before spoken of the accommodations, it is 
needless to say that they were not improved. 

On the morning of the 24th, the thermometer stood at 36 in the 



PERU. 273 

hut, and on the rivulet there was ice one-fourth of an inch thick. 
Mr. Brackenridge gathered seeds here of a curious species of Cactus, 
\vhich grows plentifully all over the mountains in dense tufts ; from 
the quantities of down or fine hair upon it, it has the appearance at a 
distance of a white sheep, so much so that a group of them was 
sometimes mistaken for a flock. 

Although Casa Cancha was a wretched hovel, and had every thing 
in it to disgust, yet the situation was one of great beauty. In the 
stream that flowed near it, were fish of from six to eight inches in 
length, but none of these were taken, as the party was not provided 
with fishing-tackle. 

When the time came for their departure, they were glad to bid 
adieu to the place, and to begin their ascent to the top of the ridge. 
They rode two leagues to the source of the stream, which is near the 
summit of the ridge. At a short distance from their path was the line 
of perpetual snow. They found the ground hard frozen as the snow 
was approached, and almost bare of vegetation, only a few stunted 
spears of grass occurring here and there ; even this appeared to be 
wanting in the bare spots above the snow line. The snow was but a 
thin covering, its surface was hardened, and its lower margin formed 
a perfectly unbroken horizontal line, along the face of the mountain. 
This was not apparently the case on the other ridges, for the snow lay 
there in hollows, and sometimes descended, as before remarked, below 
the path. 

In the alpine lakes was a species of Myriophyllum, the same as was 
met with at Culnai, three thousand feet below. Dr. Pickering found 
an ammonite here. 

They descended rapidly on the western declivity ; the scenery was 
beautiful, and they had enough employment in collecting specimens. 
Two large parties were met, on the route, the one of loaded mules, the 
other of several genteel travellers, among whom were females, ac- 
companied by several servants well armed. In the afternoon they 
reached a solitary hut, at a place called Chicrine, situated at the foot 
of La Vinda, and kept by an old woman with one eye ; she proved 
very much the reverse of their hostess at Casa Cancha, being very 
cleanly ; here they passed the night comfortably. 

A Frenchman, who was now passing for a native, and was on his 
way to Pasco, with his servant, joined them at Chicrine. Being 
invited to partake of supper, he accepted, and did ample justice to the 
meal ; but when he had finished, contrary to the usual politeness of 
his countrymen, he told them he had never eaten a worse meal in his 
life. 

VOL. i. 35 



274 PERU 

After this remark, a belief was entertained that his saddle-bags 
contained edibles, and he was accordingly plied with questions until 
he confessed he had a loaf of bread : this proved quite acceptable, and 
a triumph over their fellow-lodger, who promised them a farther treat 
in the morning upon some fine chocolate. 

On the morning of the 25th, the Frenchman departed early, and 
forgot all about his fine chocolate. They regretted to hear, shortly 
after their arrival at Lima, that he had been robbed and murdered on 
his return. 

Our party set out early, and after an hour's ride reached Culnai, 
where the villagers were busy gathering in their potatoes. There 
were also several patches of Oxalis cunata, Tropseolum tuberosum, 
and a species of Basella. The two former when cooked were well- 
tasted, and all of them are much esteemed by the natives. These 
patches are enclosed by low stone dikes ; the plants as they advance 
are earthed up, as we do potatoes, in the early part of the season ; 
irrigation is necessary, as the soil is light and open, and consists 
chiefly of decayed rock and vegetable mould. Here some very inte- 
resting seeds and roots of a species of Alstroemeria were gathered. 

Culnai and Banos are about on the same level, ten thousand feet 
above the sea, and are the highest points of cultivation ; they are both 
distant from the crest, by the route of the water-course, about nine 
miles. 

Dr. Pickering having preceded the party on foot, reached Culnai 
after nine o'clock, when he entered a store and was received with the 
utmost cordiality ; a meal was at once prepared for him, consisting of 
eggs and potatoes, called chupe in the country, which was kindly 
tendered ; the landlord was very inquisitive, and examined his budget, 
calling the attention of the bystanders to it ; his charge was reason- 
able, and he gave the doctor a hearty salutation at parting, with the 
" Adios per Dios." 

At dark the party was reunited at Obrajillo. Those who arrived 
first witnessed the slaughtering of a bullock in the square, on which 
occasion great numbers of condors and buzzards were collected in the 
air above. The latter bird is seldom seen higher up than Yaso. They 
stopped at the posada, which they found occupied by the company of 
Chilian troops whom they had met at Casa Cancha, and in consequence 
they were obliged to take up with a filthy hut. 

At Obrajillo good crops of Indian corn, rye, and beans are raised ; 
but none of these grow at a greater altitude. 

A singular and rather amusing custom was witnessed in the morning, 
which does not speak much for the gallantry of the male population. 



PERU. 275 

A town officer was seen strutting with a spear about the public square, 
calling all the women out to come and sweep it. They soon made 
their appearance, and were not long in creating a prodigious dust. 
They swept the dirt up into small heaps ; then taking their coarse 
shawls from their shoulders, they spread them upon the ground and 
put the dirt they had collected into them, to be carried away. 

The Chilian officers called upon our gentlemen with offers of service, 
and were very civil and obliging. 

At Obrajillo it was said that the wealthy men of the place kept very 
quiet, being much alarmed at the presence of the Chilians. 

The guides now demanded a settlement, but requested their money 
might be kept for them until the party reached Lima, as they certainly 
would be robbed if they took it themselves. This incident proves how 
little security there is in this country, for persons of any class having 
any thing valuable about them. 

The preparations that had been made in the town were for a 
festival, and the guides were disinclined to start for Lima. A little 
bribery, however, and reminding them that one of the greatest feasts 
in the Catholic church, that of Corpus Christi, was near at hand, 
induced them to go forward. 

On their way from Obrajillo, which they left at an early hour, they 
met a bridal party on horseback. The bridegroom's hat and person 
were decorated with carnations and pinks ; the bride and bridesmaid 
carried the same flowers, which they presented to our gentlemen in 
passing. After a hard day's ride they reached Taso, and took up 
their quarters in the porch of the posthouse ; the landlord and post- 
master's absence was now accounted for, by saying that he had gone 
to church, but would soon be back ; he of course did not come, nor 
was he expected by our gentlemen. They in consequence fared badly, 
for they had nothing to eat. They found here a gentleman who had 
been robbed the day before, by three persons in masks ; they had 
treated him with great politeness, only proposing exchanges to his 
disadvantage; he had nothing else to complain of; they took his 
purse, watch, spurs, and a drink of his brandy. Much to their sur- 
prise, the guides, who had been so scrupulous about their money, 
showed no signs of alarm. A new difficulty arose with them : they 
had been informed that a conscription was going on, and they were 
afraid to proceed, lest they should lose their liberty ; but the assurance 
that they would be protected while with the party, satisfied them. 

The frequency of murder, highway robbery, and a constant resort to 
the cuchillo, has not been exaggerated in the accounts of Lower Peru. 

On the morning of the 27th they again set out, having prepared 



276 PER U. 

themselves to encounter any attack. The guides, knowing well the 
dangers that were to be apprehended, showed much solicitude about 
keeping the company together. 

They reached Yanga without accident, and finding the posada 
occupied by a party of soldiers, and a recruiting officer, they were 
directed to a house with a porch, but they found it shut up. They 
therefore, being assured that the owner would soon return, deposited 
the saddles, &c., in the porch. Soon after, a woman appeared, and on 
being informed of their situation, and that they had fasted for two 
days, she set about providing for their supper, apparently from 
Christian motives, for during the process she crossed herself several 
times. She proved to be the owner of the estate, was somewhat 
advanced in life, managed her own affairs, and was seemingly well 
adapted to encounter the roughness of the times. The heiress, a little 
girl, (Angelita by name,) came galloping on a horse, driving the cattle 
before her, with the air of a veteran, having command over both the 
animal she rode, and those she drove ; they were not much struck with 
her beauty, for her well-plastered face, and wide-spreading and matted 
hair, gave her the appearance of an elf; but she was a specimen of 
Peruvian nobility. Their supper was good, and they were permitted 
to lie on the clay floor, in the house. 

They paid the usual price for the accommodations. In the morning, 
before their departure, they purchased fifty oranges for twelve and a 
half cents (a real), it being stipulated, however, that they should be 
gathered by themselves. These served to refresh them while passing 
over the barren track (described in their ascent) of four leagues. They 
were overtaken by their Chilian friends, and the troop, when their 
minds were relieved of the apprehensions of robberies. 

Caballeros was reached at an early hour, and here they intended to 
stop on account of their horses ; but their Chilian friends persuaded 
them to pursue their journey to Lima, promising to render them assis- 
tance, in case they should need it. At Caballeros they witnessed a 
fight between a turkey and a game-cock ; strife, indeed, appears to be 
a constant amusement with the Peruvians, and scenes of this kind 
alone seem to interest the public. After a long day's journey of twelve 
leagues, they reached Lima at eight o'clock, very much fatigued, and 
happy to return to the comforts of civilized life. 

The only novelty they met with during the day's ride was a Guacho 
on horseback, carrying a pine board before him, a proof of the scarcity 
of such articles in Peru, and the value that is set upon them. 

This journey, although attended with much fatigue and some dis- 
appointment, from not having accomplished their object entirely, that of 



PERU. 277 

reaching the wooded district of the Eastern slope of the Andes, yet 
was very productive of results in the botanical department. 

The great difference of elevation, and the variation in climate con- 
sequent thereon, would lead one to expect a greater variety in the 
vegetation than was actually found. Forests were no where met with, 
nor were any of the palm tribe seen ; very few of the many tropical 
plants were perceived even on the coast. The smaller shrubs were 
seldom found, except in the lower region, where their limit is circum- 
scribed to the well-watered district. Thickets are very rare, and in 
the higher regions appear to be altogether wanting. The vegetation 
of Peru on the whole is characterized by an air of tameness, indicating 
but a slight change of season, and has been classed into four distinct 
botanical regions, which are easily distinguished ; they will claim par- 
ticular attention, and afford much interesting matter, in the Botanical 
Report. 

The geological region passed over was also one of much interest, 
and from the observations of the gentlemen, the following information 
has been derived. 

The geological structure, as far as their observations went, cor- 
responds to that of North Chili, with the exception of a narrow belt of 
sedimentary rocks along the sea-coast, west of the granitic range, 
which is wanting in that country. This belt includes the island of 
San Lorenzo, and others, as well as the coast itself, to the extent of 
from seven to ten miles from the sea-beach. These sedimentary 
rocks are argillaceous, distinctly stratified, and more or less slaty, the 
layers being in many places discoloured by the red oxide of iron. In 
other places they appeared of a black colour, as if in the vicinity of 
coal-beds, of which the existence was spoken of, but we did not dis- 
cover any unequivocal traces of this substance. Some conspicuous 
examples of faults were noticed by Mr. Dana, along the coast of San 
Lorenzo. Many minerals were also found by this gentleman ; among 
them gypsum was of frequent occurrence, as well as some fossils : for 
fuller information, reference is made to the Geological Report. 

The hills and mountains to the eastward, joining the above sedi- 
mentary rocks, are exclusively of granite, which extends in width to 
the distance of forty-five geographical miles beyond Yaso. In places, 
it has very much the appearance of a stratified rock ; it is much broken 
and variable in its character, so as to render it somewhat deceptive. 
Dr. Pickering observes, that this peculiar character or appearance is 
owing to the slow process of the decomposition of the rock in this dry 
climate, and which would in other places, subject to the ordinary 



278 PER U. 

fluctuations of seasons, be covered with several feet of earth. The 
same reasons will account for the duration of the Inca villages that 
cover many of the hills, and which a copious shower would entirely 
wash away. The granite on its eastern side was coarse-grained, pre- 
senting more of the ordinary appearance of that rock. 

Immediately eastward of the granite district commence the trap 
rocks, consisting for the most part of porphyry. Dr. Pickering traced 
the line of junction for some miles, the hills on one side being of 
granite, on the other porphyry. The eastern limit of the trap region 
is supposed to be distant some twenty miles from the western. The 
porphyry resembles the Swedish, and that in the vicinity of Boston. 
Many porphyry pebbles, supposed to be of this formation, were found 
on the beach at Callao, having, it is to be presumed, been carried 
there by the action of the water-courses. 

Next comes the plateau of the Cordilleras, which is formed of sedi- 
mentary rocks ; this includes the silver mines, and the highest peaks, 
and is apparently of the same age as the coast. Much of the rock is 
argillaceous. At Banos an argillaceous limestone was used for burn- 
ing, and quantities of gypsum, used for manure, was brought from the 
vicinity of Casa Cancha, some twenty miles to the north. Conglo- 
merates prevailed over a great portion of the crest the party traversed. 
The included pebbles were observed to be of regular shape, smooth 
and polished as if sea-washed. All the party remarked the smooth- 
ness of the pebbles in the torrents of the Cordilleras, which had a 
strong resemblance to those on the sea-beach. From the information 
relative to the mines in the Cerro de Pasco, it will have been perceived 
that blue limestone, slate, and sandstone, exist in that vicinity ; and at 
the silver mines at Alpamarca, a compact bluish rock was observed, 
probably the limestone ; it was not, however, ascertained whether it 
was argillaceous or a pure limestone. Dr. Pickering remarks, that it 
contained numerous hard seams of opaque calcareous spar, with some- 
what the lustre of " satin spar." Sandstone with small pebbles was 
not uncommon. 

The bare spots of the higher peaks did not present the variety of 
colour of the Chilian Andes, but had a uniform dark slaty hue. 
Many incrustations were seen forming on the rocks and plants : this 
was found to be gypsum. 

Previous to our departure, I felt desirous of having an excursion 
made to the ruins of Pachacamac ; and having heard that the landing 
was easy and good, on the inside of the island, I sent the tender 
Flying-Fish thither, with Dr. Pickering and Lieutenant Underwood. 



PERU. 279 

Pachacamac is one of the most interesting spots on this part of the 
coast, although it is said it will not compare with many others in 
various parts of the country, especially at Cusco. 

They left Callao on the afternoon of the 28th of June, and were at 
anchor about midnight abreast of the place. At daylight the surf was 
found so heavy as to render it dangerous to land in the whale-boat. 
By the perseverance of the officers, a raft was formed of the India- 
rubber mattrasses and oars; two balsas were also provided. Lieu- 
tenant Underwood made the first attempt, and paddled himself into the 
rollers, the first one of which threw him and the balsas end over end. 
Shortly after, the raft was seen bottom up, the oar broken, and the 
fragments sticking up in various directions ; but he was missing. He 
soon, however, made his appearance at some distance, and just as he 
reached the raft, a second sea broke over him, and he again dis- 
appeared, apparently much exhausted. When the third roller broke 
over him, he was considered for a few moments as lost ; and it was 
no small relief to see him crawling from the water up on the beach, a 
short time afterwards. The raft was now pulled back to the tender 
by the line. In consequence of the ill success of this experiment, it 
was determined to make a trial in the whale-boat, which succeeded 
without accident. Dr. Pickering and Lieutenant Underwood now 
proceeded to the temple. At the base of the hills, they found a few 
cabins of Indians, who stated that they had not chosen the proper 
place for landing. 

The Temple of Pachacamac, or Castle, as it is called by the 
Indians, is on the summit of a hill, with three terraces ; the view of 
it from the north is somewhat like that of the Pyramid of Cholula, 
given by Humboldt, except that the flanks were perpendicular. 

The whole height of the hill is two hundred and fifty feet, that of 
the mason-work, eighty ; the form is rectangular, the base being five 
hundred by four hundred feet. At the southeastern extremity, the 
three distinct terraces are not so perceptible, and the declivity is more 
gentle. The walls, where great strength was required to support the 
earth, were built of unhewn square blocks of rock ; these were cased 
with sun-dried brick (adobes), which were covered with a coating ol 
clay or plaster, and stained or painted of a reddish colour. 




TEMPLE OF PACHACAMAC. 



280 



PERU. 



A range of square brick pilasters projected from the uppermost 
wall, facing the sea, evidently belonging originally to the interior of a 
large apartment. These pilasters gave it the aspect of an Egyptian 
structure. In no other Peruvian antiquities have pilasters been seen 
by us. On one of the northern terraces were also remains of apart- 
ments; here the brick appeared more friable, owing to a greater 
proportion of sand ; where they retained their shape, their dimensions 
were nine inches in width by six inches deep, varying in height from 
nine inches to two feet; and they were laid so as to break joint, 
though not always in a workmanlike manner. 

The remains of the town occupy some undulating ground, of less 
elevation, a quarter of a mile to the northward. This also forms a 
rectangle, one-fifth by one-third of a mile in size ; through the middle 
runs lengthwise a straight street, twenty feet in width. The walls of 
some of the ruins are thirty feet high, and cross each other at right 
angles. The buildings were apparently connected together, except 
where the streets intervened. The larger areas were again divided 
by thinner partitions, and one of them was observed to contain four 
rectangular pits, the plastering of which appeared quite fresh. 

The annexed wood-cut will give a representation of the ground, 
&c. ; both are from sketches made by Lieutenant Underwood. 




GROUND PLAN OF PACHACAMAC. 



No traces of doors or windows towards the streets could be dis- 
covered, nor indeed any where else. The walls were exclusively of 
sun-dried brick, and their direction, northeast and southwest, the same 
as those of the temple, which fronted the sea. 

Some graves were observed to the southward of the temple, but the 
principal burying-ground was between the temple and town. Some 
of the graves were rectangular pits, lined with a dry wall of stone, 
and covered with layers of reeds and canes, on which the earth was 
filled in to the depth of a foot or more, so as to be even with the sur- 
face. The skulls brought from this place were of various characters ; 
the majority of them presented the vertical elevation, or raised occi- 
put, the usual characteristic of the ancient Peruvians, while others 



PERU. 



281 



had the forehead and top of the head depressed. Eight of these were 
obtained, and are now deposited at Washington. The bodies were 
found envelope^ in cloth of various qualities, and a variety in its 
colours still existed. 

Various utensils and other articles were found, which seemed to 
denote the occupation of the individual : wooden needles and weaving 
utensils ; netting made in the usual style ; a sling ; cordage of different 
kinds; a sort of coarse basket; fragments of pottery, and plated 
stirrups. They also found various vegetable substances : husks ot 
Indian corn, with ears of two varieties, one with the grain slightly 
pointed, the other, the short and black variety, which is still very 
commonly cultivated ; cotton seeds ; small bunches of wool ; gourd- 
shells, with a square hole cut out, precisely as is done at present. 
These furnished evidence of the style of the articles manufactured 
before the arrival of the Spaniards, and of the cultivation of the vege- 
table products ; when to these we add the native tuberous roots (among 
them the potato) cultivated in the mountains, and the animals found 
domesticated, viz., the llama, dog, and Guinea-pig, and the knowledge 
of at least one metal, we may judge what has since been acquired. 

The embarkation of the party was attended with risk, but they all 
got on board the Flying-Fish without accident. 

Mr. Knox also visited the island of Pachacamac, during the day, 
but did not succeed in finding any graves. He obtained, however, 
some interesting geological specimens. 

In a few hours they again reached the anchorage at Callao. 




VOL. I. 



CHU'.ICH AT BANOS. 



Y2 



36 



CHAPTER XIV. 



CONTENTS. 

SELF-AGGRANDIZEMENT THE OBJECT OF RULERS END OF REVOLUTIONARY WAR- 
GENERAL BOLIVAR DICTATOR-HIS AUTHORITY CEASES-GENERAL LA MAR ELECTED 

GAMARRA'S TREACHERY LA MAR ARRESTED AND BANISHED GAMARRA AND 
LAFUENTE ELECTED ATTEMPTS TO SEIZE LAFUENTE HIS ESCAPE EXECUTION OF 
MAJOR ROSEL-CONVENTION CONVOKED-GAMARRA RESIGNS-ORBEJOSO ELECTED 
REVOLUTION BY BERMUDEZ AND GAMARRA BERMUDEZ CAPTURED ORBEJOSO'S 
AUTHORITY RESTORED SAL AVERRY REVOLTS DECLARES HIMSELF SUPREME DIG 
TATOR UNITES WITH GAMARRA GAMARRA DEFEATED ARRESTED BY SALAVERRY 
AND BANISHED-SALAVERRY MARCHES AGAINST SANTA CRUZ-BATTLE OF SOCA- 
BAYA SALAVERRY DEFEATED TAKEN PRISONER TRIED AND SHOT ORBE JOSO 
REINSTATED TREATY WITH CHILI NULLIFIED SANTA CRUZ'S INTRIGUES DIS- 
MEMBERMENT OF PERU ASSEMBLY OF SICUANI SANTA CRUZ NAMED SUPREME 
PROTECTOR CONVENTION OF HUARA GENERAL FREYRE FITS OUT AN EXPEDITION 

CHILIAN CONSUL-GENERAL EVADES THE EMBARGO SEIZURE OF PERUVIAN 
VESSELS NEGOTIATION CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES INVASION OF ALTA PERU 
DISASTROUS CAMPAIGN TREATY OF PEACE RETURN OF CHILIAN ARMY CHILIAN 
GOVERNMENT REFUSES TO RATIFY THE TREATY LEGION OF HONOUR DISCONTENT 
AT SANTA CRUZ'S POLICY WAR AGAIN COMMENCED EXPEDITION FROM CHILI 
INVASION OF PERU BATTLE OF LIMA LIMA TAKEN ORBEJOSO ESCAPES GAMARRA 
NAMED PRESIDENT-SANTA CRUZ MARCHES UPON LIMA-CHILIANS EMBARK-LAND 
AT HUARA-PURSUED BY SANTA CRUZ-BATTLE OF YUNGAI-SANTA CRUZ TOTALLY 
DEFEATED ESCAPES TO LIMA THENCE TO AREdUIPA SEEKS REFUGE ON BOARD 
A BRITISH SHIP OF WAR BULNES SAILS AGAIN FOR CALLAO DISEMBARKS HIS 
TROOPS-TAKES POSSESSION OF LIMA - CONGRESS CONVOKED-GAMARRA ELECTED 
PRESIDENT-RESULTS OF BATTLE OF YUNGAI-BULNES WITH HIS ARMY RETURNS 
TO CHILI GAMARRA GOES TO AID BOLIVIA HIS FORCES ROUTED, AND HIMSELF 
KILLED CHARACTER OF BOLIVAR LA MAR GAMARRA LAFUENTE ORBE JOSO 
SALAVERRY SANTA CRUZ HIS ACTS COMMERCE PERU AND CHILI IMPORTS 
EXPORTS-TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES. 



(283) 



CHAPTER XIV. 

POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 
1839. 

THE history of Peru, during the last twenty years, is involved in 
even more obscurity than that of Chili. This arises from the frequent 
change of rulers, and the consequent alterations in policy and govern- 
ment. The history may be said to be merged in biographical memoirs 
of its several rulers, who have, without an exception, acted for self- 
aggrandizement, without ever looking to the benefit of their country, 
its peace, or happiness. They have, in their public decrees and acts, 
been lavish and prodigal of the words honour, liberty, justice, &c., 
in order to extol themselves, and decry their opponents. Yet, without 
exception, the moment they have attained power, they have pursued 
the very bourse they before reprobated, and the country has continued 
to suffer. 

The victory of Ayacucho, gained by General Sucre in December, 
1824, put an end to the war of the revolution, and placed the whole 
country in the possession of the patriots, with the exception of Callao. 
On the surrender of that fortress, January 7th, 1826, Spanish authority 
ceased to exist in South America. General Bolivar was at this time 
President of Colombia, and Dictator of Peru, invested as the latter 
with constitutional powers, but exercising unlimited authority. Through 
his means and the troops of Colombia, the liberation of Peru had been 
effected ; and after that event, many of these troops were quartered in 
Lima, much to the annoyance of the Peruvians, who were anxious to 
get rid of the military, and the expense of maintaining them. Their 
presence, and the cost of supporting them, became the more odious, 
because it was believed they were retained to support the arbitrary 
power of the Dictator. In the beginning of the year 1827, the Peru- 
vians, through their intrigues, effected a revolt among the Colombian 

(285) 



286 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

troops, who made prisoners of their officers, put an end to the authority 
of the Dictator Bolivar, and freed Peru from the presence, as well as 
the expense, of foreign troops. 

Immediately after this event, General La Mar was elected and 
proclaimed President of Peru. He was a native of Guayaquil, reputed 
to be a mild and just man, had been brought up in the Spanish army, 
and was attached to General San Martin; but he appears to have been 
ill adapted to rule over such a people as the Peruvians. At first his 
election was popular, and his name took the place of that of Bolivar 
over all the gates, &c., in the City of Kings. 

At this change every demonstration of joy was witnessed. The 
Colombian troops were sent to the neighbourhood of Guayaquil, when 
they attempted a revolution against the Colombian authorities in 
Guaymas and Quito, (about forming the republic of Equador,) in which 
they were partially successful, but were soon put down by General 
Flores. These acts led to hostilities between Colombia and Peru, and 
in the beginning of 1828, La Mar marched to the frontiers of Colombia, 
without any declaration of war, with a part of the Peruvian forces, 
leaving General Gamarra, a native of Cusco, who had been the cause 
of so much revolution and bloodshed in Peru, to follow with a second 
division of Peruvian troops. At this time General Santa Cruz (who 
had been for a short time President of Peru,) was President of Bolivia, 
and he, together with Gamarra and Lafuente, conspired to overthrow 
La Mar, after which Santa Cruz was to be proclaimed President of 
Peru, Gamarra Vice-President, and Lafuente Minister of War. 

With this plan in view, Gamarra joined La Mar on the frontiers of 
Colombia. The battle of Porte te took place soon afterwards, when, 
in consequence of the treachery or cowardice of Gamarra, the Peru- 
vians were beaten, and capitulated on the field of battle to General 
Sucre, who was opposed to them with a much inferior force of 
Colombians. A treaty was signed, but was soon violated by the 
Peruvians, and hostilities again commenced. Another division of the 
Peruvian army, one thousand five hundred strong, which had been 
acting in Bolivia, embarked from Arica, under Lafuente, to join La 
Mar, in the north. They arrived at Callao, and were disembarked 
against La Mar's orders, and shortly after Lafuente overthrew the 
government at Lima, whilst Gamarra arrested La Mar in the north, 
and banished him to Costa Rica, in Central America, where he shortly 
afterwards died. 

Lafuente ejected all the officials, and assumed the government in the 
name of Gamarra. 

Gamarra and Lafuente, having thus secured the army and govern- 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 287 

ment, overlooked Santa Cruz, and got themselves confirmed, the former 
as President, the latter as Vice-President of Peru. This is the secret 
and chief cause of the great animosity and personal hatred which 
existed between Gamarra and Santa Cruz, and which has led to 
several years of revolutions and counter-revolutions in Peru, as well as 
to the wars of Bolivia. 

In 1829, Gamarra was elected President for four years, and is the 
only chief magistrate who has retained his office to the end of the term 
for which he was chosen. Lafuente was at the same time elected 
Vice-President. During the administration of Gamarra, there were 
several attempts to revolutionize the country, but they were suppressed. 

In the year 1831, Gamarra being on the frontiers of Bolivia, with 
the army, he became suspicious that Lafuente was concerned in some 
of the movements, and gave orders to seize him. Lafuente had little 
notice of it, but when the party detached for the purpose arrived at his 
quarters at night, Senora Lafuente, his wife, bolted the door, to give 
time for her husband to escape. The officer in command, before going 
to the apartment, had stationed guards around the square, with orders 
to shoot any one whom they saw escaping. On arriving at the door 
of the chamber, he found it bolted, and ordered it to be opened. This 
was done by Senora Lafuente, after her husband had effected his 
escape through the window. The officer, eager in pursuit, followed, 
but mistaking the course of flight, got upon the roofs of the houses, 
where he was seen by his own soldiers, who, true to their orders, fired 
and shot him dead. Lafuente, thus saved by the good management of 
his wife, escaped to Callao, where he found an asylum on board the 
United States ship St. Louis, then lying in the roads. Thence he went 
to Chili, and from Chili to Bolivia, where he became reconciled to Santa 
Cruz, and endeavoured to obtain aid from him to overthrow Gamarra. 

Another conspiracy is said to have been discovered by Gamarra in 
1832, in which Major Rosel was suspected of being the leader. He 
was then commander of a regiment, and the plot was believed to involve 
the seizure of the President's person. Some colour is supposed to have 
been given to this suspicion by the fact that Rosel drilled his men at an 
unusual hour, and apparently kept them in readiness for active duty. 
On the 18th of January, while at his quarters in the evening, he was 
seized, disarmed, tried on the spot, and shot on the following morning. 
It is believed that this, as well as many other supposed conspiracies, 
existed only in Gamarra's own fears or suspicions. The summary 
manner, however, in which he treated all who showed any thing 
approaching a rebellious spirit, kept the disaffected in subjection. 
Among other persons, his suspicions fell upon the President of the 



288 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

Senate and acting Vice-President, Manuel Telluria, who was seized, 
carried to Callao, forced on board a small vessel of war, and trans- 
ported to Panama. 

In July, 1833, just at the close of Gamarra' s term of office, the con- 
vention which had been provided for by the Constitution of 1828, was 
convoked to meet at Lima, there to amend the constitution. It was 
still in session when his term expired, on the 20th December, 1833. 
On the 19th he sent in his resignation to the National Convention, and 
issued an address to the people, announcing that the wished-for day 
had arrived when he could retire to private life. This was well known 
to be insincere, for while he was making these protestations, he was 
doing every thing in his power to secure his re-election. Gamarra had 
become extremely unpopular, and throughout the country was accused 
of injustice and tyranny. News of revolts were reaching the capital 
(Lima) every day, both from the north and south : only a short time 
before his term expired, he had gone south, to quell one at Ayacucho. 

At the time of the expiration of his term of office, the electoral 
college for the choice of a president had not met, in consequence of 
some informality in the election of its members ; and as no constitu- 
tional election could be obtained, the Convention, with the sanction of 
Gamarra, balloted for a provisional president, until the election should 
take place, and the choice fell upon General Don Luiz Orbejoso, in 
opposition to Bermudez, who was a creature of Gamarra's, Gamarra 
himself, by the constitution, not being re-eligible. 

Soon after Orbejoso was elected, Bermudez, instigated and aided by 
Gamarra, on a plea of the unconstitutionality of the election, effected a 
revolution in Lima. This took place on the 18th of January, 1834, 
when the Convention was dispersed at the point of the bayonet ; many 
lives were lost, and Orbejoso fled to the castle of Callao. The people 
of Lima on this occasion showed some spirit, and took part in the 
affray, which was quite unlocked for, as they had generally been in the 
habit of retiring to their houses, and allowing the contending parties to 
settle the strife. In a few days they rose upon the soldiers of Bermu- 
dez, whom they compelled to evacuate the city and retire beyond the 
mountains, where they soon after capitulated, and Orbejoso's authority 
was re-established. Gamarra fled to Bolivia, and was protected by 
Santa Cruz. 

During this insurrection, Lafuente again returned to Peru, and, 
being detected or suspected of intriguing to get himself named Presi- 
dent, was banished by Orbejoso. He retired to Chili to await events. 

In February, 1835, during Orbejoso's absence to the south, General 
Salaverry, who was in command of the Castle of Callao, revolted, 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 289 

seized upon the government, and declared himself Supreme Chief. In 
June, he issued a decree appointing a council of state, consisting of 
twenty-four members, of which he was president, and began to exer- 
cise the most despotic authority. Orbejoso had, in the mean time, 
sent to demand aid of Santa Cruz to suppress the insurrection. The 
council of government had, during the previous rebellion of Bermudez, 
invested Orbejoso with extraordinary powers, especially authorizing 
him to call upon Santa Cruz, President of Bolivia, for aid to quell the 
insurrection in Peru ; but Bermudez had capitulated before Santa Cruz 
was called upon to act. After the rebellion of Salaverry, Orbejoso 
assumed those powers. In the mean time, Salaverry continued his 
acts of cruelty and oppression. 

Gamarra, always on the watch, now made his appearance, in the 
hopes of again raising himself to power. He had fled from Bolivia, 
and had collected about fifteen hundred men, to make war upon 
Orbejoso, when he issued a proclamation in May, 1835. Salaverry, 
however, knowing that Gamarra was entirely influenced by interested 
motives, declared him an outlaw, and prepared to march against him ; 
but on learning that Santa Cruz was marching on Peru with three 
thousand Bolivian troops, he immediately treated with Gamarra, and 
they agreed to act together against Orbejoso and his nRv ally. Before 
they could unite their forces, Santa Cruz attacked and completely 
routed Gamarra's troops : he fled almost alone to Lima, where Sala- 
verry soon after arrested him and sent him to Central America, 
whence he proceeded to Chili, to carry on his intrigues to keep Peru 
in a state of civil war. Salaverry now marched against Santa Cruz ; 
they met near Arequipa, and the battle of Socabaya was fought, where 
Salaverry was completely defeated, and taken prisoner while attempt- 
ing to gain his vessels at Islay. He was immediately tried by a 
military commission, and with his principal officers shot, at Arequipa. 
The career of Salaverry was short, but unexampled in Peru for its 
activity and energy. His fate excited no sympathy, for he had 
committed some of the most barbarous acts, executing persons 
without trial, upon the slightest suspicion of being disaffected to his 
authority. 

Orbejoso, on being reinstated by the aid of Santa Cruz, and the 
revolt suppressed, called an assembly of the deputies at the town of 
Sicuani, and set about punishing all who had taken part or served in 
any manner during the rebellion of Salaverry. 

The nullification of the treaty with Chili is said to have been 
brought about by the advice of Gavia del Rio, who was supposed to 
be somewhat under the influence of Santa Cruz. He made use of the 

VOL. i. z 37 



290 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

argument, that it contained stipulations injurious to, and contrary to the 
true policy of Peru, which was to endeavour to promote a free inter- 
course with all nations, a policy which outweighed all the advantages 
that could be derived from the treaty with Chili. 

In 1836, General Herrera was received as ambassador from Bolivia 
by Orbejoso, and with General Moran, who commanded the troops, 
seems to have exerted a great influence over Orbejoso. He entered 
into an offensive and defensive alliance with Bolivia, which gave all 
the ascendency to Bolivia, or rather to Santa Cruz, engaging that the 
Bolivian army should remain in Peru until peace should be established 
at the north. From this it was evident that Peru was ruled by stran- 
gers, and her interests were forgotten. The people, therefore, soon 
became dissatisfied with the administration of Orbejoso, and when he 
ordered a new election of deputies, they in many of the towns refused 
to vote, believing that his real object was to secure himself a re-elec- 
tion by the Assembly. 

He dismembered the eight provinces of Peru, by declaring that four 
of them should be known hereafter under the name of South Peru, 
composed of the departments of Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cusco, and 
Puno. Nothing can be more absurd than the way in which he seems 
to have conduced the government, and the bombastic and foolish tone 
of his decrees, wherein he is styled, or styles himself, " Citizen, Don 
Louis Orbejoso, Great Hero and meritorious General of Divisions, and 
Grand Marshal of the State of South Peru." 

The Assembly of Sicuani met on the 17th March, when it conferred 
upon Santa Cruz the title of Supreme Protector of South Peru, con- 
sisting of the four above mentioned provinces of Arequipa, Cusco, 
Ayacucho, and Puno. At the same time, every power was given him 
over the state, as well as the right to convene a legislature as soon as 
he should think proper. This was virtually extending his power over 
the half of Peru next bordering on Bolivia, and was the first step 
towards making him head of both states. The Assembly likewise 
bestowed great encomiums on the Bolivian army, awarding to them 
medals and thanks. On Santa Cruz it conferred the title of Invincible 
Pacificator of Peru ; voted that an equestrian statue of him should be 
erected on the field of Socabaya, and that his portrait should be hung 
up in their hall, and in all the tribunals and public offices of the repub- 
lic. The next act was to appoint a committee to wait upon Santa 
Cruz, to present him with the declaration of independence, and to 
invest him with the Supreme Protectorate, awarding to him likewise 
a salary of thirty thousand dollars a year for the expenses of his 
exalted situation. 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 391 

On the 19th, the Assembly approved of the treaty entered into 
between Orbejoso and Santa Cruz. 

The Assembly of Sicuani was but four days in session ; and its 
whole object seems to have been to confer titles and honours on Santa 
Cruz, instead of looking into the affairs of the state. This must strike 
any one as having been a ridiculous farce ; and it cannot be a matter 
of surprise that the South Americans should rather be retrograding 
than advancing, when we look upon acts like these. 

On the 3d August, 1836, the Convention of Huara (which had been 
previously summoned) met. After being organized, it received mes- 
sages from the provisional President, and the Supreme Protector by 
his plenipotentiary, who submitted three projects for an organic law 
for the purpose of uniting Peru and Bolivia under one head. It pro- 
posed to form them into the three federative states of Bolivia, North 
and South Peru, each to have a president, and all to be under the 
Supreme Protector, who was named for life. The chief difficulty the 
Convention had to overcome was, whether a successor to the Pro- 
tector, in case of his death or infirmity, should be named, and whether 
Orbejoso should be the party. During the pendency of this question, 
Orbejoso sent word to the Assembly, through the minister, that they 
might desist from the considering him as a candidate to succeed the 
Protector. This great difficulty having been thus removed, the organic 
law was passed, organizing the four remaining provinces under the 
title of North Peru. At the same time, the act that had been passed 
by the Convention at Sicuani, establishing the state of South Peru, was 
confirmed. At this session, Orbejoso was made a grand marshal, the 
pay of that rank was voted to him, and also a clasp for a sword-belt 
set with diamonds, with one hundred thousand dollars in money. A 
monument to Santa Cruz in one of the Alamedas in Lima was provided 
for, with a gold sword inlaid with diamonds, and one hundred thousand 
dollars to his wife as pin-money. This convention was only in session 
three days. It may well be imagined what the people of Lima thought 
of these acts, by the fact that on the 13th August, Orbejoso returned to 
Lima, without receiving any attentions whatever. Orbejoso had pre- 
vious to this time adopted the novel plan of chartering (aumdamiento) 
the government vessels of war, considering they had no longer any use 
for them ; General Freyre, the former director of Chili, who it has been 
mentioned was banished from that country, and was residing in Lima, 
engaged the two frigates for the purpose of making a descent on Chili. 
All the Chilians who had been banished, united with him, and it is 
believed that Orbejoso favoured and aided the project by money as 



292 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

well as advice. A similar belief was entertained in relation to Santa 
Cruz, although he thought proper to deny the charge. 

Peru and Bolivia thus became one government, under the name of 
the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, and Santa Cruz was declared Supreme 
Protector for life, with almost unlimited authority. This was an un- 
popular measure in Peru, the people alleging that her independence had 
been bartered for foreign aid. There was little to unite her to Bolivia, 
no common interest, and but limited commercial intercourse to cement 
a union. Bolivia, on the other hand, saw herself involved in quarrels 
in which she had no interest ; moreover, Chili and Equador became 
suspicious, and jealous of the ambitious projects of the Protector of the 
new Confederation ; while the misunderstanding respecting the treaty, 
and the restrictions that were put on her commerce, tended to widen 
the breach with Chili. 

The Protector, on his arrival in Lima, was received with great 
rejoicings, &c. One of his first acts was to impose a discriminating 
and additional duty on all goods introduced into the ports of the Con- 
federation, when imported in vessels having touched at a Chilian port, 
with the ostensible object of encouraging a direct trade from Europe 
and the United States, to Peru and Bolivia. The Chilians took great 
offence at this act. Peru in her struggle for independence had received 
much assistance, first from Chili, and then from Colombia, and was in 
debt to both for the expense of the war. This very aid produced its 
usual consequences, by creating those feelings of hostility which the 
ungrateful indulge in towards their benefactors. 

It soon became apparent that the vessels of war were chartered by 
General Freyre, who embarked in them with a number of the dis- 
contented Chilians who were in exile, and about two hundred soldiers. 
This was done secretly, but the Chilian consul-general contriving to 
get the information, as has been related, despatched a vessel to notify 
his government, before an embargo was laid. We have heretofore 
seen, in the chapter which treats of the affairs of Chili, how the 
whole affair was frustrated, and how Freyre and the others were 
taken prisoners. 

The party in power in Chili had always been opposed to Santa 
Cruz personally, and believed that he had planned and aided the 
attempt to revolutionize Chili. Under pretence therefore of danger 
from the preponderating influence of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, 
under so ambitious and intriguing a head, they resolved on war. For 
this purpose they deemed it necessary to secure the command of the 
sea, and they sent two vessels of war to Callao, ostensibly on a 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 293 

friendly mission, but with secret orders to cut out the Peruvian vessels 
of war, then undergoing repairs in that port. This perfidious act was 
successfully perpetrated, and the next day Santa Cruz ordered the 
arrest of La Valle, the resident Chilian consul-general in Lima, but 
released him in an hour or two, and sent him his passport. 

Negotiations were entered into, and resulted, as we have before 
seen, through the intercession of the English diplomatic agent, in a 
convention and a cessation of hostilities for four months. It was 
evident from the first that no peace would ensue ; both parties had done 
wrong, and it is believed that neither wished for peace. Chili having 
now obtained command of the coast, saw no difficulty in carrying on 
the war. Accordingly, three thousand men were embarked, landed in 
South Peru, and marched for Arequipa, where, however, they were 
speedily cooped up, left without resources, and surrounded by superior 
forces, daily augmenting under Santa Cruz ; who finding the war 
unpopular in Peru, was desirous of making peace, and waived all the 
advantages of his position to make a treaty, which was entered into 
whilst the troops were drawn up in order of battle. This treaty was 
highly honourable to both nations. By it the Chilians were allowed to 
re-embark, on condition of returning to their own country, and after- 
wards giving up the plundered vessels to Peru. The troops returned 
to Chili; but the Chilian government refused to ratify the treaty, 
which is known as that of Paucarpata. 

Santa Cruz now instituted the Legion of Honour, in order to 
reward all those who had served with him in his campaigns, and 
annexed a certain compensation, which amounted to an annual charge 
upon the state of fifty thousand dollars. 

Great complaints were made by the Peruvians against Santa Cruz 
for appointing so many foreigners to office, and for inveigling the 
Peruvians, who were opposed to him into the country, and then 
placing them under surveillance. These measures gave great dis- 
satisfaction, and made him so unpopular that the people were at once 
desirous of throwing off the connexion with Bolivia, which it. was 
now evident Santa Cruz's ambition had brought about. 

He had besides given public notice in writing to the consul-general 
of Great Britain, and of other nations, requesting them to communicate 
from time to time their views, and information relative to commercial 
matters. This, in the opinion of the Peruvians, had the effect of giving 
to foreigners undue participation in the government. Even his friends 
thought that he might have obtained all the information without calling 
upon them in so public a manner for it, and thus exciting the jealousy 
of the Peruvians. He also issued a decree opening the ports of Bolivia 

Z2 



294 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

and Peru to the Spanish flag. However wise the latter measure might 
have been in a commercial point of view, it was ill-timed, for the pre- 
judices against the old Spaniards are yet extremely strong in South 
America, and especially in Peru. 

Santa Cruz's policy seems to have been to attach foreigners to his 
person and government, and they for the most part spoke favourably 
of him ; but as he gained ground with them he lost it with his coun- 
trymen, and those who were and ought to have been his supporters 
were disappointed and mortified to see him pursue such a course. 
The Peruvians are conceited, proud, and destitute of that education 
and knowledge which would enable them to understand the necessity 
of asking foreigners for advice respecting their commercial regula- 
tions. 

Santa Cruz, believing himself firmly established in Peru, was desirous 
of seeking popularity abroad ; and for this purpose wished to have it 
understood that he was disposed to encourage trade with foreign 
nations. 

Chili again despatched to Peru the same troops, augmented by 
reinforcements, under the command of General Bulnes. With them, 
as in the former expedition, came the proscribed Peruvians, among 
whom was General Gamarra. 

Previous to the arrival of the Chilian expedition, Orbejoso, who had 
been appointed, by Santa Cruz, President of North Peru, revolted 
against his authority, and declared the Confederation dissolved. In 
this he was joined by General Nieto. Orbejoso, however, opposed the 
Chilians, and declined their assistance, telling them that if they were 
seeking Santa Cruz, they might seek for him elsewhere. Bulnes 
replied that he must remain ; disembarked his troops, and encamped 
near Lima. The next morning, as one of his regiments was removing 
to a more favourable position for water, Orbejoso thought that he in- 
tended an attack, and, determining to anticipate it, marched against him, 
ordering General Nieto to follow. The latter, wishing to play chief, 
kept back. Bulnes, finding himself unexpectedly attacked, ordered an 
advance on the Peruvians, drove them before him, and after the 
battle* entered Lima with his troops, where he maintained himself: 
Orbejoso, after his defeat under the walls of Lima, secreted himself in 
that city, and thence, in a few days, fled to the Castle of Callao, where 
he remained until Santa Cruz again entered Lima. He then embarked 

* This was witnessed by many persons from the housetops and steeples, who represent 
it as little better than a massacre ; scenes occurred that were revolting to the sight. The 
history of this so-called battle will be a dark spot on the escutcheons of both Chili and Peru, 
if the full details be ever given. 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 395 

for Guayaquil, where he still remains. Nieto sought an asylum on 
board one of the foreign ships of war lying in the Bay of Callao, as 
has been customary in their revolutions. 

The day after the Chilians entered Lima, Gamarra succeeded in 
getting himself proclaimed President of Peru, by a few of his minions 
under the bayonets of Chili, and exercised his authority as far as their 
influence extended. 

At the time of these occurrences, Santa Cruz was in Bolivia, when, 
on learning the treachery of Orbejoso, and the occupation of Lima by 
the Chilians, he collected his forces in the valley of Jauja, and marched 
to join General Moran, called the Murat of Peru, who was encamped 
within three days' march of Lima, with three thousand men, and 
awaiting him. Santa Cruz approached Lima, after having effected 
his junction with Moran. He moved on, confident of success, with 
his well-appointed force, a host of marshals and generals in his suite, 
and boasted that the Chilians would soon be in a worse situation than 
when the treaty of Paucarpata was signed. Bulnes, on the approach 
of Santa Cruz, retired, leaving Lima the day before Santa Cruz 
entered it, embarked his troops in the fleet, and sailing north, landed 
near Huara, in the department of Truxillo. This much increased the 
confidence of the Peruvians, who now considered the Chilians as 
already captured. Believing that as the rains had commenced, the 
Chilians had gone into quarters for the winter, Santa Cruz determined 
to pursue them by land, with which intent he made forced marches, 
through fog and rain, and overtook the Chilian army at Huara, where 
he encamped in a. strong position. He considered his enemy to be in 
so bad a plight, that he had so little doubt of overcoming them with 
ease, that it is said he wrote to his ministers at Lima, in imitation of 
Bonaparte, (whom he seems to have taken as his model,) " Ah ! these 
Chilians, I have caught them !" His intention was to attack them as 
soon as his soldiers had rested after their fatiguing march. The 
Chilians did not give him leisure for this, but, to the surprise of Santa 
Cruz, attacked him in his trenches. One of the most sanguinary 
battles recorded in South American history ensued ; Santa Cruz was 
signally defeated, and barely escaped with his life, accompanied by 
no more than twenty soldiers. His whole army was entirely cut up, 
two of his generals killed, and three taken prisoners. This battle 
decided the fate of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Santa Cruz was 
the first to take the news to Lima. He was joined there by Moran, 
whom he placed in the Castle of Callao, with orders to hold out four 
months, previous to which time he would bring relief, and reinstate 



296 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

himself in authority. He was proceeding to Arequipa, when news 
reached him that General Ballevian, the Bolivian commander-in-chief, 
had declared against him in Bolivia, and also that General Velasco 
was named President ; lastly, Arequipa, the faithful Arequipa, deserted 
him, with all his officers, with one or two exceptions. Every where 
his life was cried for ; he had but time to mount his horse and fly to 
Islay, accompanied by General Miller, Cardeno, and Garcia del Rio, 
who still adhered to him. They were hotly pursued by a troop of 
cavalry, and arrived just in time to get on board the British sloop-of- 
war Samarang, which was lying in the roadstead. Here the Protector 
found a resting-place, and is said to have felt himself greatly relieved 
from the incessant troubles he had been engaged in for the last three 
years. Thus ended his political career. He was taken to Guayaquil, 
where he has since remained, forming new plans to involve his country 
in war, for his own personal aggrandizement. He had promised 
better for Peru than any other ruler before him, but his ambition 
destroyed all the plans he had formed for his country's good, and he 
ended by entailing upon her many difficulties and troubles, that will 
take a long time to recover from. 

Bulnes, after his victory of Yungai, immediately embarked, and 
sailed for Callao, where he again disembarked, and took possession of 
Lima. Gamarra, as I have before said, was proclaimed President, by 
a Congress convoked by himself, which voted at the point of the 
bayonet. This has not been unusual in South America, and all the 
acts of the Congresses may in fact be called the sole will of the chief 
magistrate, under whatever title they may be issued. Besides naming 
Gamarra President, this Congress inflicted upon the people a new con- 
stitution by his direction. 

The battle of Yungai, which took place on the 20th January, 1839, 
concluded the war with Santa Cruz, and entirely overthrew his power 
by the loss of his whole army (in these countries a very few troops 
obtain the name). In this battle there were four thousand two hundred 
Chilians, and four thousand five hundred Peru-Bolivians engaged. 
Fifteen hundred of the former, and two thousand of the latter, were 
left dead on the field ; the wounded Chilians were numerous, but those 
of the Peru-Bolivians were said to have been put to death in the rout 
which ensued. The battle began at six o'clock in the morning, and 
was contested for six and a half hours. The Peru-Bolivians complain 
that at its commencement great advantages were lost to them by the 
conduct of Colonel Guilaste, who with seven hundred men, betrayed 
his trust, and early decided the fate of the battle. It is said that every 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 397 

soldier, on both sides, fought " upon his own hook," and continued the 
battle as long as he chose, the officers having little or no control over 
their men. Indeed, I heard it repeatedly said, that the troops com- 
manded the officers, and not the officers the troops. If it had not been 
so, many of the acts of cruelty and barbarity that are represented upon 
good authority as having occurred, would not have taken place. 
These I cannot but consider as destroying all the glory of the day to 
the Chilians, whose avowed object in coming to Peru, was to make 
war against Santa Cruz, and not against the Peruvians. 

Gamarrawas now established firmly in Peru, and the Confederation 
broken up. Bulnes and his forces returned to Chili, where he has 
since been elevated to the highest office of the republic (that of Presi- 
dent). Thus ended the year 1839. 

In 1840, Bolivia, after the overthrow of Santa Cruz, became the 
prey of rival factions, and Gamarra was invited to come with an 
armed force and settle their disputes. No sooner, however, had he 
reached Bolivia, than the rival chiefs, forgetting their own quarrels, 
united, for their animosity against him exceeded their own little 
jealousies. They attacked him at disadvantage, and completely routed 
his forces ; he himself was killed in his flight from the field of battle. 
The Bolivians in their turn now invaded Peru, but through the media- 
tion of Chili, a peace was brought about, which left both Peru and 
Bolivia in a state of great anarchy and confusion : all the men of any 
note endeavouring to create parties for themselves. 

The above sketch of the history of Peru has been obtained partly 
from persons long resident and eye-witnesses of many of the scenes, 
and the few official documents that have been from time to time pub- 
lished. 

To complete the history of the misgovernment of Peru, I will 
now add short biographical sketches of the chiefs who have been the 
principal actors in all these troubles and revolutions: these were 
obtained from individuals who were personally acquainted with most 
of them. 

In the order of events, as they have occurred, Bolivar stands first ; 
his history is, however, too well known to need any detail. He 
undoubtedly had talents, and was probably at first an honest and 
conscientious patriot. He split upon the rock that had already 
wrecked so many before him. His desire of personal aggrandizement 
caused him to forget that he set out to promote the welfare and happi- 
ness of his country. He consequently fell a victim to his disappointed 
ambition, and for many years previous to his death, accused his 

VOL. i. 38 



298 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

country, which he believed to be indebted to him, of ingratitude, for 
not preferring his interests to her own happiness. Notwithstanding 
his many faults, posterity will give him due credit for his meritorious 
actions. This, however, does not satisfy the South Americans. Their 
taste and customs lead them to desire present gratification rather 
than posthumous fame. It is remarkable, that not one of the men that 
the revolutions in South America have brought forth, appears to have 
been influenced by the feeling that he was serving his country. 

La Mar was, during the early part of the war of the revolution, in 
the Spanish service ; but he afterwards joined the popular side. He 
served with great credit to himself until the close of it, and contri- 
buted much to the success of the last and decisive battle of Ayacucho. 
After this he retired to Guayaquil, where he had married a lady of 
good family, and remained quietly in the enjoyment of domestic com- 
fort, until he was called to the presidency of Peru. He was a man of 
respectable talents, pure and unsuspected integrity, and universally 
esteemed in private life. He died in Central America, whither he had 
been banished by Gamarra, leaving a reputation much fairer than that 
of any of his associates. 

Gamarra also had served for several years in the Spanish army, 
before the revolution broke out. He early joined the patriot side. As 
a subaltern, he acquired the reputation of being an active and zealous 
officer ; but on his promotion to higher grades, he is said to have dis- 
played, in the battles and skirmishes in which he was engaged, but 
little military skill, and his courage was more than once questioned. 
At the close of the war, he was raised to the rank of general of 
division ; and his first act, as has been seen, was to desert La Mar at 
Portete, which manifested both his treachery and cowardice. His 
success has been ascribed to his skill in intrigue, and to his making 
use of the patronage of his station to effect his purposes. He trampled 
upon the rights of those over whom he ruled, while at the same time 
he was making the strongest professions in favour of democratic 
principles, and the rights of the people. Under the pretext of 
restoring to his country its violated constitution, he has twice over- 
thrown the established authorities, and placed himself in power at 
the point of the bayonet. Lavish of the public treasure, and equally 
careless in the economy of his private affairs, he lived and died 
in poverty. False in his friendships, and unforgiving in his enmities, 
he was especially to be feared by those with whom he became 
apparently reconciled after a quarrel. He has left but few admirers, 
although through his management he contrived to hold the reins of 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 399 

government longer than any one who has yet occupied the presidential 
chair. 

Lafuente was a cadet in the Spanish service, but joined the patriot 
cause. He did not gain much reputation in the war of the revolution, 
and his first essay as a general officer was a disobedience of orders 
in landing at Callao, while on his way to join La Mar, at the same 
time uniting in intrigues with Gamarra, whom he succeeded in getting 
nominated as President, and himself as Vice-President. These two 
chiefs appear to have understood each other, and, to avoid collision in 
the division of the spoils, agreed that each should pursue his leading 
passion. Gamarra accordingly conferred honours and rewards, whilst 
Lafuente indulged his mercenary propensity in the accumulation of 
wealth. The latter has grown rich, by robbing the people and by 
farming out the resources of the state to his agents and friends. 
Although certainly not the only chief magistrate who has plundered 
the state, he is, perhaps, the only one in Peru who has hoarded his ill- 
gotten wealth, and obtained affluence whilst his country was impo- 
verished. He is still living, and was acting as chief during our visit 
to Lima. 

Orbejoso served in the patriot army during the revolution, and at 
the close of the war retired to his estate near Truxillo, with but little 
reputation. There he remained until elected to the presidency, in 
1831. Without talents as a statesman or courage as a soldier, he 
acquired more popularity than any other of his contemporaries in 
Peru. He undoubtedly sold his country to Santa Cruz, receiving as 
the price of it the appointment of President of North Peru, or rather 
that of one of Santa Cruz's lieutenants. At the moment of a threatened 
invasion from Chili, he renounced the Confederation, in order to 
acquire independent command, and regained much of his lost popu- 
larity by a show of patriotism and gallantry in opposing the invading 
force. His imbecility and want of knowledge, together with the 
conduct of General Nieto, lost him the battle under the walls of Lima, 
as well as the possession of the city, and all his troops. Soon after- 
wards, he was found in retirement at Guayaquil, where he has been 
constantly occupied in forming plans for his reinstatement to power. 

Salaverry served as a cadet in the last year of the revolution, and 
was esteemed an enterprising and gallant officer. He was, however, 
of a reckless disposition, and it is related that he threatened to shoot 
his mother, who had opposed one of his youthful freaks. Others, how- 
ever, bear testimony to his good conduct in all his domestic relations, 
and to his kindness and generosity. When he usurped the supreme 



300 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

authority, he had only about two hundred men at his command, yet in 
less than three months the whole country had recognised his authority 
and government. In his short public career he certainly displayed violent 
passions, and he evinced cruelty in many of his acts ; but he seems at 
times to have had impulses of generosity, though they may have been but 
feeble. When he assumed the command, and declared himself Supreme 
Chief, he banished General Nieto, a superior officer. The captain of 
the vessel in which he went was induced to land him in the north of 
Peru, where he collected some troops, and made war upon Salaverry, 
who immediately marched against him, vowing vengeance for what 
he termed his ungrateful conduct, in return for his lenity. On 
Salaverry's approach, one of Nieto's followers betrayed him, and he 
was surprised and captured. Salaverry immediately invited him to 
his tent ; they supped and slept together on the same hide, but he after- 
wards banished him from Peru. 

Another act, which does not show him in quite so amiable a light, 
was his ordering General Valle Reistra, an old companion, an estima- 
ble and good officer, to be torn from his wife at midnight, and within 
her hearing shot in cold blood, for no alleged crime, but it is supposed 
merely for the purpose of striking terror into his opponents. Salaverry 
was full of energy, both to determine and execute his plans, and evinced 
talents which, had they been controlled by judgment and guided by 
moral principle, might have consolidated his power and saved his 
country from the anarchy which has since existed. He possessed the 
true spirit to rule the Peruvians, so far as energy was concerned ; and 
before Peru becomes settled, she will need some military despotism, in 
order to break down the small and numerous contending chiefs, who 
prove, as each gains the ascendency, the worst of tyrants. The mode 
of his death has already been spoken of. 

Santa Cruz was in the Spanish service at the commencement of the 
revolution, and being captured by the patriots, was for some time a 
prisoner in Buenos Ayres. On his liberation he espoused the popular 
cause, and was for a short time at the head of the government in 
Peru, where he had been placed by Bolivar, and continued until the 
setting aside of that chieftain's authority, and the election of La Mar 
as President. Santa Cruz was expelled by the intrigues of his enemies, 
but was afterwards employed as minister to Chili. His subsequent 
elevation to the presidency of Bolivia has led to the suspicion that he 
participated in the assassination of the former President, Blanco ; and 
his patronage of the known actors in that affair, gave strong grounds 
for believing the truth of the report. 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 301 

Santa Cruz is a man of ordinary talents, but of sound common sense. 
From his education (which is superior to that of his countrymen) he is 
far in advance of them in his knowledge and appreciation of the insti- 
tutions of other countries. He is indefatigable in his labours, and 
always exacts the attention of others to their duties. His passions are 
strong and his temper unforgiving. Mercenary in his disposition, and 
economical in his habits, he has always been lavish of the public 
treasure to promote his own views. From his liberal cast of mind, he 
generally manifested a strong desire to forward the introduction of 
improvements, and to adopt such measures as would tend to improve 
the state and its people. His measures undertaken for this purpose, 
were sometimes arbitrary, and by them, and his desire to engross all 
the power in his own person, he lost much popularity. Foreigners 
esteemed him as one of the most efficient chief magistrates that have 
ever presided over this unfortunate country. 

For the purpose of elucidating the character of the proceedings of 
the chiefs in this country, I will conclude by giving a translation of 
one of the decrees, establishing the government of South Peru, by 
Santa Cruz, 

Considerando. 

1. That the government of South Peru remains incomplete by the 
death and absence of some of the persons composing it. 

2. That the necessity exists, that that government should have an 
organization more simple than it has yet enjoyed. 

It is decreed. 

Article 1. That the government of South Peru be composed of a 
Provisionary President, and a Secretary-General, who shall transact 
all the ordinary affairs of the Interior and Hacienda, agreeably to the 
laws, orders, and existing decrees. 

Article 2. The Provisional President will place his rubric to all the 
resolutions and official papers, and sign, with the Secretary-General, 
the decrees which he may issue. 

Article 3. The Provisional President and Secretary are responsible 
for all the acts of his administration. 

Article 4. There shall be two Secretaries, one for the Interior, the 
other for the Hacienda, with the necessary subordinates. 

Article 5. The Provisional President will fill all the vacant places, 
and displace any from bad conduct, or the neglectful performance of 
his duties, or transfer them to other posts, as he may deem best for 
the public benefit. 

3A 



302 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

Article 6. He may lay duties, if they should be necessary for the 
wants of the service or state. 

Article 7. He will have all the executive power which may be 
necessary for the security, order, and regulation of the state, in every 
thing that is not reserved by this present decree ; notwithstanding, he 
cannot take the proper rights belonging to the executive power, neither 
give orders nor resolutions contrary to the existing legislation, nor to 
the decrees which may be in full force, but to facilitate, make clear, and 
do away with the difficulties which may impede their execution, and 
that they may be able to execute the intended reforms and mandates. 

Article 8. The Provisional President of South Peru will receive the 
honours and treatment which are due to a chief having executive 
power, and the Secretary-General those corresponding to a minister 
of the cabinet. 

My Secretary-General is charged with the execution of the present 
decree, who will have it printed and circulated. 

Given in the Protectoral Palace of Puno, 17th September, 1837. 

(Signed) ANDRES SANTA CRUZ. 

The Secretary-General, 

M. DE LA CRUZ MENDEZ. 

Another decree followed this, of the same date, appointing General 
Herrera the Provisional President, and Colonel Don Juan Jose Lavrea 
Secretary-General. 

The results of my inquiries into the commerce and trade of Peru, 
are by no means satisfactory. The vacillating policy pursued towards 
the trade has been most extraordinary ; and some of those engaged in 
commercial pursuits have frequently been enabled, through the neces- 
sities of the government, to reap many advantages. Much illicit trade 
was carried on, even before the revolution, under the Spanish rule. 
The restriction laid by its authority on commerce, kept the prices of 
imports high, whilst the low value of exports, left to the arbitrary 
demand of monopolists, prevented or diminished the means of these 
countries to pay for what they wanted from abroad. 

From this state of things resulted the limited trade and enormous 
profits to a few individuals, under the colonial system. As soon as the 
ports were opened, an expansion took place, and the trade was entirelv 
overdone. The markets became glutted with all kinds of foreign 
fabrics, and many ruinous voyages were made from ignorance of the 
wants of the people, and their means of payment. 

For the last ten years the trade has been better understood. The 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 3Q3 

demand and the means of payment have been more accurately ascer- 
tained, and a healthy and increasing commerce has been carried on, 
as far as the state of the country and the fluctuations, which are 
inseparable from a distant traffic, would permit. The commerce of 
Peru will not bear a comparison with that of Chili, and while the 
former has been diminishing, the latter has been rapidly increasing. 
A portion of the supplies which were formerly sent to Peru direct, are 
now obtained in Chili, and sent to their destination in coasting vessels. 
This change has been brought about by the unwise policy pursued by 
the various Peruvian rulers, in imposing heavy transit duties. This 
is also in part to be attributed to the advantageous situation of Valpa- 
raiso, where purchasers are always to be found for articles for the 
leeward coast. There is little doubt in the minds of those who are 
most competent to judge, that Valparaiso must become the principal 
mart of foreign commerce on the west coast of America. 

The foreign trade of Peru is principally carried on by the English, 
Americans, and French. Of late years, a good many German and 
Spanish vessels also have been sent thither ; and occasionally some of 
the Mediterranean flags are seen on the coast. 

The annual imports into Peru are combined so much with those of 
Chili, that it was deemed proper to include them under the one head ; 
those of Peru amount to about two-fifths of the whole. Of these 
imports, part go to Guayaquil; the Intermedios, or South Peru and 
Bolivia, take about one million from Chili and Lima. The returns 
made from Peru are as follows: 

In dollars and bullion, .... $4,500,000 
Bark, hides, wool, cotton, &c. t . . . 500,000 

$5,000,000 

It will be perceived, that both in Peru and Chili, the imports and 
exports are nearly the same in amount ; and the question naturally 
arises, whence the profits on the trade ? It is readily answered that, 
as has been already said, large quantities of goods are annually sold 
in Chili and Peru for Central America, the proceeds of which are 
shipped thence direct to Europe and the United States, and do not 
appear in the above note of exports. 

These countries offer a large market for our domestic cottons ; and 
if the prices can be maintained, the United States will supply the most 
of the coarser kinds used there. I have it from the best authority, that 
the consumption of these goods is now double what it was five years 
ago, and it is still increasing. 



304 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 



The article of flour, however, has greatly fallen off: previous to 
1830, there were nearly thirty thousand barrels exported to Peru from 
the United States ; in the last three years, only six thousand ; and in 
1841, but one thousand; in consequence of Peru being abundantly 
supplied from Chili. 




FOUNTAIN AT LIMA. 



CHAPTER XV. 



CONTENTS. 

STORE SHIP RELIEF-EDWIN BARTLETT, ESd.-EDWARD M'CALL, ESQ.-DEPARTURE- 
CAPTAIN M'KEEVER PERUVIAN BRIG SMALL POX GENERAL ORDER PROPOSED 
ROUTE CURRENTS EXPERIMENTS TEMPERATURE ALEXANDER OGLE CLERMONT 
DE TONNERRE APPEARANCE OF IT SURVEY NATIVES JOHN SAC DIFFICULTIES 
WITH THE NATIVES-LANDING-SERLE ISLAND-HONDEN-SURVEYS-CORAL ISLANDS 
VEGETATION BIRDS, ETC. DISAPPOINTMENT ISLANDS INHABITANTS WYTOOHEE 
OTOOHO-TAIARA RARAKA LANDING-ONE HANDED CHIEF-HIS VISIT TO THE 
SHIP-INHABITANTS-CATCHING FISH LEAVE-TAKING-GALE-NARROW ESCAPE OF 
PEACOCK PORPOISE DESPATCHED VINCENNES ISLAND CRITICAL POSITION OF 
TENDER-LANDING-ARATICA ISLAND-COMMUNICATION WITH ITS INHABITANTS- 
LANDINGVILLAGEDESCRIPTION OF ISLAND FRESH WATER FOOD TENDER 
DESPATCHED TO KING GEORGE'S GROUP VINCENNES AND PEACOCK DISCOVER 
MANHII AND AHII ISLANDS SURVEY LANDING OBSERVATIONS NATIVES DE3ER- 
TER-ECLIPSE-PEACOCK DESPATCHED TO RURICK ISLAND-VINCENNES PASSES TO 
NAIRSA-INHABITANTS-KRUSENSTERN'S ISLAND-METIA ISLAND-ITS APPEARANCE 
SURVEY LANDING NATIVES MISSIONARIES' KINDNESS COSTUMES ASCEND THE 
ISLAND VEGETATION APPEARANCE OF THE ISLAND DEPARTURE ARRIVAL AT 
TAHITI ANCHOR IN MATAVAI BAY OBSERVATIONS ON POINT VENUS PROCEEDINGS 
OF PORPOISE PROCEEDINGS OF PEACOCK ARUTUA SURVEY NAIRSA OR DEAN'S 
ISLAND-CORAL BLOCKS-METIA ISLAND-OBSERVATIONS-TETUAROA-FLYING-FISH 
TIOKEA AND OURA-HISTORY OF PAUMOTU GROUP-CHARACTER OF ITS INHABI- 
TANTS-POPU LATION. 



2A2 



CHAPTER XV. 

PAUMOTU GROUP. 
1839. 

ON the 13th July we had finished the necessary outfits and taken in 
our stores. The remainder of the latter were embarked in the store- 
ship Relief, which was ordered to land a part of them at the Sandwich 
Islands, and the rest at Sydney, New South Wales, after which to 
proceed to the United States by the way of Cape Horn. 

We took leave of our kind friends, Edwin Bartlett, Esq., United 
States Charge d'Affaires, and Edward M'Call, Esq., United States 
Consul. To both of these gentlemen I am under many obligations for 
their kindness, and information in relation to the country and its 
affairs. Their long residence had made them familiar with those 
subjects; and many of the transactions they communicated had 
happened under their own eyes. 

At 5 P. M., having a light breeze, the signal was made to get under 
way, and we were soon standing out of the bay under all canvass. 
Captain M'Keever accompanied us until we reached the point of 
San Lorenzo. On his taking leave, we expressed our thanks for the 
important aid he had rendered us, by giving him several hearty 
cheers. 

The day after our departure, we fell in with a Peruvian brig, from 
San Bias, in want of water, which we supplied. She had fallen to 
leeward of her port, and her people were reduced to much distress for 
want of that necessary article. 

I had felt much anxiety lest the small-pox should make its appear- 
ance among us, and looked forward daily with apprehension to the 
hour when the sick reports were made. On the 14th my worst fears 
were realized, for the Peacock made signal that they had a case of 
that disease on board. It fortunately proved of a mild type, and no 

(307) 



308 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

other symptoms occurred that left any doubt of the entire extinction 
of the contagion. I was, therefore, greatly relieved, as day after day 
elapsed, to be assured that we had not only escaped so dreadful a 
scourge ourselves, but that there was no danger of its being communi- 
cated to the islanders. 

Being now about to enter upon a new field of observation, in which 
we should necessarily come much in contact with the natives, I issued 
the following General Order, to guard against any misdemeanours, and 
insure a correct deportment in both officers and men, during our inter- 
course with the islanders. 

GENERAL ORDER. 

The undersigned, commanding the Exploring Expedition, informs 
the officers and crews under his command, that as they are now about 
to visit the Islands of the Pacific, and to have intercourse with their 
inhabitants, he wishes to inculcate on all in the squadron, that courtesy 
and kindness towards the natives, which are well understood and felt 
by all classes of mankind ; and trusts that neither contempt of, nor 
interference with, their customs, habits, manners, and prejudices, nor 
arrogance over them will be shown by any one belonging to the 
squadron ; bearing always in mind, that savage nations have but 
vague ideas of the rights of property, and that theft committed by 
them has been the great cause of collision between them and civilized 
nations. 

He would therefore enjoin upon all great moderation in every thing 
respecting their intercourse with them, that no act of hostility will be 
committed, and that an appeal will be made rather to their good-will 
than to their fears. 

That the manner of trading with them which will be established in 
the squadron, will be most strictly adhered to by all, and that in the 
event of difficulties or collision, all acts of force will be avoided, unless 
for self-protection; in short, our aim shall be peace, good-will, and 
proper decorum to every class, bearing constantly in mind, that the 
future intercourse of our countrymen with the natives of the islands 
we may visit, will very much depend on the impression made on their 
minds by us, and recollecting, that it is in the nature of the savage 
long to remember benefits, and never to forget injuries. 

It therefore behooves us, wherever we go, to leave behind us, whether 
among civilized or savage nations, favourable impressions, not only as 
respects this national Expedition, but of our flag and countrymen. 
The Commander-in-chief feels a confidence in relying on the officers 
and crews to carry out these views, from their good and exemplary 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 309 

conduct heretofore, and trusts that he will not have to regret the confi- 
dence he reposes in them. 

Any acts inconsistent with these views, will meet with the most 
exemplary punishment. 

(Signed) CHARLES WILKES, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
July 13th, 1839. 
United States Ship Vincennes. 

I had determined, on leaving Callao, to take up the examination of 
the Paumotu Group, recommended to the Expedition by that distin- 
guished navigator and promoter of science, Admiral Krusenstern, 
whose notes were made a part of my instructions, and have been 
already referred to in Appendix V. I therefore steered for the island 
of Minerva, or Clermont de Tonnerre, one of the most eastern of the 
Paumotu Group, or Cloud of Islands, as the name implies. I deemed 
this to be the most interesting point at which to begin our surveys, and 
the researches of our naturalists, particularly as it was inhabited, and 
would thus enable us to trace the inhabitants from one end of Poly- 
nesia to the other, across the Pacific. At the same time, it afforded a 
very desirable point for magnetic observations, and a visit to it would 
also enable me to settle a dispute between the two distinguished 
English and French navigators, Captains Beechey and Duperrey, rela- 
tive to its geographical position. The longitude adopted for Callao, 
from which our measurements were made, was 79 11' 10" W. This 
I found to correspond well with that of Valparaiso, the meridian 
distance between the two being 5 31' 50". 

On the 14th we found the current setting to the northwest-by-west 
three quarters of a mile per hour. 

The 15th, at one hundred and twenty miles from the land, we had 
changed the temperature of the surface to 67, being a difference of 7. 
At three hundred fathoms depth, it was found to be 51. This day the 
current was found setting south-half-east, half a mile per hour. 

The 16th brought several showers of rain, the first we had expe- 
rienced since the 8th of June, off Valparaiso. Here we again tried the 
current, but found none. I now continued the usual experiments on 
the deep-sea temperature, dips, variation, currents, the visibility of a 
white object in water* and the dip of the horizon, for which I must 
refer the reader to the tabular results, only mentioning such as are 
generally interesting. 

On the 18th, the surface water was 70, and at two hundred and 
ninety fathoms depth, 50. 

On the 24th, in longitude 99 39' W., we found the current setting 



310 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

southeast half a mile per hour, and directly against the wind. Our 
latitude was 15 35' S. 

Until the 29th we had moderate breezes. The current this day was 
found east-northeast, one-third of a mile per hour. At 9 p. M. the wind 
came from the west. This evening we had a beautiful display of the 
zodiacal light. It was very bright; its altitude was 25; the upper 
part of the cone was not well marked, and its apex was not defined ; 
the breadth of its base was 30. A fair breeze from the southwest con- 
tinued all the next day, when we had reached the longitude of 113 29' 
W., and latitude 17 36' S. 

On the 31st, we passed over the locality of an island marked on the 
charts of Arrowsmith. Although we ran over its position with the 
squadron spread so as to cover an extent of thirty-five miles in latitude, 
and on its parallel for several degrees, lying-to at night, nothing what- 
ever was seen to indicate land ; and we therefore believe that it does 
not exist. 

On the 4th of August, the current was found north one-third of a 
mile per hour. 

Temperature at surface, . . . 75 

50 fathoms below surface, ... 74 

100 " " " . 73J 

200 " " . 61 

300 " " " . 50 

On the 5th, the current was two-thirds of a mile per hour, to the 
north-northeast. 

The winds on the parallel of 18 S., cannot well be termed "the 
Trades," for at this time of the year they will be found very variable, 
though prevailing generally from the eastern quarter, with a long swell 
from the southwest. The upper stratum of clouds were generally seen 
flying from the southwest. The deep-sea temperature on the 6th, at 
three hundred and fifty fathoms depth, was 46, surface 77. 

The 7th proved a calm and fine day, throughout which experiments 
were made hourly to ascertain the depth at which a white object could 
be seen ; the altitude of the sun was taken at each observation, and 
also the force and direction of the current. The temperature of the 
water at one hundred fathoms was 75, whilst that of the surface was 
77. We were in longitude 125 W., latitude 18 14' S. 

The nights of the 8th, 9th, 10th, and llth, the meteoric showers 
were looked for, the officers and naturalists keeping watch, each 
quarter of the heavens being under vision at the same time. On the 
8th, upwards of one hundred shooting stars were seen ; but the nights 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 311 

of the 9th, 10th, and llth, were cloudy. On the former we had much 
lightning, thunder, and rain, with squalls from the southwest. 

On the 12th, Corporal Alexander Ogle, of the marines, died of 
inflammation of the brain. He was a valuable man, and had been 
promoted for his good conduct. He possessed the confidence of his 
officers, and the esteem of his corps. In the afternoon all hands were 
called to bury the dead, and his body was committed to the deep, the 
usual ceremonies being performed by the chaplain, and the vessels of 
the squadron having their colours at half-mast. 

On the 13th of August, at five o'clock, P. M., we made Clermont de 
Tonnerre, or Minerva Island, and by careful observations the next day, 
found its southeast point to be in longitude 136 21' 12" W., latitude 
18 32' 49" S. Clermont de Tonnerre, being the first low coral island 
we had met, naturally excited a great deal of interest. We had 
pictured them to ourselves as being a kind of fairy-land, and therefore 
looked for them with some anxiety. At first sight the island appeared 
much like a fleet of vessels at anchor, nothing but the trees being seen 
in the distance, and as the ship rises and sinks with the swell of the 
ocean, these are alternately seen and lost sight of. On a nearer 
approach, the whole white beach was distinctly seen, constituting a 
narrow belt of land, of a light clay colour, rising up out of the deep 
ocean, the surf breaking on its coral reefs, surrounding a lagoon of a 




beautiful blue tint, and perfectly smooth. This island was twelve feet 
above the level of the sea, and six hundred feet wide to its lagoon, and 
is composed of coral debris and vegetable matter. The shrubs are 
few, and not more than from twelve to fifteen feet high ; the Cocoa- 
nut palms and Pandanus, showing conspicuously above them. We 
found it, by our survey, to be ten miles long, by one and a half wide, 
lying in a west-northwest and east-southeast direction. The first 
sounding, on the east side of the island, at three hundred feet from the 
reef, was obtained in ninety fathoms (coral sand) ; at one hundred and 
eighty feet, eighty-five fathoms (coral sand) ; at one hundred and 



312 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

thirty feet, seven fathoms (hard coral), being at the edge of a nearly 
perpendicular shelf; thence to the shore, the bottom was uneven, 
decreasing to four, three, and two fathoms, until a second or upper 
coral shelf rose, over which the water at high tide flowed. This 
extended to where the beach is composed of broken coral and shells, 
and arose on a gentle declivity to ten feet high. 

The Peacock sounded within three quarters of a mile from the 
southern point of the island : at three hundred and fifty fathoms, the 
lead brought up for a moment, and then again descended to six hundred 
fathoms without reaching bottom. When it was hauled up, it had a 
small piece of white and another of red coral attached to it. The 
west side of the island is a bare reef, over which the surf breaks 
violently. There is no opening or entrance to the lagoon. 

For the purpose of surveying the island, the Peacock and Flying- 
Fish took the west side, while the Vincennes and Porpoise kept on 
the east. Boats were lowered and sent on shore for the purpose of 
landing ; several of the officers and naturalists succeeded in reaching 
the beach, (swimming through the surf,) where they remained about 
two hours making collections. 

I saw some natives, five men and two women, and endeavoured to 
hold communication with them. The former were armed with long 
spears. They were cautiously watching our movements; and after 
the boats had left, they were seen examining the beach for articles 
that might have been dropped. Every inducement was held out to 
them to approach my boat, but without success ; and we were obliged 
to return on board for the night, not having succeeded in finishing 
the survey. Wishing to communicate with the natives, and effect a 
landing, we lay-to, and by morning found that we had drifted off 
from the island eight miles to the northwest, and did not again reach 
our station until towards the afternoon. I then proceeded to the 
beach, taking with me as interpreter, John Sac, a New Zealander, 
who spoke the Tahitian language, determined, if possible, to enter 
into communication with the natives, and to land to make observa- 
tions. Seventeen natives were now seen on the beach, armed with 
long spears and clubs, which they were brandishing with menacing atti- 
tudes, making motions for me to retire. As I approached them with 
a white flag flying, many more were seen in the bushes, probably in 
all about one hundred. I told John Sac to speak to them, which he 
did, and found he was understood. The only answer he could get 
from them was, several of them crying out at the same time, " Go to 
your own land ; this belongs to us, and we do not want to have any 
thing to do with you." It was impossible to beach the boat without 






PAUMOTU GROUP. 313 

injury, on account of the surf and coral ; and in order to land, it was 
necessary to swim a short distance, which could not be done without 
our being attacked, and suffering injury, before we had established a 
friendly intercourse. I therefore had recourse to throwing presents to 
them, all of which they eagerly took, assuring them that we were 
friends ; but they still continued warning us off, and threatening us 
with their long spears. I am rather inclined now to think our 
interpreter was partly the cause of my not succeeding in overcoming 
their fears and scruples. John Sac was truly a savage, although he 
had imbibed some feelings of discipline, and was generally a well- 
disposed fellow. He was a petty New Zealand chief at the Bay of 
Islands, and had resided some time at Tahiti, where he said he was 
married. At times it was difficult to control John's movements. On 
this occasion he soon became provoked at the chief's obstinacy ; and 
the idea of their receiving all our presents so greedily without even 
thanks in return, excited his native fire ; his eyes shone fiercely, and 
his whole frame seemed agitated. Half naked as he was, his tattooing 
conspicuous, he stood in the bow of the boat brandishing his boat-hook 
like a spear with the dexterity of a savage. It w r as difficult to re- 
cognise the sailor in the fierce majestic-looking warrior before us. 
The chief and John kept passing words until both were becoming 
vociferous, the one appearing as savage as the other. John's animated 
attitudes and gestures were the admiration of all. As we could not 
understand him, he may have said many things to irritate the savage 
chief before he could be silenced, although he afterwards declared his 
innocence in that respect. I had been engaged for upwards of an 
hour endeavouring to overcome their fears, when I was joined by 
several boats from the other vessels. The officers being anxious to 
have communication with the natives, were desirous of landing, and I 
readily gave them permission to do so without arms. They passed a 
short distance from us, hoping to effect their purpose without oppo- 
sition, but the natives separated, in order to oppose any landing. One 
or two officers swam through the surf without arms, and were boldly 
set upon by three of the natives, when they made a hurried retreat. 
This evidently gave the natives confidence, and their conduct became 
more violent. Mr. Couthouy requested permission to land with 
presents, under the protection of the boat, to which I consented. 
He swarn on shore, pausing now and then, for the purpose of showing 
the trinkets. The chief motioned him away, but he landed on the 
rocks. The chief, retiring, appeared as if somewhat alarmed, while 
Mr. Couthouy advanced towards him, holding out the presents. On 
being joined by another native, the chief stopped, raised his spear, 
VOL. i. SB 40 



314 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

and with a shout and distortion of countenance, made a pass at Mr. 
Couthouy, who at once dropped looking-glasses, trinkets, &c., at his 
feet, and quickly made for the boat. The savage took no notice of 
the relinquished offerings, but advanced to attack him with his spear. 
When he had reached the edge of the surf, the chief made another 
thrust at him, but fortunately without injury. This precipitate retreat 
gave them still more confidence ; they now began throwing pieces of 
coral, numbers of which struck the men in my boat. I felt no dispo- 
sition to do them harm, and yet I had no idea of letting them see and 
feel that they had driven us off without landing, well knowing, how- 
ever, if a forcible landing took place, and they made resistance, that 
injury would befall one side, and probably both. I, therefore, thinking 
that they had no idea of fire-arms, ordered several blank cartridges to 
be fired ; but they took no notice of them.* According to John Sac, 
they hooted at these arms, calling us cowards, and daring us to come 
on shore. I then fired a small charge of mustard-seed shot at their 
legs, which did not produce any effect. Then, Mr. Peale, who was 
near by me, was requested to draw his ball, and load with mustard- 
seed, which he did ; and Lieutenant North likewise fired, which caused 
the chief and all the rest to retreat, rubbing their legs. The officers 
were now permitted to land, under strict injunctions, in order to avoid 
all contact with the natives, not to leave the beach. So much time had 
been lost before I could get the instruments safely on shore, that I found 
it too late to make the observations I desired. 

The natives whom we saw, appeared a fine athletic race, much 
above the ordinary size. Their colour was darker than that of our 
Indians, but their features resembled them. No tattooing was observed 
on the men, and the women were not seen close enough to distinguish 
them. The hair of the former was long, black, and straight. The 
chiefs had theirs drawn back, and tied in a knot behind ; the others 
had theirs hanging loose. They wore a small maro made of leaves, 
and the chiefs a pandanus-leaf around their necks, probably to dis- 
tinguish their rank. The women wore a piece of tapa as a petticoat ; 
they were not oiled, and the heads of some seemed filled with ashes or 
lime. They spoke and understood the Tahitian dialect. The only 
information obtained from them was, that vessels had before been 
there, but had gone away without landing. 

Immediately on their being driven from the beach, a large column 
of smoke was seen, no doubt a signal to the other inhabitants of the 

* I have since understood, however, that the poor natives have been fired upon by trading 
vessels engaged in the pearl-fishery, in mere wantonness, which will account for their 
hostile reception of us. 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 315 

island. After being on the reef half an hour, we joined our boats, and 
returned on board near sunset. One canoe was reported, the next 
morning, as having been seen from the Peacock. 

The number of inhabitants that we saw certainly did not exceed one 
hundred and twenty. 

The common house-fly was found in great numbers at this island. 
A number of fish were caught ; some shells, and specimens of most of 
the plants, were also procured. 

After lying-to for the night, we, at daylight on the 16th, bore away 
for Serle Island, having first ascertained our distance from the point 
of Clermont de Tonnerre by triangulation. We then ran by the patent 
log for Serle Island direct, by which means we made the distance 
between the two islands, twenty-six miles and two-tenths. No signs 
of any other island exist between these two. This will, I think, settle 
the question between Duperrey and Beechey. The latter is undoubtedly 
wrong as respects the longitude of Clermont de Tonnerre, which he 
places some twenty minutes too far to the eastward, and I doubt not some 
accidental error has occurred in his observations ; for I find, at Serle 
Island, Duperrey, Beechey, and myself, agree within a few minutes. 

Serle is a low coral island, and has a large and very regular clump 
of trees on its western end, which at a distance might be taken for a 
mound or hill. Its length is seven miles, and its width one and a 
fourth. It lies in a northwest and southeast direction. There are but 
few inhabitants on it. The position of its southeast end is in latitude 
18 21' 10" S., longitude 137 04' 10" W. 

The vessels again separated for its survey ;* boats were sent to trace 
the reef, and have communication with the natives, if possible. Before 
night we had completed our survey, and the boats returned. Lieu- 
tenant Alden, in charge of one of them, reported that he had had 
communication with the natives, who were very friendly and desirous 
of holding intercourse with him. He obtained several articles of 
curiosity from them. Some of them were tattooed. They were found 
to be arrant thieves, wishing to carry off every thing they saw, trying 
even to pull the copper off the blades of the oars, and all this appa- 
rently without any idea that it was wrong. When first seen they 
were armed with spears, but observing that we did not attempt to 
land, they sent them away in charge of a boy, and swam off to the 
boat. 

I now determined to wait until the next day, for the purpose of 
having further communication with them, and ordered every thing to 

* For the mode of making the surveys of the Coral Islands, see Appendix XLI. 



316 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

be prepared for an early landing ; but during the night, the officer of 
the deck of the Porpoise (Acting Master Sinclair) ran into the Vin- 
cennes, and did both vessels some injury, smashing the starboard 
quarter boat, which broke adrift, cutting off our backstays, and losing 
some of the head-spars of the Porpoise. By this accident we lost our 
position, and in the morning found ourselves so far to the leeward, 
that I knew it must occupy much time which we could not afford to 
lose before we could regain the island. I therefore reluctantly bore 
away to the northward, to pass over the localities of one or two doubt- 
ful islands, on our way to that of Honden. 

On the 19th of August we made Henuake, Honden, or Dog Island, 
and came up with it about noon. The boats were at once despatched, 
in order to ascertain if a landing could be effected, and the ships began 
the surveying operations. The surf was found very heavy on the 
beach, but the boats notwithstanding succeeded in landing. The 
number of birds seen hovering over the island was an indication that 
it was not inhabited, which proved to be the case. Several turtles 
were caught, and a number of specimens obtained. The survey of the 
island not having been completed, I lay by all night, and early in the 
morning despatched boats to complete the examination of it, and to 
effect a landing. The greatest part of the day was spent on the island. 
Near the place where we landed, there has been a channel to the small 
lagoon in the centre of the island, and there is another of a similar 
character on the opposite side. They were both dry, and the sea- 
water can only communicate with the lagoon at very high tides. 
From our observations of the day, the usual neap tide is three and a 
half feet, and it would give high water at full and change of the moon, 
at 2 p. M. 




SECTION OF CORAL ISLAND. 



There are many blocks of compact coral, just at high-water mark, 
quite black on the outside, but on fracture they showed the white coral. 
The white coral shelf over which the sea flows at high water was two 
hundred feet broad, the low water falling two feet below its surface; 
it is quite level, but there are many holes and large longitudinal cracks 
in it. On this lies the compact coral above spoken of, extending 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 317 

beneath the coral sand. It is about ten or twelve feet wide. The coral- 
sand beach above the compact layer has eight feet perpendicular rise, 
and lies at an angle of 47. On the top of this are small pieces of coral, 
which have been thrown up by the sea, around the roots of trees and 
shrubs, growing to the height of from fifteen to twenty feet. We found 
the water in the lagoon quite salt, and very warm. Its bottom for a 
long distance was filled with a fine deposit of calcareous mud, about 
six inches in depth. The water had apparently evaporated from the 
lagoon, and to the taste was much salter than the ocean. Purslane 
(Portulaca) was found growing in a thrifty state in this deposit. 
Where the lagoon was deeper, some fine specimens of corals were 
observed and obtained. No traces of inhabitants were perceived on 
this island. The state of nature in which the birds were found, and 
other indications, gave proof that it had not been inhabited, at least for 
some time. There were a great many sharks, both in the lagoon and 
outside, which were so ravenous that they bit at the oars. It was by 
no means pleasant to have to swim through the surf to the boat with 
these dangerous animals so numerous around us. 

The landing on a coral island effectually does away with all pre- 
conceived notions of its beauty, and any previous ideas formed in its 
favour are immediately put to flight. That verdure which seemed from 
a distant view to carpet the whole island, was in reality but a few 
patches of wiry grass, obstructing the walking, and offering neither 
fruit nor flowers to view ; it grew among the rugged coral debris, with 
a little sand and vegetable earth. 

The principal trees and shrubs are the Pandanus, Boerhaavia, and 
Pisonia. It is somewhat surprising that a few trees forty or fifty feet 
high should have found sufficient soil to protect their growth. Most 
of the trees, however, are of stunted size, being not more than ten to 
fifteen feet in height, and eighteen inches in diameter. 

Van Schouten and Le Maire visited this island, 10th April, 1616. 
some two hundred years before, and it was even then clothed with 
vegetation. If their description is an accurate one, the island appears 
now to be rather higher, as they report " from what they could judge, 
the greater part of the island is overflowed at high water ;" this is cer- 
tainly not the case now. The centre of the island is in latitude 14 55' 
40" S., longitude 138 47' 36" W. 

The number of birds on the island was incredible, and they were so 
tame as to require to be pushed off their nests to get their eggs. The 
most conspicuous among them was the frigate-bird (Tachypetis 
aquilus) ; many of the trees were covered with their nests, constructed 
of a few sticks. The old birds were seen, as they flew off, inflating 

9B9 



318 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



their blood-red pouches to the size of a child's head, and looking as if 
a large bladder were attached to their necks. The gannets, sooty 
terns, and the beautiful tropic-bird, were in countless numbers; the 
former guarding their eggs, (which were laid on the ground without a 
nest,) with care, remaining by them, and even suffering themselves to 
be captured without resistance. Their hoarse croaking was quite 
deafening. 

Some droll sights were seen of crabs walking off with snakes, and 
both again seized by some stout bird and borne away. Armies of 
soldier or piratical crabs (Paguri) were seen moving in all directions 
with their shells. We enjoyed ourselves much, and found no use for 
our guns, powder, and shot ; as many specimens as we could desire 
were taken with the hand, both old and young. In some cases the 
tropic-birds were taken off their nests, and from others their eggs were 
taken without disturbing them ; indeed, I have never seen any barn- 
yard fowls half so tame. 

The various snakes, the many-coloured fish, the great eels, enor- 
mous and voracious sharks, shells, large molluscs, spiders, with the 
curious lepidoptera, seemed to have quiet possession, their webs 
stretching in every direction, and occasioning us much annoyance : 
all gave a novelty to the scene, that highly interested and delighted us. 
In the afternoon we returned on board, loaded with specimens ; and 
the survey being completed, we bore away on our course. 

There are no cocoa-nut palms on the island, as has been reported 
by Captain Fitzroy, in his voyage ; nor is there any fresh water to be 
found. Some of our gentlemen saw on the beach some broken oars 
and remains of a boat, but nothing could be identified. 
Pandanus trees exist on the south side. 

On the 23d of August we made the Disappointment Islands of 
Byron : they are two in number, called Wytoohee and Otooho. On 
the same day, I was informed by Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold, 
of the Porpoise, that George Reynolds, ordinary seaman, had died of 
chronic pneumonia ; the chaplain went on board in the afternoon, and 
performed the last offices. 

On the morning of the 24th we were off the northwest end of the 
island of Wytoohee, which lies in latitude 14 09' 30" S., longitude 
141 17' 50" W. Many canoes came off to the ship : as they ap- 
proached the vessels, the natives were heard, while at some distance, 
singing ; and, as they drew near, the clamour increased, accompanied 
with much laughing, and many gesticulations ; but none of them could 
be induced to come on board, and they were not willing to part with 
any thing but some pieces of old matting. An attempt was made to 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



319 



get some of their paddles, but they rather ridiculed the idea of parting 
with them. 




CANOE OF WYTOOHEE. 



The canoes were quite small, being only from twelve to fifteen feet 
long. They generally contained two and sometimes three natives. 
Each canoe had an out-rigger, and a projecting point, both before and 
behind, by which they get into them from the water. They are formed 
of strips of cocoa-nut wood sewed together. Two persons can carry 
them. Their paddles were curved backwards. 

In order to dispel their fears, articles were given them gratuitously, 
and by way of showing their gratitude, they began a monotonous 
song or chaunt. They would occasionally stop, look up, and return 
the laugh of the crew by a grin ; apparently enjoying the sport as 
much as any of them. 




NATIVE OF WYTOOHEE. 



These natives are peculiar, and appeared totally distinct from any 
others we met with in this group, having strong wiry beards and 
mustaches, and a different physiognomy. The portrait by Mr. Dray- 
ton, gives a very correct idea of them. 

I sent one of the boats to the shore, with the interpreter, under 
Lieutenant Case, but they refused to allow them to land. No actual 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 

violence was attempted, but Lieutenant Case reported the impractica- 
bility of landing without opposition, and injury to themselves and 
natives. They received several presents, but they had no fruit to give 
in return, as their cocoa-nuts were tabooed. They gave, in exchange, 
some articles, consisting of cloth, fish-hooks, adzes, and pearl-shells. 
Among the articles seen in their possession, was a fine silk pocket- 
handkerchief, showing that they had had communication not long since 
with vessels. They refused to part with their spears or clubs. Their 
adzes were rudely made, but ground very sharp ; they were formed of 
the tridachna or cassis shell, lashed on a handle somewhat resembling 
our adze-handles. Knives were also observed in their possession. 

The remainder of the day was employed in surveying the island, 
which not being finished by night, we lay-to in order to complete it the 
next day. On the 25th, the Peacock and Porpoise were ordered on 
one side of the island, the Vincennes and tender on the other. Boats 
were lowered to effect a landing if possible, and trace the shores. 

Wytoohee is formed of islets connected by a washed coral reef, of 
irregular shape, with a lagoon having many knolls in it, of various 
sizes, some four or five feet above the surface. The southeast portion 
is the largest and most thickly wooded, and contains the greatest 
number of inhabitants. 

After the surveying duties were over, we found ourselves at the 
northwest point of the island. The natives who had refused to allow 
us to land, were now seen waving green boughs, which is the general 
sign of good-will, and a desire to have communication, and many 
were seen dancing on the beach, with their spears in their hands. I 
gave orders to send the boats to the shore, but on reaching it we 
found them still averse to our landing ; they, however, assisted Mr. 
Couthouy through the surf to the beach ; but when he had reached it, 
they surrounded him, and led him back very gently to the water, 
making him distinctly understand that they would not permit him to 
visit their huts. They were extremely desirous of obtaining buttons, 
pieces of iron, and cloth. We gave them several small articles, but 
they could not be persuaded to part with their spears and clubs. The 
chief, who was a very old man, was seen lying under a Pandanus 
tree, close to the beach, and on being told I wished to see him, and 
make him a present, he arose ; his hair was quite gray, and he had a 
long and stiff white beard ; his legs were enlarged with the elephan- 
tiasis, the swelling being of a white colour, and so large and regular 
that many thought he had on sailor's trousers. About twenty natives 
were with him on the beach. After being shown the presents I had for 
him, he was induced to wade into the water up to his neck to receive 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 321 

them. On coming alongside the boat, he seemed somewhat uneasy, 
until he had gone through the ceremony of rubbing noses, which I 
must confess was any thing but agreeable with so dirty and diseased a 
person. He was extremely anxious to get hold of the presents, and 
amused us by at once plunging them under the water, seeming in no 
manner concerned about keeping them dry. He was all the while 
making a noise like the purring of a cat. In return for my presents, 
he at once offered me the short mantle of matting which he had over 
his shoulders. 

They understood the Tahitian language. The chief gave his name as 
Korokoa, and the name of the island as Wytoohee. He appeared about 
sixty years of age, and his teeth were all sound and good. 

His brother was the priest, to whom I also gave some presents. 
This man had a very remarkable head, the forehead being very high, 
and narrow almost to deformity, with a dark and suspicious bright 
eye. His hands were deformed, being destitute of joints, and the 
lower part bent at right angles. The son of the chief was a remark- 
ably fine-looking lad of fifteen. We saw no women, as they had all 
been hid. The colour of these natives was much darker than those 
seen before ; in some the hair was inclined to frizzle, and the beard 
curly. All the grown men that I saw had mustaches ; their features 
were strongly marked with a good-humoured expression of counte- 
nance ; they wore the maro, and some had a few feathers in their hair. 
The boats of the Peacock succeeded in landing on the east side of 
the island, where the coral reef shelves at about an angle of 10, and 
having the wind blowing obliquely on it, there is comparatively little 
surf. Some half a dozen natives were here seen ; an officer approached 
them making signs of friendship, which they returned. At first they 
seemed quite timid, meeting the advances made in a manner which 
showed that they were anxious to propitiate us, but still fearful. They 
were reassured of our good-will by offering them some small presents, 
when two old men came forward, holding their arms upright above 
their heads, with their hands open, and became desirous of shaking 
hands, and even offered to rub noses. Each was armed with a stick, 
(for it could not be called a spear,) six or seven feet long : on some of 
them were fastened the jaws of the porpoise. 

Tney appeared to be greatly astonished, and their looks bespoke 
amazement at our appearance. Occasionally, as if to satisfy themselves 
of the reality, they would put their hands on us. On receiving a few 
trifling presents, they broke forth into the same song or chaunt that was 
heard on their first coming towards the ship. The younger ones were 
the first to show confidence, and were much disposed to laugh and joke 
VOL. i. 41 



322 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



with the men ; and some of the officers thought they recognised those 
who had been in the canoes the day before. 




NATIVES OF WYTOOHEE. 



On our gentlemen requesting to go to their huts, they seemed to be 
thrown into a kind of stupid wonderment, but on being assured they 
had nothing to fear, their countenances brightened up, and they led the 
way through the wood to an open space, surrounded by pandanus and 
cocoa-nut trees. These natives had evidently had communication with 
vessels, but I very much doubt if any had landed before. They did not 
appear at all alarmed at the firing of guns, but were much surprised to 
see the birds killed, holding up their hands, and making ejaculations. 
They had no idea of the principles of barter, and allowed any thing to 
be taken without opposition, receiving any articles in return with 
gratitude and delight. Iron was prized more than any other thing. On 
reaching the huts, inquiry was made of them for their women, when a 
general burst of laughter ensued, and they gave us to understand, that 
they had penetrated our motive for visiting their island " That as we 
inhabited an island without any women, we wanted to have some." 
Nothing more was said to them on the subject. They accompanied us 
to the boats, and at parting went through the same ceremonies of 
rubbing noses, shaking hands, and raising their arms with the palms 
towards us. According to the estimate I made of the inhabitants, the 
number was about ninety. From the great age of the chiefs, and the 



PA UMOTU GROUP. 323 

absence of wounded or scarred individuals, I should conclude they 
lived in peace. They, however, gave their neighbours on the small 
island to the west (which they called Otooho), a very bad name. 
Water in small quantities is to be had on the eastern section of the 
island, and a little biche-de-mar might be taken on the reefs. A small 
rat was very troublesome to the natives. This island has some Cocoa- 
nut, Bread-fruit, and Pandanus trees ; the Pisonia, Tournefortia, and 
the shrubs that are common to the low islands, also grow upon it. 

The huts of the natives scarcely deserve the name ; they are merely 
four or five poles, with both ends stuck in the ground, forming an arch 
on which strips are tied, and over these the leaves of the cocoa-nut, 
mats, and grass, are laid. They are about six or eight feet long, four 
feet high, and about five feet wide, barely sufficient to keep out the 
sun, and entirely useless as a protection from rain. 




NATIVE HUT. 



Their utensils are small, and seemed ill adapted to their use. Their 
baskets were suspended from the tops of their huts and from trees. The 
natives seemed destitute of tapa. No anchorage was found at this 
island. 

At nightfall the squadron was put under short sail, supposing that the 
current by the morning would take us to the leeward near Otooho, a 
distance of ten miles. It lies west-northwest of Wytoohee, distant 
twelve and one-third miles, and is distinctly seen from it, like a round 
knoll. This appearance is owing to the trees upon it, for the land is as 
low as coral islands usually are. We found by the morning, that the 
current had been about one mile per hour to the west, and therefore 
much stronger than I anticipated ; we were in consequence some dis- 
tance to leeward of the island. With the light wind, I knew the ship 
could riot reach it before the afternoon. 1 immediately sent the 
naturalists on board the tender Flying-Fish, and gave Lieutenant 
Pinckney orders to endeavour to land them, and to pass around the 
island and survey it ; neither of which he succeeded in doing. The 
survey was finally completed by the boats of the Vincennes and 
Peacock. The naturalists tried to effect a landing, but were opposed 



324 PAUtyOTU GROUP. 

by some dozen natives, who were resolute in preventing them from 
going beyond the water's edge ; in other respects, they were disposed 
to be quite friendly. 

The chief was an old man, and was induced to venture off towards 
the boat. One of the gentleman swam to those on shore ; his recep- 
tion was similar to that met with at the other islands: rubbing noses, 
kissing, and shaking of hands. Whenever he attempted to lay his 
hands on them, they started back, but were continually pawing and 
whining over him, making a kind of purring noise, not unlike that by 
which we propitiate or soothe the feelings or doubtful temper of some 
beast. They presented them with mats made of the panda nus-leaf, and 
also pieces of worn-out tapa, in return for many articles received, but 
would not suffer our people to put their feet upon dry ground, and 
when it was attempted, kept shoving them gently into the water. 

The naturalists in the afternoon endeavoured to effect a landing at 
another place, out of sight of the natives, and succeeded. Mr. Brack- 
enridge, on landing the second time, ran to the thicket, in order to 
lose no time in making collections, and was employed in gathering 
specimens, when two stout natives came running up, and made him 
understand, by very intelligible signs, that he must return to the boat ; 
he pretended not to understand them, and endeavoured to proceed, 
but they went before him, and crossed their clubs, determined that he 
should go no farther. This caused him to laugh, in which the two 
natives joined. Finding there was no alternative, he took an oblique 
direction towards the boat, hoping by this means to enlarge his collec- 
tion, which he succeeded in doing, while the natives, as he describes 
it, shouldered him out of the bush, and then towards the boat The 
rest of the party having gone up to the huts, were at once seized and 
shoved down towards the boat, and into the surf, where they presented 
rather a ludicrous appearance, with the danger of drowning on the one 
side, and the natives on the other, who had them completely in their 
power, as they had neither arms nor any other means of defence. 
No harm, however, was done them, but the alarm incident to being 
threatened with spears. The only mishap met with was the loss, by 
one of the gentlemen, of a pair of spectacles, and a bruise or two from 
the coral, in their hurried retreat. As the surf was heavy, life-preservers 
were sent to those who could not swim; and after much detention, 
they reached the boat in safety. Had such a circumstance occurred 
at Clermont de Tonnerre, I am satisfied that most serious consequences 
would have resulted to us. 

The superficial extent of the island of Otooho is about a square 
mile; it has no lagoon, is well covered with trees, and has fresh water. 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 325 

There were nineteen men counted, which would make the population 
about fifty souls. No women or children were seen. 

At all the inhabited islands we found the greatest numbers of the 
common house-fly : while at Honden Island (uninhabited) none were 
perceived. No one can estimate the annoyance they cause, until it 
has been experienced. 

The huts of the natives of Otooho are different from those of the 
neighbouring island, but quite as rude. 

About three quarters of an hour after sunset, the naturalists were 
again on board, and we bore away on our course to Raraka. Having 
been informed that several islands were supposed to be in this neigh- 
bourhood, that were known to the natives, but not laid down on the 
charts, I determined to lie-to during the night. At daylight we again 
bore away, spreading the squadron in open order of sailing. 

On the 29th, at daylight, land was reported, and we soon ascer- 
tained that it was not laid down on the charts. It is low, nearly of a 
circular form, and well covered with trees and shrubs, and has a 
lagoon of some extent. Its centre is in latitude 15 42' 25" S., longi- 
tude 144 38' 45" W. I named it King's Island, after the man at the 
masthead who first discovered it. After completing the survey of it, 
we landed on its lee side, where the water was quite smooth, and 
spent the afternoon in examining it. There were no natives on it, but 
every indication that it had been inhabited recently by a party of 
pearl-fishers. The lagoon appeared to be well supplied with the pearl 
oyster. We found on the island two small springs of fresh water, 
near its lagoon, and a good supply of cocoa-nuts. Many specimens 
of plants were obtained, and several interesting objects of natural 
history were added to our collections ; for an account of these, the 
reader is referred to the reports of the naturalists. 

This island had more soil on it than any yet met with, and seemed 
to be productive. Large quantites of cocoa-nuts were lying about in 
heaps, no doubt gathered by those who had visited it before us. 

The magnetic observations were also made here. The width of 
the island to the lagoon was found to be twelve hundred feet. A very 
narrow reef surrounded it, and the whole island was but six feet above 
the sea reef. No coral blocks were seen. It lies twenty miles to the 
northeast of Raraka. There is no opening to the lagoon, and the 
island is thickly wooded all round. An old canoe was found, very 
much decayed and broken, and the remains of a hut on the beach. 

In the morning we bore away for Raraka, and shortly afterwards 
made it. As we approached it, another island was discovered, to the 
northward and westward, which was not laid down on any charts. 

2C 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 

On Raraka we soon discovered a party of natives, near the entrance 
to the lagoon, waving a Tahitian flag, three horizontal stripes, red, 
white, and red. They were partly dressed, some in shirts, without 
hats, others with vests, and others again with trousers of all colours. 
I joined the schooner, stood in for the mouth of the lagoon, and landed. 
Nothing could be more striking than the difference that prevailed 
between these natives and those of the Disappointment Islands, which 
we had just left. The half-civilization of the natives of Raraka was 
very marked, and it appeared as though we had issued out of darkness 
They showed a modest disposition, and gave us a hearty 
We were not long at a loss as to what to ascribe it ; the 
try had been at work here, and his exertions had been based 
upon a firm foundation ; the savage had been changed to a reasonable 
creature. Among the inhabitants was a native missionary, who had 
d in this work. If the missionaries had effected 
else, they would deserve the thanks of all those who roam 
over this wide expanse of ocean, and incur its many unknown and 
hidden dangers. Here all shipwrecked mariners would be sure of 
kind treatment, and a share of the few comforts these people possess. 
No savage mistrust and fear were seen here. The women and 
children came about us, receiving our trifles. They showed much 
joy and curiosity at the sight of us, and were eager to supply our 
wants. The chief was an old man, much tattooed about the breast 
and aims, which gave him the appearance of a blue and brown 
checker-board ; others had large rosettes on their legs, and horizontal 
on the back, passing a considerable distance on each side of the 
elaborately executed in various patterns. 

Tins is believed to be the tattooing 
peculiar to the inhabitants of Anaa or 
Island. They frequent the dif- 
isiands of the group, and are 
generally employed by those engaged 




I was particularly struck with the 
of the native missionary, who was a 
He kept himself aloof, whilst all the others were crowding 
to partake in the presents we were distributing, and seemed 
much gratified and astonished when I selected him out as the recipient 
of a unLJEnt sknihr to the one I had given the chie 

AH the males* heads were shaven, somewhat after the fashion of a 
friar. This practice n said to have been adopted by the 
at Tahiti, for the sake of rlr !, and also to dis- 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



327 



tinguish the Christian from the heathen party. The women have 
theirs cot close, and some are clothed in a pareu, consisting of three 
or four yards of cotton, others in a loose gown. They were any thing 
but good-looking ; but the men were tall and weD made. The variety 
of apparel was droll enough. As for the children, I hare seldom seen 
finer ; all were well formed, and as cheerful as they could he. They 
were for the most part naked. About two hundred inhabitants were 
counted on the island, most of whom belonged to Tahiti and Ana a, or 
Chain Island, and were here on a shelling voyage. They had arrived 
in two double canoes, such as are used in navigating from island to 
island ; they were now drawn up on the beach. These vessels were 
apparently well taken care of, and in this situation we had a good 
opportunity of examining them. The annexed is a faithful 
tation of a double canoe. 




They are thirty-five feet long and four and a half feet wide, con- 
nected together by a strong framework, on which is placed a deck, 
and a temporary hut is erected on their voyages. Every part is neatly 
put together, and well secured with twine and sennit made of cocoa- 
nut fibres ; no iron or metal of any kind is used in their construction ; 
they have two masts, supported by vines in place of ropes, and are 
enabled to spread large mat sails ; they steer with a large oar. After 
examining them, one can easily account for the long voyages which 
the natives have been sometimes able to accomplish. They find no 
difficulty in navigating them, and are now learning the use of the 
compass, but I am informed they still prefer sailing by the stars and 
sun, and seldom make any material error. Navigating as they do 
from island to island, they have not unfrequently been overtaken by 
storms, and some have been lost, while others have taken refuge or 



328 PAUMOTUGROUP. 

been wrecked upon other islands, and have been absent from their 
own several years. These gales they say come from the northwest 
They live here in small huts, which are rather an improvement upon 
those of the islanders we had already seen ; these dwellings are formed 
of poles, with a mat covering, and are carried with them on their 
voyages. 

Though scarcely able to protect them from the weather, yet these 
huts are clean, and lined with mats. Their persons seemed cleanly 
also, and they showed a great disposition to oblige us. Some atten- 
tion was paid to cultivation, as was evinced in the plantation and care 
of their cocoa-nut groves, as if wishing to provide for their future 
wants. The trees of the young plantations were all carefully staked 
around. Their food consists of dried fish, somewhat similar to a 
whiting, of which they had a good and plentiful supply, and also of the 
masi, a preparation of the bread-fruit, which they were keeping for 
their return voyage. 

This was the first island on which we observed the dawning of 
Christianity and civilization. The native missionaries, although they 
are yet ignorant of most of the duties enjoined upon a Christian, still 
do much good in preparing the way. Many learn to read, and some 
even to write, under their tuition ; yet they have many impediments 
thrown in the way of their efforts by the introduction of spirits by the 
whites. The old chief, and others, are much addicted to the use of it, 
arid the vessels resorting here for the pearl-fishery generally employ 
native divers, and pay them for the most part in rum or whiskey. We 
found here an Englishman who had belonged to a schooner engaged 
in the pearl-fishery. He told me he had been left there sick by his 
captain, and had been kindly treated during his stay of three months 
on the island. I was in hopes of obtaining some information from 
him, but he knew little or nothing of the language, and was, moreover, 
a stupid fellow. I gave him a passage to Tahiti, whither he was 
desirous of going, in the tender. 

Having some business on board, I invited the chief to go off with 
me : he first inquired if all the boats and men were to stay ; on my 
telling him they were not, he said he w r ould go on board if I would 
also take his wife, and her brother ; to which I consented. 

The chief had lost one hand, which he informed me had been 
bitten off by a shark w T hilst employed in diving for shells. We became 
great friends, and he thought it necessary to be at my side the whole 
time. He was an odd old man, and proved before we left him that he 
had become acquainted with some of the vices of civilization. 

We all embarked, soon reached the tender, and bore away for the 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



329 



ship, some three or four miles distant. The old one-handed chief 
now came up to me in a very mysterious manner, and untying a knot 
in the tail of his shirt (which was the only garment he wore besides 
his maro,) with no small difficulty, with one hand and his teeth, drew 
from it a small dirty piece of linen, tied up as a bag ; this he produced 
with great form, and evidently expected to astonish me. The contents 
proved to be a few small discoloured pearls ; these he begged me to 
accept, but I declined to receive them. We now reached the ship, 
and I ordered every thing to be shown them. Their surprise was 
very great. While on board, Messrs. Drayton and Agate succeeded 
in getting a most accurate portrait of him. 




PORTRAIT OF THE ONE-HANDED CHIEF. 



The natives were much amused with the ship, and surprised at the 
number of men on board. Many small presents were given them. 
When they were about taking their departure, the old chief com- 
plained of being quite sick, and his whole air and manner showed that 
he was much dissatisfied. The reason could not be imagined. The 
vessel had so little motion, it was thought it could not originate from 
sea-sickness. I therefore told the interpreter to inquire of him what 
was the matter. No answer was given for some time, but they con- 
sulted much among themselves in a low tone. The question was 
repeated, when the old chief's wife answered, " that I had not returned 
the present that had been offered me, and that the chief was not 
pleased ; for, according to their customs, the offering a present to me 
entitled him to receive one in return." As very many gifts had been 
made him already, this amused me not a little. On asking what it 
was they wanted, they at once signified whiskey, which they said was 

VOL. I. 3C2 42 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 

always given them when they went on board ship ; and the chief 
wanted some, for he was very sick. I accordingly ordered a bottle 
of water with a gill of whiskey in it to be given them, and the moment 
they smelt it their manner was changed ; they became all animation, 
and left the ship in great good humour. Mr. Waldron presented them 
with two sheep, of which they appeared very proud. The brother 
was quite an intelligent native ; he drew for me with a piece of chalk, 
on the deck, with considerable accuracy, all the islands he was 
acquainted with, giving their relative situations, and the native names ; 
that of the island we had seen the day before, as Tai-a-ra, and the 
one to which I had given the name of Vincennes Island, as Kawahe. 
He informed me of three small islands to the southward of Sacken, 
which were afterwards found by the Porpoise, during the cruise to this 
group on which I sent her in 1840 ; his knowledge of the western part 
of this group was quite surprising. 

On the next day we landed early, and passed the whole of it on 
shore, making observations. We found this was taboo-day, or their 
Sabbath, although it was Saturday with us; and all the natives 
seemed to be enjoying its quiet and repose. Few of them were to 
be seen, and they exhibited but little curiosity. No persuasion could 
induce them to employ themselves in getting fish and shells for us on 
this day. We obtained a full set of observations to determine the 
position, and also those for magnetic results. I place the entrance to 
the lagoon of Raraka in longitude 144 57' 40" W., latitude 16 06' 
25" S. The result of our day's observations gave the tides, at full and 
change of the moon, two o'clock, and three feet in height ; the shore, 
however, showed that there were at times very high tides. The natives 
said, when it was a round moon they had very high water. 

The entrance to the lagoon is on the north side of the island, about 
one-third of its length from the western end. It is a narrow passage, 
but will admit a small vessel. The current runs very strong out of 
the lagoon, so much so, that a boat cannot be pulled against it. The 
water in the entrance is from five to eight fathoms deep, but there is 
no advantage in entering, as the reef is quite as steep within. A small 
vessel may anchor on the outside, in ten fathoms, close to the shore. 
This island is nearly of the shape of an equilateral triangle, and its 
southern and eastern sides are formed by a submerged reef! It is 
fifteen miles on each side. 

The chief, on our second visit, was at first not altogether free from 
alarm at the sight of so many persons on shore ; but each one bringing 
himself, his wife, or people, some small present, soon reconciled him to 
their presence. Among the sailors he contrived to get some grog 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 331 

which intoxicated him, and he became of a most joyous temperament 
and full of affection. 

The way of catching fish practised here is quite amusing, and to it 
we owe the many specimens in that department of natural history 
which we obtained. The natives enjoy the sport amazingly, and both 
old and young are all in some way participators in it. Near the mouth 
of the lagoon are laid some coral stones, forming a rude and shallow 
pen, with a channel leading to it ; several natives proceed about one- 
third of a mile up the beach of the lagoon, where they enter the water, 
ranging themselves in a row, the tallest in the deepest water. They 
then move along down towards the pen, quite noiselessly at first, driving 
the fish before them. As they approach, they begin to splash and make 
a noise ; the clamour gradually increases, until it becomes one continued 
shout. They then contract themselves towards the pen, and the fish 
are seen jumping and dashing in all directions, as if very much 
alarmed, until they are forced to enter the pen, which is then closed 
with a few stones; afterwards the natives begin to spear them with great 
dexterity, and many were obtained. It was gratifying to witness the 
pleasure that both old and young appeared to take in this employment, 
and quite surprising that the fish do not escape over the low wall that 
surrounds them, only two or three inches above the water ; but they 
appear bewildered. The natives regretted that their success was so 
small, and imputed it to the water being too high. Some fresh water 
may be obtained here. The spring or pond is on the west side of the 
entrance. What the natives had in their cocoa-nut shells was sweet. 
It is, however, in no great abundance. 

Many specimens were here added to our collections. This was one 
of the islands in which I attempted to sound the lagoon. We began at 
the entrance, but found, within a very short distance, that the depth 
increased to thirty fathoms, the water being as blue as that of the 
ocean. So great a depth made it an undertaking far beyond what my 
time allowed. The sounding, in every case of any depth, was coral 
sand. 

Towards sunset we all embarked, and my leave-taking with the old 
chief was amusing, He with all his household and retinue, began to 
cry and whine over me, so that I was glad to escape from the display 
of so much friendship and parental affection. 

After reaching my ship, the Porpoise again joined us. She had 
been despatched early in the morning towards the eastern end of the 
island, to ascertain its extent, and fix its point in that direction ; not 
being able to accomplish this, Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold re- 
turned for further orders. This night we lay-to under the lee of 



332 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

Raraka ; but as it proved dark and squally, we stood to the northward, 
and about one o'clock we were surprised by seeing a signal from the 
Peacock, of danger close aboard, under the lee. I immediately tacked, 
and we soon cleared it. It proved to be the reef of Kawahe, over 
which the surf was breaking violently. The Peacock was so close to 
it, that Captain Hudson felt himself obliged to stand on his course 
rather than run the risk of missing stays, and continued to run along 
it for several miles, until, by its trending to the westward, he was 
enabled to clear the danger. 

On the 1st of September, at daylight, we found ourselves between 
the two islands, and the Peacock was out of sight; but two hours 
afterwards, she was again seen. I made signal to the Porpoise, and 
despatched her to examine the southeast side of Raraka, and thence to 
follow on to the westward as far as Krusenstern's Island, passing 
along the south side of Nairsa or Dean's Island. I then despatched 
the Peacock to the north end, and the tender to the south end of 
Kawahe, to secure meridian observations, whilst the Vincennes was 
employed in surveying its eastern shores. The wind was well adapted 
to our object, and at sunset we met off the north end, having completed 
our work. The current was tried, but we found none. The wind was 
fresh from the eastward, with occasional squalls. On the morning of 
the 2d, I determined to land the naturalists on the newly-found island, 
and for this purpose made signal to the tender to come within hail 
My ship was lying with her main-topsail to the mast, and forging 
ahead about a knot an hour. The tender came up on our lee quarter, 
and luffed in an awkward manner, directly across our bow. Her 
mast just escaped coming in contact with our jib-boom. I at once 
ordered all the sails of the Vincennes to be thrown aback, which 
stopping her way, prevented the dreadful accident of running the 
tender down. It was a most miraculous escape. 

We landed on Vincennes Island, and obtained the usual observations. 
Its south point is in latitute 15 59' 48" S., longitude 145 09' 30" W. 
It was found to be sixteen miles long by ten wide; its greatest diameter 
lying north and south. It is a narrow annular ridge, consisting of 
many blocks and slabs of coral, which give a clinky sound when 
struck. The coral shelf seemed to dip in one place at an angle of 15, 
forming a ridge, which was so low that the tide was beginning to flow 
over it before high water. There is an opening into the lagoon on the 
southwest side; on its southeastern part is a high clump of trees, 
looking like a knoll at a distance. The rest of the island is covered 
with a growth of bushes, ten or twelve feet high. The blocks and 
slabs above spoken of were very much water-worn, and were strewn 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 333 

about on the coral shelf. This, where I measured it, was five hundred 
feet wide, but it is not of equal width in all parts. Among the coral 
biocks was some sand, and in many of them were found large speci- 
mens of the chama and other shells. I was informed at Raraka, that 
there were a few inhabitants on Vincennes Island, but none were seen 
by us. They were said to live on the southern end of it. 

After finishing our observations, we returned on board, and made 
sail for Aratica, or CarlshofF Island. We arrived off it in time to 
secure its connexion with Vincennes Island : the distance was found, 
by patent log, and astronomical observations, to be twenty miles to 
the westward. We then stood on and off its eastern point for the 
night. The next morning at daylight we began its survey. The 
tender was despatched round its northern shore, whilst the Peacock 
and Vincennes took its southern side, running close along the reef, 
which continued submerged until near its southwestern end, which is 
twelve feet high and thickly wooded. On rounding the point, we saw 
a white flag waved by several natives on the beach. I immediately 
despatched a boat, with an officer, who brought off two of the prin- 
cipal natives, one of whom spoke a little English, and proved quite 
intelligent. One of these natives was tattooed only on one side, from 
the pubis to the sternum, bounded by broad blue bands, which divided 
and terminated under each ear. 




NATIVE OF PAUMOTU GROUP. 



He reported that there were about twenty natives on the island, 
and that they had frequent intercourse with vessels that had visited 
them. They informed me that water was to be had on the island. 
Finding ourselves short of this necessary article, I despatched several 
boats to procure it. Aratica is eight miles in length by five in 
breadth. 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



All the naturalists were sent on shore, with as many of the officers 
as could be spared from duty. We landed near what the natives 
called their village. This consisted of one or two huts, built in a grove 
of large trees, consisting principally of Pisonias, fifty or sixty feet in 
height. Some of these had been felled (with a small hatchet, of which 
they possessed only one,) to build canoes. It is principally used for 
out-riggers, being light and durable, and well adapted for that purpose. 
We found two canoes partly dug out. The woods were quite thick 
and forest-like. The inhabitants of the village consisted of four men, 
two women, a dog, and a cat ; the remainder of the inhabitants live on 
the northeast side. The lagoon abounds with fish, and has several 
small coral knolls in it, though none with much vegetation on them. 
This is the most elevated of the low coral islands we had yet met 
with. 

It has a deep entrance into its lagoon, on the west side. 

The same formation presents itself here, of three distinct shelves : 
the one submerged, narrow, and shelving rapidly, the other broad, 
level, and covered at high water, but quite bare at low, and having 
the same longitudinal cracks in it. On the upper one is the usual 
accumulation of coral debris and sand, on which the vegetation 
grows. 

On the lagoon side the beach slopes gradually, and there is seldom 
found any decided break, from which to judge of the thickness of the 
coral shelf. On the upper shelf, some large compact coral blocks are 
found. One of these, which I measured, was ten by twenty feet. It 
rested upon two small fragments, the remainder having been gradually 
worn away by the washing of the sea ; it seemed, in fact, to be a part 
of that forming the second or upper shelf of coral. The following 
wood-cut comprises several that were seen on the coral islands, and 
will give an idea of their shapes. The highest point of the island was 
twelve feet above low-water mark. 




CORAL BLOCKS. 

The fresh water is procured from a large pool, about fifty feet in 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 335 

diameter, and of considerable depth ; it is about half a mile from the 
village, to the north, and situated within the line of woods. Watering 
is very troublesome and fatiguing when the boats are outside, and it is 
necessary to transport it a long distance ; but having leathern watering- 
bags, it was less difficult for us. By entering the lagoon through the 
opening, the boats could approach very near the pool. There would 
be some difficulty in passing into it when the tide is setting out. It 
was reported that there was enough water to supply the squadron. 
The water was thought by some to be a little brackish, but it was 
found quite potable. 

Many botanical specimens were obtained here, similar to those 
collected on the other islands ; also several birds, a harmless scorpion, 
and lizards, the same as found on the other islands. 

The reefs were covered with Holuthuria and some Biche-de-mar, 
but none of the valuable kinds ; we also obtained a large number of 
shells. The fish here are said to be poisonous ; but the natives, we 
understood, eat some of the kinds, so that the remark does not apply 
to the whole. The position of the west point of the island was deter- 
mined to be in longitude 145 39' 46" W., and latitude 15 26' S. 

Having obtained all the water we could in the afternoon, amounting 
to three hundred and ninety gallons, I directed the course of the 
squadron to the northward and eastward, towards King George's 
Group, having fresh breezes from the east-northeast. The next day 
at noon, the most southern island was in sight, and finding the ships 
could not make it without much loss of time, I despatched the tender 
to the group, with orders to circumnavigate and examine the islands, 
and then to follow us to Tahiti ; whilst the Vincennes and Peacock 
bore away to the westward, for the doubtful island of Waterlandt 
At 5 p. M. it was discovered from the masthead, and at six from the 
fore-yard, bearing northwest-by-north. 

We stood on and off all night, and at daylight again made the land ; 
we reached its north point at four o'clock p. M., when the Peacock was 
ordered to take the east, whilst the Vincennes took the west side; we 
continued the survey until dark, when we took the necessary angles 
to resume the work in the morning. Many natives were seen, and 
smoke was rising in several places. On the 6th of September, we 
continued our surveying operations, and shortly afterwards joined the 
Peacock, Captain Hudson having completed his side of the island. 
The Peacock now made the signal of land to the westward. Wishing 
to land and make an examination of this island, as well as to have 
communication with the natives, the boats were lowered, and the 
naturalists from both vessels, and many officers, landed, and rambled 



336 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

over the western part of the island for several hours. The few natives 
were very friendly, and informed us that the native name of the island 
was Manhii. This is, in all probability, the Waterlandt of Schouten 
and Le Maire, and also Wilson's Island of the Duff. There is a large 
and deep entrance in the southeast end into the lagoon of Manhii 
Island, in which, the natives informed me, vessels had often anchored, 
whilst engaged in the pearl-fishery. Many cocoa-nut trees were seen 
on this island, and fresh water is to be procured from a pool on the 
southwest side. The island at this end is upwards of half a mile wide 
to the lagoon ; the coral reef is here quite broad. Soundings are not to 
be had with one hundred fathoms of line, fifty feet from the edge of it. 

There were some small compact coral rocks here and there, but no 
regular upper or second shelf ; the lower coral shelf was three hundred 
feet in width, and had many long longitudinal cracks, from six to eight 
inches wide, resembling those seen in ice-fields. In some places these 
were quite deep, and in the chasms numerous shells of the chama 
species presented to our view their beautiful colours. Some of the 
gentlemen reported that they found a stone sarcophagus, or something 
much resembling one. We made a set of magnetic observations on 
this island, and many shells, plants, &c., were procured. 

To our surprise, one of the men of the Peacock, by the name of 
Penny, here deserted from the boats. He had been formerly much 
among the islands, engaged in pearl-fishing, and spoke the language 
well. Strict search was made for him, until the officer in charge of 
the boats became satisfied that he had no intention of returning. On 
hearing of it, I was convinced that he had chosen this opportunity to 
leave us, particularly as he must have been aware that there is very 
frequent communication with Tahiti. The chief of this island informed 
us that he was a relative of the one-handed chief of Raraka. 

The east end of the island lies in latitude 14 26' 22" S., longitude 
146 04' 20" W. 

Several of us had our feet severely blistered, from going barefoot on 
the reefs, and were made very uncomfortable from this cause. After 
returning on board, we bore away to the other island, to which the 
natives gave the name of Ahii. I have also added that of Peacock 
Island, to mark that its correct position was first established by the 
Expedition. It lies west three-fourths north per compass from Manhii, 
and was found by the patent log to be eight and six-tenths miles from 
reef to reef. On coming up with it, the Yincennes and Peacock took 
opposite sides, and surveyed it ; and the next morning parties landed. 
I was hardly able to move, on account of my feet, but the desire of 
getting observations of the eclipse, urged me to make the attempt ; I 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 337 

only succeeded in getting the last limb and good observations for time. 
After four o'clock, we returned on board. This island is not inhabited, 
and has only a small boat-entrance into its lagoon, on the west side. 
The coral belt is similar to that last described ; it was found to be 
upwards of half a mile in width, and was covered with the same kind 
of vegetation as the last, excepting cocoa-nut trees, of which none were 
found on the island. The lagoon is quite shallow. A favourite fish 
with the natives is found in it, and at certain seasons they visit the 
island for the purpose of catching them. The coral shelf varied from 
two to five hundred feet in breadth. 

Being desirous of making the examination of as many of the coral 
islands as possible, I now despatched the Peacock to the Arutua or 
Rurick Islands, with directions to examine them, and then to proceed 
along the south side of Dean's Island, whilst, in the Vincennes, I steered 
for the north side of the latter, to pass along it. We then parted 
company, and Dean's Island was made by us the next morning. After 
establishing our position, we ran along the northern shore, and reached 
its western point at 4 p. M. Off this point we obtained sights for our 
chronometers, which put it in longitude 147 58' 34" W., latitude 15 
05' 15" S. During the day we passed an entrance into its lagoon, and 
some natives came off from a small village, in two canoes, to visit us. 
They acknowledged themselves subjects of Queen Pomare of Tahiti, 
and were very desirous we should land. They brought off a few shells, 
and told us they had many fowls, pigs, taro, &c. There are several 
islets in the lagoon covered with trees. Vast numbers of large blocks 
were seen lying on its reef. The shore-reef is not more than two 
hundred feet wide, and is composed of only one shelf. The current was 
tried, but none was found. We had the wind very fresh from east-by- 
north all day. When off the western point we discovered Krusen- 
stern's Island to the west, and hauled up to pass between it and Nairsa. 
The passage was found to be twelve and two-thirds miles wide, and 
free from all danger. In the evening I stood for Metia Island, to the 
southward. Nairsa or Dean's Island was found to be sixty-six miles 
in length. 

On the morning of the 9th of September we were in sight of Metia 
or Aurora Island, the north end of which is in latitude 15 49' 35" S., 
longitude 148 13' 15" W. It was totally different in appearance 
from those we had met with, though evidently of the same formation. 
It was a coral island uplifted, exposing its formation distinctly, and as 
such was very interesting. On approaching its eastern end, I sounded 
at about one hundred and fifty feet from its perpendicular cliff, and 
found no bottom with one hundred and fifty fathoms of line. The 

VOL. I. 2D 43 



338 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 




cliff appeared worn into caverns. We landed close in its neighbour- 
hood, and on measuring its height, it proved to be two hundred and 
fifty feet. The coral shelf was found to be five hundred feet in width, 
extending on the north side of the island, and gradually diminishing in 
width until it loses itself at the western end. This island has all the 
features that one would naturally be led to expect from a low island 
uplifted. The north, east, and west sides present a perpendicular cliff 
or wall, but this character does not prevail on the south side, although 
it has some high knolls. The north ridge is nearly level, and there is 
a break through it (by which we ascended to its top) very much like 
the opening of a lagoon. The north side is concave, and there is 
found within the indentations between its two points, an extensive 
inclined plane, composed of large masses of limestone and vegetable 
mould, on which the village is situated, in a luxuriant grove of bread- 
fruit, cocoa-nut, pandanus, and other trees, similar to those already 
spoken of, as seen on the other islands. There were several copious 
springs, but the natives informed me that there were no running streams 
on the island. 

The natives all seemed delighted to see us, crowding around my 
boat, and assisting to haul it up ; men, women, and children flocked 
around us ; all the population were gathered, to the number of about three 
hundred and fifty. We were at once invited to the chief's and native 
missionary's house, situated in the centre of the village. The house 
was constructed of the bread-fruit wood, for a frame, and reeds of the 
wild sugar-cane for the uprights, with interstices for the passage of 
the air, and lining of mats to exclude it when required. It was well 
thatched, and the whole had a cool and comfortable appearance. 
Cocoa-nuts were soon brought us, and all our questions were answered 
with an alacrity and pleasure that showed their strong desire to oblige 
and assist us. 

The natives had gathered in crowds around the door to look at us. 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 

They were a fine-looking race, though forming rather a motley group. 
The manner of carrying their children particularly attracted our 
notice; it had a pleasing effect. We found it afterwards practised 
throughout Polynesia. Many questions were put to me, and now and 
then I could hear a voice saying, " Me ship, captain ; me go Tahiti." 
All were more or less clothed in the cast-off garments of whites, and not 
very particular whether they possessed one, two, or parts of garments, 
as long as it appeared different from their own tapa, and of foreign 
fashion. This appeared more ridiculous, for on our first landing few 
were to be seen except in their native dresses, but shortly afterwards 
one might have believed the contents of all the old clothes shops of one 




MODE OF CARRYING CHILDREN. 



of our cities had been distributed among them: storm pea-jackets, 
light summer pantaloons, vests, capes of overcoats, bell-crowned hats, 
checked and red flannel shirts, most of which were torn or worn 
threadbare in many places; whilst the women had bedecked them- 
selves with cocoa-nut oil and turmeric, giving them a bright orange 
cast. Their heads were adorned with flowers, and they evidently 
considered themselves in their holiday attire. They had an abundance 
of pigs and poultry. The rich soil on the upper and interior part of 
the island produced taro (Arum esculentum), sweet-potatoes (Convol- 
vulus batatas), melons, yams, and some tobacco, while the bread-fruit 
and cocoa-nuts were hanging in clusters over their dwellings. They 
had also an abundance of crabs and fish ; on our landing we found 



340 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

them devouring the latter, with great gusto, raw, but the former they 
roasted. Here we again saw printed copies of several portions of the 
Scriptures, and found that many of them could read and write well. 
No spears, clubs, or warlike instruments were to be seen, and when I 
asked for them as matters of curiosity, they said they had no arms 
except two muskets, which were pointed out to me, hanging up under 
the eaves of the house. The native missionary, a man about fifty 
years of age, told me that in times past they had " all war," but now 
all was peace. I was desirous of knowing to what he imputed the 
change, and he very readily answered, " Mittionari, mai-tai, mai-tai," 
(missionary, good, good). They acknowledge the authority of Pomare 
of Tahiti. Dr. Pickering, who was in company with me, came to 
propose that we should ascend the bluff, which the chief, being made 
acquainted with, readily gave his consent to, and sent for two men to 
accompany us. We ascended through the narrow break, twenty to 
thirty feet wide : the natives had improved the path up by placing the 
clinky slabs of compact coral, as a rude pavement, and for steps, in 
order to make the communication more easy to their planting grounds. 
On reaching the top, we found ourselves in a wood, and wishing to 
get a view of the interior, we made for the east end, passing occa- 
sionally over beds of clinky coral, thrown and scattered in all 
directions. After a walk of more than a mile, we came to an open 
space, from which we had a clear view of the interior of the island, 
which was found to be densely covered with trees. The general 
shape, as far as it could be seen, was pan-like, or in the form of a dry 
lagoon. 

This island was particularly interesting, from its combining both 
high and low vegetation ; and a very considerable collection of plants 
was obtained. Several pigeons were seen, two of which we obtained ; 
they were of a large species of Columba oceanica, that inhabits these 
groups. We crossed many large fissures, running in a line with the 
cliff, some of them two or three feet wide, in which trees of some size 
were growing. 

As far as our observations went, the upper portion of this island is 
composed of limestone or compact coral rock ; the cliff, on its eastern 
side, where we first landed, appears stratified, horizontally, in beds of 
ten to twelve feet in thickness, of a sort of conglomerate, composed of 
shells, coral, and pieces of compact rock, cemented together by a cal- 
careous deposit. The under part of this bed had been much worn by 
the sea ; the rich soil was composed of vegetable matter and decom- 
posed limestone. The slabs that were lying loose upon the surface had 
a clinky or metallic sound when struck. The island has unequivocal 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 34J 

marks of having been uplifted at different periods ; the cliff, at two 
different heights, appears to have suffered abrasion by the sea. Stalag- 
mites were observed under the cliffs, and some stalactitic columns, 
fourteen feet high by six in diameter. On coming towards the village, 
we saw many natives returning with loads of taro, &c., which they had 
been sent to gather. On our return, we were taken again to the chiefs 
house, and entertained with cocoa-nuts, baked taro, and bread-fruit, 
which had been cooked during our absence. At the boat we found 
more articles for purchase than we had the means to pay for, or the 
boat could carry ; and every one seemed desirous of securing the sale 
of his fruits and vegetables. Notwithstanding the over-supply, the 
prices were I thought rather enhanced than lowered, and there was an 
evident feeling among the crowd that we had not been so liberal in 
buying as we ought to have been. I was glad to get off, in order to be 
freed from the flies, which are in incredible numbers in all the inhabited 
islands, and a great nuisance. I left the island under the impression 
this little community was a happy and contented one. At about five 
o'clock, we joined the ship, some distance to the southward of the 
island ; all the surveying boats having returned, we bore away for 
Tahiti, at which island we arrived on the 10th. At 5 p. M., Lieutenant- 
Commandant Ringgold boarded us, and brought off Jim, the pilot ; he 
reported all well on board the Porpoise. At sunset, we anchored in 
Matavai Bay. I hastened to ascertain the correctness of our chrono- 
meters, and the next day landed the instruments on Point Venus, and 
took observations. They gave for its longitude 149 31' 13-5" W. 
Krusenstern makes it 149 29' 17" W. 

Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold, in the Porpoise, after parting 
company on the 1st of September, proceeded to the south side of 
Raraka, in fulfilment of his instructions. He found the whole southern 
part of it a bare reef, with the surf breaking violently over it. When 
off the south point, he made the isle of Katiu or Sacken to the south, 
and that of Makima to the east, and connected them ; after which he 
proceeded to the westward, passing Aratica (Carlshoff), and thence to 
Nairsa or Dean's Island, which he made on the 5th; fixed its western 
end, passed along its south to its western side, and thence to Krusen- 
stern's Island, to the westward, which he circumnavigated ; from thence 
went direct to Tahiti, anchored in Papieti Harbour on the 9th, and the 
next day proceeded to Matavai Bay, the place of rendezvous. 

On the 12th, the Peacock arrived, having passed to the Rurick 
Islands or Arutua, the north end of which lies in latitude 15 15' 00" 
S., longitude 146 51' 00" W. A landing was attempted at several 
places in the boats. One of them succeeded near a cocoa-nut grove, 

2D2 



342 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

but the two that went to land at the village, found the surf too high to 
attempt it. 

The north shore of Arutua Island was surveyed, when they bore 
away, and connected it with Nairsa or Dean's Island, along which 
they ran the whole length of its south side by daylight. The last 
named island is for the most part a washed reef, with no opening. 
The compact coral blocks showed themselves here more conspicu- 
ously and in greater numbers than before seen. 

The following sketch, by Mr. Agate, will illustrate their appearance. 



, , ^^^s=itt^ 




After making the west end of Nairsa, Captain Hudson sighted 
Krusenstern's Island, and then stood for Metia Island, to the south- 
ward, on which the officers landed the next day on its western side. 
Their examination confirmed the facts already given, relative to its 
appearance. 

Mr. Dana found some recent shells embedded in the limestone, but 
they had lost their texture. 

On this island, the magnetic observations were made, with the 
Peacock's instruments. Captain Hudson also sounded with the deep- 
sea thermometer, when within a mile of the island, in six hundred 
fathoms ; the temperature at the surface of the water was 80j, that 
below, 44^. The next day they made Tetuaroa, to the northward of 
Tahiti, formerly celebrated as the resort of the Tahitians, for the 
purpose of recovering from the bodily diseases brought on by their 
debaucheries, &c. It is a low island, about six miles long, with a few 
trees upon it, and a reef off its southern end, extending half a mile. It 
is plainly to be seen from the high ridges of Tahiti. 

On the 14th, the Flying-Fish arrived. She had visited and sur- 
veyed King George's Group, which appeared well inhabited, and have 
entrances to their lagoons on the west side. The native name of the 
two islands, is Tiokea and Oura. The southwest end of Tiokea is in 
latitude 14 31' 12" S., longitude 145 09' 30" W. ; Oura bears 
S. 68 W., distant four and a half miles. Then the tender passed to 
Manhii and Ahii, round the north side of Nairsa, or Dean's Island, to 
Tahiti. 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 

Little appears to be known of the history of the Paumotu Islands, or 
their inhabitants. At Tahiti I obtained some information from one who 
had been much among the group, and believe that it is as authentic as 
can be obtained, and may be relied on. 

The Island of Anaa, or Chain Island, has been the principal seat of 
power, the natives of which had frequently waged war on the others, 
and succeeded in conquering all to the west of Hau or Bow Island, 
with which they have frequently fought. 

In the reign of the first Pomare, under Tomatiti, they even attempted 
the conquest of Tahiti, and succeeded in overcoming the small peninsula 
of Taiarabu. The story is, that they were about to continue their 
attack on the larger island, when Tomatiti received a written letter 
from Pomare, which caused hostilities to be suspended; and after 
further negotiation, finally led to Tomatiti's retiring from the island 
with a large present of hogs, tapa, &c. Notwithstanding this, the 
Chain Islanders remained nominally under the government of Tahiti, 
and now acknowledge their dependence on it. 

Anaa, or Chain Island, is one of the smallest, yet it is the most 
thickly-peopled island of the whole group. It is said to contain five 
thousand inhabitants, which large number is accounted for by the con- 
quest of the other islands, and taking their inhabitants off as captives. 
In the list of the islands and their population, it will be seen how few 
remain on the other islands in comparison with this number. The 
whole island is one cocoa-nut grove, and the principal food is fish and 
cocoa-nuts. The former are caught in large quantities in the lagoon. 
A great change has been brought about in the character of these 
islanders within the last twenty-five years, during which the Tahitian 
missionaries have been established at Anaa. Before this period, the 
inhabitants were cannibals. Since the residence of the missionaries, 
they have imbibed better tastes ; and the Christian influence has also 
made them more peaceful. This change was first evinced by the treat- 
ment of their captives, whom they allowed to return, if they chose, to 
their own island ; but very many of them had married at Anaa, and 
became permanent residents there, and few have taken advantage of 
the permission to return. Notwithstanding the numerous population, 
they are said to have an abundance of food. The people of Anaa still 
consider the inhabitants of the eastern islands as cannibals ; but their 
statement in this respect is little to be depended upon, for they have no 
communication whatever with those whom they class under this deno- 
mination, seldom extending themselves beyond Hau or Bow Island. 

The Paumotuans are considered more warlike than the Tahitians, 
for which reason Pomare I. kept a body-guard of them in preference 



344 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

to his own subjects. They have the reputation of being an honest and 
trustworthy race. 

These islanders are certainly not all from the same stock, and those 
of the Disappointment Group, whom we were much struck with at the 
time of our visit, in particular differ from the others. Since we have 
seen all the different Polynesian groups, these appear, however extra- 
ordinary it may be, to resemble the Feejee Islanders more than any 
other. 

By all accounts, they speak a different dialect from that of the 
Tahitian nation. The difference is, however, not great, for I was told 
that it required but a few weeks for any of the natives to acquire it 
Mr. Hale met several Paumotuans at Matavai Bay, and among them 
he found one by the name of Tuoni, who confirmed the accounts I have 
detailed above. 

The population of this group I have nowhere seen given ; I have 
therefore endeavoured to obtain the most satisfactory information in 
relation to it: the whole amounts, in round numbers, to about ten 
thousand, as follows : 

Anaa 5,000 

Manhii . . 100 

Aratica 60 

Nairsa 70 

Metia 350 

Rurick 200 

King George's 700 

Vincennes 

Raraka 

Wytoohee 

Otooho 

Bow Island 

Manga Reva, or Gambler Island 

Serle Island 

Clermont de Tonnerre .... 



Rest of the group 




10,000 



On the map of this group it will be seen to where the line of canni- 
balism extends, according to native accounts. It may be said to divide 
them into two divisions, the Christians and Heathens, or perhaps, more 
properly, the eastern and western ; the whole comprise sixty-five islands. 
Although there is little doubt that the natives of this group have been 
addicted to this horrible barbarity, yet it is believed that it is not now 
practised. 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



345 



The advancement of civilization by their intercourse with the whites, 
together with the missionary influence, will put an end to this practice, 
and promote peace among all the islanders of the group; not only 
ameliorating the condition of the natives, but protecting the unfortu- 
nate mariner who may be wrecked within this dangerous archipelago. 

From what has been said of the Paumotu Group, it is evident it can 
afford but few advantages for commercial enterprise ; the only article 
which of late years has been sought for among the islands, is the pearl 
oyster-shell, of which considerable quantities have been obtained. The 
return will be noticed under the commerce of Tahiti, of which it 
forms a part. The vessels engaged in the fishery belong to foreigners, 
who reside at Tahiti. The mode of taking the oysters is by natives, 
who are employed as divers, for a very small compensation. It is 
much to be regretted, that the traders should have recourse to the 
demoralizing effects of spirits, in stimulating their exertions. 

The natives themselves carry on a small trade in their double 
canoes, which it will be seen by the wood-cut below, have already 
undergone some modifications from that already given on a previous 
page, as formerly in use. These are principally the Chain Islanders, 
who supply themselves at Tahiti with various small articles, in ex- 
change for their cocoa-nut oil and dried fish. 




TRADING DOUBLE CANOE. 



VOL. I. 



44 



APPENDIX. 



CONTENTS. 



I. STATEMENT IN RELATION TO LIEUTENANT HUDSON 351 

II. LETTER FROM THE HON. JOEL R. POINSETT 351 

III. LETTER FROM LIEUTENANT HUDSON 352 

IV. NAVY GENERAL ORDER 353 

V. MEMORANDUM FOR THE COMMANDER OF THE EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 

THE SOUTH SEAS 354 

VI. LETTERS TO THE HON. JAMES K. PAULD1NG, AND COMMODORE L. WARRING- 
TON 359 

VII. ORDERS TO THE RELIEF 361 

Vm. GENERAL ORDER, NO. 1 361 

IX. ORDERS RESPECTING THE RECEIPT, SAFE KEEPING, AND EXPENDITURE OF 

PROVISIONS, STORES, ETC 368 

X. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS RELATIVE TO OBSERVATIONS 363 

XI. INSTRUCTIONS, PORTION OF, PROMULGATED TO OFFICERS. 364 

XII. GENERAL ORDER RELATIVE TO JOURNALS 367 

XIH. LETTER TO LIEUTENANT CRAVEN EXPLANATORY OF GENERAL ORDER 

RELATIVE TO JOURNALS 367 

XIV. ORDER TO PURSERS, AND LETTER TO SECRETARY OF THE NAVY RELATIVE 

TO MARINES' BOUNTY 369 

XV. LETTER TO THE HON. JAMES K. PAULDING, AND REPORT FROM LIEUTE- 
NANT HUDSON RELATIVE TO DEFECTS OF PEACOCK 370 

XVI. METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS UNDER THE EdUATOR 373 

XVII. METEOROLOGIC A L OBSERVATIONS AT RIO JANEIRO 375 

XVIII. MEMORANDUM OF PASSAGES FROM THE UNITED STATES TO RIO JANEIRO 

FOR EIGHT YEARS 379 

XIX. ORDERS RELATIVE TO PERSONAL APPEARANCE, SCIENTIFIC DUTIES, ETC. 380 
2E (349) 



350 CONTENTS. 

XX. ORDERS TO CAPTAIN HUDSON FOR SURVEY, ETC 384 

XXL POPULATION OF BRAZIL 385 

XXII. STATEMENT OF THE EXPORTS OF THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS OF BRAZIL 

DURING THE YEAR 1838 386 

XXIII. RESULT OF THE MEASUREMENT OF A BASE LINE BY SOUND BETWEEN 

CAPE FRIO LIGHT-HOUSE AND ENX ADOS ISLAND 387 

XXIV. SAILING INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE RELIEF, PEACOCK, PORPOISE, ETC.... 391 
XXV. ORDERS TO CAPTAIN HUDSON FOR ANTARCTIC CRUISE 394 

XXVI. ORDERS TO LIEUTENANT R. E. JOHNSON FOR ANTARCTIC CRUISE. 397 

XXVII. ORDERS TO LIEUTENANT W. M. WALKER FOR ANTARCTIC CRUISE 398 

XXVIII. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR BOAT DUTY, SURVEYING, ETC 400 

XXIV. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE VINCENNES 402 

XXX. ORDERS TO LIEUTENANT-COMMANDANT LONG 404 

XXXI. CAPTAIN HUDSON'S AND LIEUTENANT WALKER'S REPORTS 405 

XXXII. ORDER TO SEA-GULL 415 

XXXIH. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS IN RELATION TO THE COLLECTION AND PRE- 
SERVATION OF SPECIMENS, SHELLS, ETC 415 

XXXIV. ORDERS TO LIEUTENANT CRAVEN, AND PAPERS RELATIVE TO HIM 418 

XXXV. GENERAL ORDER RELATIVE TO GOOD CONDUCT OF CREW 420 

XXXVL ORDER TO LIEUTENANT PINKNEY 420 

XXXVII. GENERAL ORDER RELATIVE TO COURT OF INQUIRY 421 

XXXVIII. LETTER FROM OFFICERS OF THE EXPEDITION, AND GENERAL ORDER... 422 

XXXIX. ORDERS TO SQUADRON 423 

XL. ORDERS TO RELIEF 425 

XLI. ORDERS FOR OBSERVATIONS, MODE OF SURVEYING CORAL ISLANDS, ETC. 427 

XLII. LETTER RELATIVE TO THE WANT OF CONFORMITY TO ORDERS 432 

XLIII. ORDER RELATIVE TO CORAL SPECIMENS ... 433 

XLIV. ORDERS TO PORPOISE 433 

XLV. ORDERS TO TENDER FLYING-FISH 434 



APPENDIX. 



i. 



EXPLORING EXPEDITION, UNDER LIEUTENANT WILKES. 

LIEUTENANT HUDSON received orders, while first lieutenant of the 
navy-yard, New York, to proceed to Washington. On his arrival, he 
was told by the Secretary of the Navy, the Hon. Mahlon Dickerson, 
that he had been sent for to go out in the Exploring Expedition, and 
was directed to see Mr. Poinsett, then Secretary of War, under whose 
direction these arrangements had been placed. After an interview 
with the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, and the Presi- 
dent of the United States, Lieutenant Hudson declined going out in 
the Expedition, under Lieutenant Wilkes, in consequence of his rank, 
and the military character of the Expedition. Lieutenant Hudson left 
Washington, returned to New York, and resumed his duties as first 
lieutenant of the navy-yard, under Commodore Ridgely. 

' After a short period the following communication was received from 
the Hon. Joel R. Poinsett. 



II. 

[Copy.] 

Washington, June 5th, 1838. 
LIEUTENANT HUDSON, U. S. NAVY, 

Sir, The anxiety I feel, in common with the whole country, for 
the success of the Exploring Expedition, and the high estimate I have 
formed, from the testimony of your brother officers, of your character 
and abilities, render me exceedingly desirous of securing your services 

(351) 



352 APPENDIX. 

as its second officer. Not only is it of great importance that the 
commander should have as his second in command, an officer in 
whose zeal and efficient co-operation he can rely, but the government 
desires the choice should fall on one possessing the necessary qualifi- 
cations in case of an accident to that officer, to carry out the objects 
of the Expedition, and to conduct it in safety to our own shores. With 
these views and wishes, I have seen, with regret, that a mere matter 
of etiquette prevents you from engaging in a service for which you 
are so well fitted. 

Regarding as I do the practice of giving officers temporary appoint- 
ments as illegal, and prejudicial to the service, I could not recommend 
to the President to sanction its continuance for three years longer, 
by granting such appointment to the officers of the Expedition. 

It does not, however, appear to me, that this decision ought to 
present an obstacle to your accepting a command under Lieutenant 
Wilkes, whom you rank by what must be considered an imaginary 
line. 

If the Expedition were of a military character, I would not attempt 
to combat your scruples ; but it is purely civil, and even should a war 
break out between the United States and any naval power, your path 
upon the ocean would be peaceful. 

It is the opinion of the President, as well as my own, that an Expe- 
dition, undertaken to promote science, and extend the bounds of human 
knowledge, ought to command the services of all who can contribute 
to its success, in whatever station it may be thought most advantageous 
to place them ; and I venture to hope, that waiving all claim to superior 
rank, you will accept the command now tendered you. 

I am, sir, respectfully yours, 

(Signed) J. R. POINSETT. 



III. 

AFTER Captain Hudson was assured that a General Order would be 
published, divesting the Expedition of its military character, and con- 
sulting Commodore Ridgely, well known in the service for his high 
sense of honour, and thorough knowledge on all points of etiquette and 
duty, and for whose judgment he had great respect, whose decided 
opinion and advice was, that it was his duty, as an officer of the 
government, under the circumstances of the case, to accept the com- 
mand and go out in the Expedition, Captain Hudson sent the following 
acceptance. 



APPENDIX. 353 

U. S. Navy- Yard, 

New York, June 16th, 1838. 
SIR, 

The peculiarly delicate situation in which I felt myself placed in 
relation to Lieutenant Wilkes, must be my excuse for the delay 
which has occurred in replying to your communication of the 5th 
instant, proffering to me the situation of second in command of the 
Exploring Expedition. 

The coincidence of opinion between the President and yourself in 
relation to its character in a military point of view, the claims of the 
nation upon the services of its officers, with the very flattering sugges- 
tion contained in your letter, have outweighed my scruples. I, there- 
fore, from a sense of duty, accept the command, and tender my best 
services to promote the objects of the Expedition, and advance the 
honour of our common country. 

Very respectfully, yours, 

(Signed) WM. L. HUDSON. 
To the HON. JOEL R. POINSETT, 

Secretary of War. 



The following order was issued : 

IV. 

NAVY GENERAL ORDER. 

THE armament of the Exploring Expedition, being adapted merely 
for its necessary defence while engaged in the examination and 
survey of the Southern Ocean, against any attempts to disturb its 
operations by the savage and warlike inhabitants of those islands ; 
and the objects which it is destined to promote being altogether scien- 
tific and useful, intended for the benefit equally of the United States, 
and of all commercial nations of the world; it is considered to be 
entirely divested of all military character, that even in the event of the 
country being involved in a war, before the return of the squadron, 
its path upon the ocean will be peaceful, and its pursuits respected 
by all belligerents. The President has, therefore, thought proper, in 
assigning officers to the command of this squadron, to depart from 
the usual custom of selecting them from the senior ranks of the navy 
and according to their respective grades in the service; and has 
appointed Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, first officer, to command the 
Exploring Expedition, and Lieutenant William L. Hudson to command 

VOL. I. 2E2 45 



354 APPENDIX. 

the ship Peacock, and to be second officer of said squadron, and take 
command thereof, in the event of the death of the first officer, or his 
disability, from accident or sickness, to conduct the operations of the 
Expedition. 

(Signed) MAHLON DICKERSON, 

Secretary of the Navy. 
Navy Department, June 22d, 1838. 



V. 



MEMORANDUM FOR THE COMMANDER OF THE EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE THE 
SOUTH SEAS, BY ADMIRAL KRUSENSTERN. 

NOTE. The asterisk after the number of some of these articles, denotes that the 
islands, &c., have been examined by the Expedition. 

I. I HAVE pointed out, in the supplementary volume of my Hydro- 
graphical Memoirs, (pages 19, 96, and 113,) several islands, the 
existence of which does not appear to be subject to any doubt, but of 
which the position is not determined with the best precision. It is 
much to be wished that all such islands were to be visited, and their 
position verified. With respect to the islands of rather doubtful 
existence, the names of which I have given, (pages 156-165, supple- 
ment,) there is certainly no other method of ascertaining their ex- 
istence than to search for them, and to determine, with the greatest 
precision, the latitudes and longitudes of such as are found. A great 
number of these imaginary islands will then, of course, vanish from 
the charts. 

II. Captain Bligh discovered, in the year 1789, to the northward of 
the New Hebrides, a group of islands, which he named Banks's 
Islands ; and Captain Wilson, another cluster of islands, to the north- 
ward of the Santa Cruz Islands, named by him Duff's Group. Neither 
these nor the Banks's Islands having been since seen, it would be well 
to make a new survey of them. 

III. Islands of Santa Cruz. In my Memoir, belonging to the chart 
of these islands, I have discussed the situation of Carteret's Swallow 
Island, and expressed my belief that the islands seen by Captain Wilson 
in 1797 are the same as Swallow Island. Captain Freycinet is of the 
same opinion, and, by a new survey of Wilson's Island, confirmed this 
hypothesis. There remains, then, no doubt that Byron's Swallow 
Island does not exist ; but, as it still continues to be delineated on some 



APPENDIX. 355 

of the latest charts, it would be well that its non-existence should be 
equally proved by the American Expedition. 

IV. The Solomon Islands. These islands have partly been visited 
by D'Urville and Shortland, partly by D'Entrecasteaux ; and several 
English ships have at different times sailed through them ; but a 
complete survey of all the islands composing this great archipelago is 
still wanting. It is indeed very singular that, of all the navigators who 
have lately visited the Pacific Ocean, none have ever attempted any 
thing like a systematic survey of these islands, with the exception of 
D'Entrecasteaux, who, at least, sailed along the southern islands, from 
east to west, and thus greatly improved the hydrography of them. I 
have published, in the year 1827, a chart of these islands, (Carte Sys- 
tematique de 1'Archipel des Isles Salomon.) Having collected all the 
materials that were to be had at that time, many of them in apparent 
contradiction to each other, I endeavoured to reconcile them, and to 
delineate the islands belonging to this archipelago, to the best of my 
judgment. (An account of my proceedings will be found in the 
Memoir accompanying my chart.) By the first survey of these 
islands, it will be seen whether some of my combinations have been 
well founded or not. The Solomon Islands being the greatest archi- 
pelago in the Pacific Ocean, and the least known, deserve, no doubt, 
to be as completely surveyed as the Society, Friendly, or other groups. 
Although ten years have elapsed since my chart was published, nothing 
has been done since that time for the hydrography of these islands, to 
enable me to improve the second edition of that chart, (1836,) except 
in the situation of a group of islands, discovered lately, to the north- 
ward of the Solomon Islands. 

V. New Caledonia. A dangerous reef has lately been discovered by 
the ship Petrie, to the northward of New Caledonia ; the precise posi- 
tion of this danger ought to be determined. 

VI. Loyalty Islands. Captain D'Urville has been the first to survey 
the Loyalty Islands ; but having sailed only along the northern side of 
them, it is to be wished that the southern shore might also be surveyed. 

VII.* The Feejee Islands. Captain D'Urville has done a great deal 
to give us a more correct chart of these islands, having surveyed a 
great part of them; but still he has left unexplored many islands 
belonging to this archipelago. In my supplementary memoir to the 
chart of these islands, I have endeavoured to combine Captain D'Ur- 
ville's survey with such surveys as had been made previous to his 
voyage; and have constructed, according to all the data that have 
come to my knowledge, a new chart of the Feejee Islands, (named by 
Captain D'Urville, Viti Islands.) Of course the chart cannot be very 



356 APPENDIX. 

correct, but it may perhaps serve till a new complete survey is made 
of them. 

VIII. New Ireland. It is astonishing that nearly two centuries 
have elapsed without the islands situated to the north of New Ireland 
first seen by Tasman, and since by Dampier and Bougainville 
having been examined, so that we know as little of them as was known 
one hundred and fifty years ago. There remains, then, to be made a 
complete survey of all these islands. As to the islands near them, seen 
by Maurell, it is not likely that they are the same, as some have 
supposed. This is another reason why they should be all explored with 
the greatest precision. 

IX. Admiralty Islands. It is much to be wished that the islands 
seen by Maurell, to the eastward of the Great Admiralty Island, should 
be explored, since we know that Maurell's account of his discoveries 
does not satisfy the hydrographer. 

X. New Britain. Admiral D'Entrecasteaux has seen and deter- 
mined, with his usual exactness, the islands situated along the north 
coast of New Britain ; but he has not been able to lay down the coast 
itself, which he has seen only at a distance, and some parts not at all. 

XL* Low Islands. Captain Hagemuster, of the Russian navy, 
discovered, in the year 1830, an island to the westward of King 
George's Islands. This island cannot be any other than Schouten's 
Waterlandt. Captain Wilson sailed between two islands, which he 
took to be King George's Islands. Most navigators have been of the 
same opinion ; although there is a difference of longitude of more than 
a degree between the islands seen by Wilson and King George's 
Islands. Captain Duperrey, (an excellent authority, as every hydro- 
grapher will readily admit,) is of a different opinion ; he maintains that 
the two islands between which Wilson sailed are not King George's 
Islands, but are situated to the westward of them. He thinks that the 
island seen by Captain Hagemuster, which I take to be Waterlandt, is 
one of the two islands ; and that Captain Hagemuster has not seen the 
other. In order to refute Captain Duperrey's hypothesis, the second 
island, which, according to him, Captain Hagemuster might not have 
perceived, ought to be searched for, to the westward of Captain Hage- 
muster's island ; if it really does exist, it cannot be at a greater distance 
than about fifteen or twenty miles. 

XII.* Commodore Byron's Isles of Disappointment have not been 
visited since their first discovery in 1765. I have endeavoured to 
settle their longitude at 140 42' W. (page 87 of my supplement) ; but 
this being only an approximation, they ought to be surveyed at leas* 
visited anew. 



APPENDIX. 357 

XIII.* By my Memoirs, page 281, and supplement, page 90, you will 
perceive that there is a difference of 27' between Captain Belling- 
hausen's and Captain Kotzebue's longitude of the west point of Prince 
of Wales's Island* and the island situated to the westward of it.f 
What may be the cause of this difference ? since the two navigators 
do not differ, either before or after, more than three minutes. Either 
the length of Vlighen Island has been overrated by Captain Kotzebue, 
or some other error has crept into the longitude of either the one or 
the other. As both are excellent observers, it would be very desi- 
rable to settle this point, by examining and surveying carefully all 
the islands lying to the westward and eastward of Vlighen Island, 
and determine with the greatest precision the width of the channels 
separating the different islands, as well as the exact length of Vlighen 
or Prince of Wales's Island : the error will, most likely, be detected 
in the length of that isle. 

XIV.* There is a difference of 17' in the longitude of the isle Cler- 
mont de Tonnerre between Captain Duperrey and Captain Beechey. 
At Serle Island, close to it, there is hardly any difference at all. The 
same difference of 17' exists in the longitude of Prince William Henry, 
which Captain Beechey has proved to be the same with Captain 
Duperrey's isle Lortingo ; whereas at Mollu Island, both Captains 
Beechey and Duperrey agree perfectly well. It would be worth while 
to search for the cause of such anomalies. 

XV.* Captain Beechey is of opinion that Captain Duperrey's isle 
Clermont de Tonnerre is one and the same with the island of Minerva. 
Captain Duperrey, on the contrary, maintains that the island Minerva 
is the same as Serle Island. I am of this latter opinion ; although the 
solution of this problem will much depend upon the distance of the 
island Clermont de Tonnerre from Serle Island, which is much less on 
Duperrey's chart than on Captain Beechey's. 

XVI.* There has been lately discovered an island of considerable 
extent, of the name of Raraka. It would be well to examine it, since 
the account given of it is not quite satisfactory. It is stated to be 
situated in 16 3' S., and 145 0' W. 

XVII.* I have placed on my chart of the Low Islands, several 
islands, the position of which is rather doubtful; for instance, the 
Bunyer's Group of Turnbull, the island of Britomart, the islands dis- 
covered by Quiros, and several others. In order to have any certainty 
about their existence and precise position, it is necessary to search for 
and make a survey of them. 

* On some charts this island is named Dean's Isle ; on my charts Vlighen Isle, 
t By Captain Porter called Gamble ; by Captain Kotzebue, Krusenstern Island. 



358 APPENDIX. 

XVIIL* The Islands of San Bernardo and the Islands of Danger. 
Mendane discovered a group of islands, named by him San Bernardo. 
These islands have been seen by Captains Freycinet and Bellinghausen. 
Not far from them Byron discovered a small group, which he named 
Islands of Danger. Notwithstanding a difference of latitude of half a 
degree, the two groups have been considered as one and the same. It 
has not been thought impossible that in Byron's latitudes there might 
have been a typographical error : besides, none, of all the navigators 
who have passed here, have ever found a second group, which they 
could not have missed if it really existed. Captain Duperrey, how- 
ever, who is, as I have said above, a high authority in whatever relates 
to the hydrography of the South Seas, is of a different opinion : he 
maintains that Byron's Islands of Danger do exist. In order to settle 
that question, it is necessary to search under the meridian of the 
islands San Bernardo, as determined by Captain Bellinghausen, for 
these Islands of Danger in the latitude assigned to them by Byron, as 
well as for the chain of rocks of which he speaks, and which are 
situated, according to him, to the eastward. This has not been done 
yet, and it would be very desirable if it was done, in order not to leave 
the least doubt on the subject. 

XIX.* Marianne Islands. On Captain Freycinet's chart there is to 
be seen, to the southwest of the island of Assumption, rocks, by the 
name of Mary's. Rocks of the same name have been seen by La 
Perouse, to the northward of Assumption Island. In case the Expedi- 
tion should extend its exploratory researches to the northern hemi- 
sphere, this doubtful point should be settled. 

XX.* Caroline Islands. These islands have been so well surveyed 
by Captain Duperrey and Captain Liitke, that there is very little now 
left to be done concerning them. I shall, however, point out here some 
islands that require to be determined with great precision : 1. The 
island named by Captain Morell, Fasolis, is most likely the same with 
Captain Liitke's, Farroilep ; but a difference of 21' in latitude, makes 
this doubtful. 2. Island Lydia, on Captain Duperrey 's chart. We do 
not know by whom it has been discovered, nor who has determined its 
situation. 3. I have endeavoured to prove, in my Supplementary 
Memoir of the Caroline Islands, that the islands Bordelaire, Fame, 
Campbell, and the island St. Augustine, are one and the same. This 
hypothesis requires to be verified. 4. The Monteverde Islands ought 
to be surveyed; what Captains Monteverde and Morell, the only 
navigators who have seen them, have said of them, is not sufficiently 
satisfactory. 5. We see on Captain Duperrey's chart of the Caroline 
Islands, several islands, of which we know nothing more than the 



APPENDIX. 359 

name, viz. : Bumkay's, Quekin's, &c., and their existence and position 
remain to be ascertained. 6. The island of Arrecifos has, so far as 
my knowledge extends, been seen only by the ship Providence, in the 
year 1811. Not knowing much respecting it, it is to be wished that it 
should be surveyed. 

XXI.* The Island of Gilbert. At the end of my supplementary 
volume, I have pointed out what remains to be done in order to have 
a perfect knowledge of all the islands belonging to this archipelago. 

Remark. Independent of the American Exploratory Expedition, 
there are to be at the same time three others in the South Seas : two 
English and one French expedition. Many of the islands will of 
course be visited by all the expeditions ; and it is to be apprehended 
that their longitudes, determined by the different astronomers of the 
expeditions, will, perhaps, not agree so well as might be wished. This 
difficulty will of course be obviated, by referring their astronomical 
observations to the longitudes of such places as are determined by 
absolute astronomical observations with the greatest precision, and 
those most likely to be visited by the ships of the expeditions. The 
positions we have in the South Seas, are Point Venus, in longitude 149 
29' 17" W., determined by the passage of Venus over the disk of the 
sun ; Port Honolulu, in the island of Oaho, by occultation of several 
stars, in 202 10' E. ; and Port Jackson, Sydney Cove, in 151 17' E., by 
an eclipse of the sun. In the northern part of the Pacific, East Cape 
190 16' 10" E., may be adopted as a well-fixed point, although not 
determined by absolute astronomical observations. With respect to the 
coast of South America, Talcahuana, the longitude of which was deter- 
mined by Captain Beechey, to be in 72 56' 59" W., seems to me a 
well-determined point. Captain Duperrey is not of that opinion ; and 
it remains to be settled whether the longitude of Talcahuana, or Valpa- 
raiso, in 71 33' 34" W., deserves the preference. 

KRUSENSTEEN. 
St. Petersburg, January 26, 1837. 



VI. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Hampton Roads, August 14th, 1838. 
SIR, 

I have the honour to state, that since my arrival here, I have 
examined the General Requisition, complained of by Commodore 
Warrington and the Commissioners of the Navy, and find (as I was 
well aware was the case) it duly approved by me. 



360 APPENDIX. 

The articles that were stricken off the Requisition, were the most 
necessary for us of any thing contained therein ; and I regret to say, 
that in consequence of the objections to allow indispensable articles 
for the service we are going on, we shall be obliged to go to sea much 
less efficient than we would had they been furnished, and which will 
compel me to subject the government to pay quadruple prices for the 
same articles at Rio de Janeiro. 

I have to request, that you will show this letter to the Honourable 
Commissioners of the Navy, in order to notify them that the Requi- 
sition was not irregularly drawn, but duly approved by myself, and 
consequently assumed as my act. 

I have the honour, &c., 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
HON. JAS. K. PAULDING, 

Secretary of the Navy, Washington. 



U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Hampton Roads, August 18th, 1838. 

SIR, 

I have this morning ascertained that only one set of pump-gear is 
on board this vessel, and one on board the Peacock, which are now 
in use. 

The pumps of the Vincennes are 6$ inches. 
2 " Peacock " 6 " 

2 " " " 6i 

We are now otherwise ready for sea, but cannot sail without these, 
as they cannot be obtained elsewhere ; also two kedges are required, 
and a hose for the pumps, and pipe for the hose of the forcing-pump, 
and an iron brake for the Vincennes. 

I have to request the favour of you to direct that three complete sets 
of pump-boxes, &c., for each vessel, may be furnished to-day. 

All these articles have been repeatedly called for by the officers from 
this ship, but without success. 

I am, most respectfully, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
COMMODORE L. WARRINGTON, 

Navy-Yard, Gosport, Va. 



APPENDIX. 361 

VII. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, August 22d, 1838. 
SIR,- 

You will proceed with all practicable despatch to Port Praya, in the 
island of St. Jago, where you will remain five days, and then proceed 
to Rio de Janeiro, where you will await further orders. 

During your stay at Port Praya, you will fill up with water, and 
supply your crew fully with fresh provisions and vegetables. 

You will leave a communication with the consul of that port on 
your departure addressed to me, in case you should not hear from me 

before that period. 

I am, &c., 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
To LIEUT. COM. A. K. LONG, 

U. S. Ship Relief. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, August 22d, 1838. 
SIR, 

Should you arrive at Rio de Janeiro before this ship, you will inform 
the navy agent there, that about twenty-five thousand pounds of bread 
will be required at that port for the Exploring Expedition, on our 
arrival there, and request him to have the same prepared, of the first 
quality, that there may be no detention. 

I am, &c., 

CHARLES WILKES. 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
A. K. LONG, 

Lieutenant-Commandant Relief! 



VIII. 

GENERAL ORDER. NO. I. 

THE squadron being now ready for sea, the undersigned, Commander 
of the Exploring Expedition, takes this opportunity to return his warmest 
thanks to the officers, scientific gentlemen, seamen, and marines, for the 
indefatigable exertions they have made in equipping the vessels in their 
several departments; being well aware that had it not been for the 
individual and united exertions of all, the preparations could not have 
been accomplished in the short space of time they have been; and he 

VOL. I. 2P 46 



362 APPENDIX. 

feels confident that the same hearty zeal and co-operation will carry us 
successfully through the arduous service in which we have embarked. 

To all the officers of the Expedition the undersigned would remark, 
that every feeling which a devotion to such a cause can inspire, is felt 
by him ; and that every thing will be looked to, which can tend to 
insure success in this undertaking, may be confidently relied on. 

Harmony and good feeling he would enjoin upon all ; the necessity 
of cultivating this, and the united exertions of all, cannot claim too 
much of your attention. Continue as you have commenced, and rest 
assured that we shall be successful in meeting the expectations of our 
country. 

You may rest assured also of receiving impartial justice from me, 
and that in the assignment of duties and promotions, if any should 
occur ; and that all will have the opportunities they desire of entering 
upon the scientific duties, nothing shall be wanting that can tend to 
this end. 

To the scientific gentlemen, I have only to say, that they are, and 
always will be considered as one of us, and that every opportunity 
will be given them that can be imagined by the undersigned or suggested 
by them, to promote the success of the Expedition, in their particular 
departments. My conduct towards them will be the same as towards 
the officers with whom they are associated. 

Those composing the crews of the several vessels of the squadron, 
may be assured that every thing will be done to promote their comfort, 
and every indulgence granted them compatible with the interests of the 
service ; and it is confidently expected that they will strictly conform 
to the rules and regulations of the navy, and of the squadron ; and that 
the same respect for their officers, good conduct, and good feeling for 
each other, will exist at all times. 

(Signed) CHARLES WILKES, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes. 



IX. 



ORDERS RESPECTING THE RECEIPT, SAFE-KEEPING, AND EXPENDITURE OF 
PROVISIONS, STORES, ETC. 

A RETURN of all stores and provisions will be made before sailing, 
and thereafter, on the 1st of each month, of all stores and provisions 
on hand and expended. 

The Relief having a large proportion of stores on hand, no expen- 



APPENDIX. 363 

diture of stores will take place, unless by a requisition approved 
by me. 

Great care and economy of stores is enjoined upon the commanders 
in regard to the expenditures of provisions and stores ; and much is 
expected, in regard to their preservation and expenditure, from the 
well-known prudence and attention of the officer commanding the 
Relief. 

The attention of the commanders of the respective vessels is parti- 
cularly called to the expenditure of wood, and every precaution is 
enjoined for its economical consumption. 

The monthly returns will not only embrace the actual condition of 
the provisions and stores, but the quantity of wood, water, &c., on 

hand, and expended. 

CHAIILES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Hampton Roads, August 14th, 1838. 



X. 



GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS RELATIVE TO OBSERVATIONS. 

THE surgeon and his assistants will take the meteorological obser- 
vations at 3 p. M., 9 p. M., 3 A. M., and 9 A. M. ; viz, the standing of 
barometer, thermometer, and hygrometer. 

The temperature at the masthead, and that of the water, wind, 
weather, and the force of the wind, the quantity of rain, &c. ; the 
officers of the watch will note and make any remarks of their own, 
regarding facts that may have occurred, (during their watch,) in the 
meteorological journal: all astronomical and atmospherical pheno- 
mena, it is desired may claim attention, and be noted under their 
respective heads. Astronomical phenomena, such as shooting stars, 
zodiacal lights, aurora borealis, the height of their arcs, their colours, 
&c., measured and the direction they take in the heavens. Atmo- 
spherical phenomena, such as rainbows, halos, water-spouts, lightning, 
appearance of the clouds, rain, the Magellanic clouds, to be noted when 
first observed ; in short, any unusual appearance connected with the 
weather. 

Of the sea, all phosphorescent lights, fishes, and all substances 
adhering to weeds, must not fail to claim attention, and specimens of 
them obtained. Fish caught must be preserved till opened in the 
presence of an officer, and their stomachs carefully examined, and if 
any thing is found, it must be taken care of. 

Things and animals that might in ordinary cases be deemed trouble- 



364 APPENDIX. 

some and useless, are not to be lost sight of, but are to be picked up 
for examination. 

Every opportunity of trying the current must be taken advantage of, 
and marked. 

Astronomical observations, viz., lunar distances of the stars, east, 
and west of the moon, of the sun, and of the planets, to be frequently 
taken. 

Observations for chronometers must be taken daily, mornings and 
afternoons, when the weather will permit ; azimuths and amplitudes, 
at least once or twice a day, in the morning, or in the afternoon, and 
the ship's head noted at the same time. 

Any of the officers (among whom are considered the scientific 
gentlemen) will on all occasions promote the objects of the Expedition 
by procuring any article referred to in the foregoing instructions, or 
aiding in carrying into effect the same. And the officer of the deck 
is authorized to stop the ship's way, and perform any evolution with a 
view of carrying into effect the above, in which case he will report 
the same immediately to me, if time does not permit his doing so 
previously. 

It is necessary for the sea-officers to make themselves thoroughly 
acquainted with the heavenly constellations, in order to be efficient in 
noting the course of meteors, &c. 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, August 25th, 1838. 



XI. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, August 25th, 1838. 

THE undersigned, commanding the Exploring Expedition, in com- 
municating the following instructions, from the Navy Department, for 
the government and information of those under his command, directs 
the particular attention of all persons in the Expedition to the same, 
and especially to that part of them, which prohibits any one furnishing 
to persons not attached to the Exploring Expedition, any commu- 
nications which have reference to the objects or proceedings of the 
Expedition. 

"Although the primary object of the Expedition is the promotion of 
the great interests of commerce and navigation, yet you will take all 
occasions, not incompatible with the great purpose of your under- 
taking, to extend the bounds of science, and promote the acquisition 
of knowledge. For the more successful attainment of this, a corps of 



APPENDIX. 365 

scientific gentlemen, consisting of the following persons, will accom- 
pany the Expedition, and are placed under your direction. 

MR. HALE, Philologist, 

MR. PICKERING, ) 

, -n [ Naturalists. 

MR. PEALE, } 

MR. COUTHOUY, Conchologist. 

MR. RICH, Botanist. 

MR. DANA, Mineralogist. 

MR. DRAYTON, ) _ 

ME. AGATE, (Draughtsmen. 

MR. BRACKENRIDGE, Horticulturist. 

" The hydrography and geography of the various seas and countries 
you may visit in the route pointed out to you in the preceding instruc- 
tions, will occupy your special attention ; and all the researches 
connected with them, as well as with astronomy, terrestrial magnet- 
ism, and meteorology, are confined exclusively to the officers of the 
Navy, on whose zeal and talents the Department confidently relies 
for such results as will enable future navigators to pass over the track 
traversed by your vessels, without fear and without danger. 

"No special directions are thought necessary, as to the mode of 
conducting the scientific researches and experiments which you are 
enjoined to prosecute, nor is it intended to limit the members of the 
corps each to his own particular service. 

" All are expected to co-operate harmoniously in those kindred pur- 
suits, whose equal dignity and usefulness should insure equal ardour 
and industry in extending their bounds and verifying their principles. 

" As guides to yourself and to the scientific corps, the Department 
would, however, direct your particular attention to the learned and 
comprehensive Report of a committee of the American Philosophical 
Society of Philadelphia, the Report of a Committee of the East India 
Marine Society of Salem, Massachusetts ; and to a communication 
from the Naval Lyceum of New York, which accompany, and are to 
be regarded as forming a part of these instructions, as far as they may 
accord with the primary objects of the Expedition, and its present 
organization. You will, therefore, allow the gentlemen of the scientific 
corps the free perusal of these valuable documents, and permit them to 
copy such portions as they may think proper. 

"The Russian Vice- Admiral, Krusenstern, transmitted to the De- 
partment memorandums relating to the objects of this Expedition, 
together with the most approved charts of his Atlas of the Pacific 
Ocean, with explanations, in three volumes. These are also confided 
to your care, and it is not doubted that the friendly contribution of 

2F2 



366 APPENDIX. 

this distinguished navigator, will essentially contribute to the success 
of an enterprise in which he takes so deep an interest. It being 
considered highly important, that no journal of this voyage, either 
partial or complete, should be published, without the authority and 
under the supervision of the government, at whose expense this 
Expedition is undertaken, you will, before you reach the waters of 
the United States, require from every person under your command, 
the surrender of all journals, memorandums, remarks, writings, draw- 
ings, sketches, and paintings, as well as all specimens of every kind, 
collected or prepared during your absence from the United States. 
After causing correct inventories of these to be made, and signed by 
two commissioned officers, and by the parties by whom they were 
collected or prepared, you will cause them to be carefully sealed by 
the said officers, and reserved for such disposition as the Department 
may direct. You will adopt the most efficient measures to prepare 
and preserve all specimens of natural history that may be collected ; 
and should any opportunity occur for sending them home by a vessel 
of war of the United States, also copies of information, duplicates of 
specimens, or any other materials, you may deem important to pre- 
serve from future accident, you will avail yourself of the occasion; 
forwarding, as frequently as may be done with safety, details of your 
voyage, and its most material events ; at the same time strictly pro- 
hibiting all communications, except to this Department, from any 
person attached to the Expedition, referring to discoveries, or any 
circumstances connected with the progress of your enterprise. 

"It is believed that the officers under your command require no 
special advice or direction from this Department. Bearing in mind, 
as they no doubt will, that the undertaking in which they are about 
assisting to accomplish, is one that necessarily attracts the attention 
of the civilized world, and that the honour and interest of their country 
are equally involved in its results, it is not for a moment doubted, but 
that in this, as on all other occasions, they will so conduct themselves 
as to add to the reputation our navy has so justly acquired at home 
and abroad. 

" With the best wishes for the success of the Expedition, and the 
safe return of yourself and your companions, 

" I am, very respectfully, &c., 

(Signed) " JAS. K. EAULDING, 

"Secretary of the Navy. 

"Navy Department, August 11th, 1838." 

(Signed) CHARLES WILKES, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 



APPENDIX. 367 

XII. 



GENERAL ORDER. 



ALL the officers of the Exploring Expedition will be required to 
conform to the rules and regulation's of the service, by keeping a 
journal during the cruise, which he will send to the commander of the 
ship to which he may be attached, weekly. 

This journal will contain the daily reckoning, distances, bearings, 
&c., of the ship when at sea; also, a full record (with such observa- 
tions and remarks as may present themselves) in relation to all 
occurrences or objects of interest, which may, at the time, be consi- 
dered even of the least importance, and which may come under the 
observation of the officers, whether on board ship or on shore, and may 
tend to illustrate any transaction or occurrence which may take place, 
or afford any information in regard to the manners, habits, or customs 
of natives, and the position and characters of such places as may be 
visited. The journals required by this order will be disposed of 
agreeably to the directions of the Honourable Secretary of the Navy, 
and it is expected that they will be as full and complete as possible. 

(Signed) CHARLES WILKES, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, September 13th, 1838. 



XIII. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, September 13th, 1838. 
SIR, 

As the officers may not understand the kind of journal it is necessary 
for them to keep, I take this occasion to make known the expectations 
of the government and my wishes respecting this part of their duty, 
which I consider as paramount to all others. 

1st. The duties devolving upon all the officers of this Expedition are 
altogether of a public nature, and it is incumbent on me to say, 
require of them to bestow their constant and devoted attention to all 
incidents, facts, or occurrences, which may present themselves, in 
order that hereafter they may (if necessary) verify or confirm by their 
testimony any information in relation to the same, and thereby place 
the evidence beyond a doubt. This can only be effected by keeping 



368 APPENDIX. 

full and complete memoranda of all observations, made at the time, 
and entered in the journals. 

2d. I consider it of great importance, that every officer should know 
the actual situation of the ship, from his own calculations, that when 
called upon at any moment, he might be able to refer to his own 
journal for the results. On this might possibly depend the safety and 
ultimate success of the Expedition, as one' or two might fall into error, 
but it is not likely that many would. 

3d. The kind of journal required is not a mere copy of the log-board, 
but it is a diary, in which will be noticed all that relates to public 
information, being a record of all objects of interest, however small, 
which may take place during the cruise, in the scientific or any other 
department : and the views of the officer ought to be briefly expressed 
concerning things that may come under his notice. The very record 
that nothing has transpired during the day, may be of use ; but it is 
believed that this will be of rare occurrence. 

The whole will form a mass of evidence for the use of the govern- 
ment on our return, which will tend to illustrate and make clear the 
transactions and occurrences that may have taken place, as well as 
the habits, manners, customs, &c., of the natives, and the positions, 
descriptions, and character of such places as we may visit. 

These memoranda are highly essential to me, in order that nothing 
may be neglected or overlooked in conducting the Expedition to a 
successful issue, in which we are all so deeply interested. I wish 
particularly to avail myself of the results and observations of all, to 
avoid the possibility of passing over any subject without full examina- 
tion and remark. 

A casual memorandum or observation, believed at the time of little 
importance, may lead to important and satisfactory results. These 
journals, therefore, will become a useful medium of communication 
between the officers and myself, relative to the scientific and other 
duties in progress. 

I trust I need not remark that the above relates entirely to public 
transactions. With private affairs I have nothing to do : they are, and 
always should be deemed sacred, and, consequently, will form no part 
of the records. 

I enclose a special order relating to this subject, which you will 
promulgate to the officers of this ship. 

I am, respectfully, &c., 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

THOMAS T. CRAVEN, 

First Lieutenant, Vincennes. 



APPENDIX. 369 

XIV. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, September 14th, 1838. 

As it appears to me that the bounty recently directed by the Fourth 
Auditor, to be checked against the marines now attached to the 
Exploring Expedition, was given to them by the authority of the 
Navy Department, through Commodore Jones, (as appears by his 
General Order, No. 1,) not as recruits, but in consideration of their 
obligating themselves to serve during the cruise of the Expedition, 
without reference to their term of service ; I deem it, therefore, 
proper and just to order the Pursers of the Exploring Expedition not 
to check the bounty against the marines of the squadron under my 
command. 

(Signed) CHARLES WILKES, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
To Messrs. R. R. WALDRON and WM. SPIEDEN, 
Pursers, U. S. N. 



U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, September 14th, 1838. 
SIR, 

It was with much surprise I learnt, a few days after sailing from 
Hampton Roads, that the pursers of the Exploring Expedition had 
received instructions from the Fourth Auditor to check the marines 
now in the Exploring Expedition with the bounty paid them in 
November, 1837, by order of Commodore Jones. 

I flattered myself that I had, on sailing, overcome all the obstacles 
that had occurred, and I was not a little excited on finding that a new 
apple of discord had been thrown into the squadron, and particularly 
that part of it so valuable and necessary as the marines. 

I presume, however, this has been done without a knowledge of the 
mischief it might produce in the efficiency and progress of the Expedi- 
tion, if carried into effect. 

As it appears that some of the marines who received this bounty 
had been in the service a long time, and none of them were recruits , 
and with a view of preventing any mischievous effects upon those now 
in the Expedition, I have issued an order to the pursers not to check the 
bounty referred to ; a copy of which is herewith enclosed, marked No. 1 ; 
also a letter from Sergeant Stearns, in relation to the subject, marked 
No. 2 ; I take leave also to enclose a copy of the General Order issued 
by Commodore Jones to the Exploring Expedition in October, 1837, 
VOL. i. 47 



370 APPENDIX. 

marked-No. 3, which appears to me to embrace the case, and has, in 
my opinion, pledged the faith of the government fully ; whether he was 
authorized by the Department to give such pledges or not, is, I think, 
wholly immaterial to the present case. It has been done : and those 
who have complied and received the bounty, believed such to be the 
fact, which the Department alone could give, thereby binding the 
contract on the part of the government ; which (acting for the best 
interests of the service in which we are engaged) I have thought 
proper to confirm by issuing the order referred to, which I cannot 
doubt will meet your approbation. 

I have the honour, &c., 

(Signed) CHARLES WILKES, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
To the HON. JAMES K. PAULDING, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



XV. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Off Madeira, September 20th, 1838. 
SIR, 

Although, previous to sailing from Hampton Roads, I was aware of 
some of the deficiencies in the outfits of this ship and the Peacock, in 
preparing them at the navy-yard, Norfolk, for the service in which we 
are engaged, I omitted to mention the same to the Department, owing 
to the necessity of our sailing without delay or detention ; but since 
our arrival at this port, the Peacock particularly has been found in 
such a condition, that it is with regret I consider it my duty to 
represent the same to you, and take leave to enclose herewith a report 
of their commander, by which it appears she was in a much worse 
condition on leaving the dock-yard at Norfolk, than had been anti- 
cipated ; instead of being well prepared for the service required in the 
Exploring Expedition.' 

I have forwarded to you, through the navy-agent at New York, for 
your examination, a box containing an iron hoop, taken from one of 
the pumps of the Peacock, as a fair specimen of the little attention 
which had been bestowed upon her at the navy-yard in her repairs. I 
have to state also, that a few days after the ship left the navy-yard, 
her fore and cross-jack-yards were found so much decayed, that it 
was necessary to replace them by new ones, on representation of her 
commander. 

I consider it my duty to state that we have found nearly all the men 
furnished us from the receiving-ship, Norfolk, by your order, unfit for 



APPENDIX. 371 

the duty required of them ; and on sending some of them back, they 
refused to receive them ; consequently I shall have to send them home, 
or transfer them to the squadron on the Brazil coast, if Commodore 
Nicolson will take them, and obtain others if possible. 

We shall be put to much inconvenience and delay at Rio de Janeiro, 
where it will be necessary to repair and recalk the Peacock, as far as 
possible to enable her to perform the cruise required; this will be 
attended with much additional expense, and is another reason for 
making a full representation of the facts, to be made use of as the 
Department may see fit. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Most respectfully, &c., 

CHARLES WILKES. 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
To the HON. JAS. K. PAULDING, 

Secretary of the Navy 



U. S. Ship Peacock, 

Madeira, September 18th, 1838. 
SIR,- 

In a verbal communication, a few days previous to leaving Hampton 
Roads, I stated to you that I could point out many things that ought 
to be done, or rather done over, on board this ship, particularly the 
calking about the water-ways, sides of the ship, deck, &c., and that I 
had no doubt the ship would make considerable water, when we got 
to sea ; as the work enumerated would occupy some time, and to do it 
conveniently we ought to go back to the yard, it was determined at 
that interview (from the great desire of the Department, and in fact 
the whole country, that the Exploring Squadron should get to sea, 
as well as the injurious effects delay would have upon the officers and 
men) that the squadron should get off the moment sailing orders were 
received, and remedy as much as possible within our means, such 
defects as might thereafter show themselves in the course of our 
passage. 

Coinciding most fully in opinion with yourself, on that occasion, as 
soon as I returned to the Peacock, I had an examination of our pump- 
gear, and found but one set of boxes in the two forward pumps, which, 
from their rusty and otherwise worn-out appearance, I was induced to 
believe had not been removed since her arrival in port. The pump- 
gear had not yet come on board ; we immediately sent to the navy- 
yard for it ; when it arrived, (the day before sailing,) the pumps were 
tried, and appeared to work well ; we found, however, two of the 
pumps with half an inch less diameter or bore than the others ; this I 



372 APPENDIX. 

consider a defect, for two reasons : first, the small ones not discharging 
as much water as the large ; secondly, having to use pump-boxes of 
different sizes in the same ship, where from accident to one set, the 
other cannot be used to make up the deficiency. As the sequel proved, 
the ship leaked considerably the moment we got a breeze which drove 
us through the sea ; not only through her water-ways, upper works, 
and decks, but through the eyes of her combings, I presume through 
the scarf in the stem, at all events, running by buckets-full down the 
apron into the store-room, forcing such quantities of water on her berth- 
deck, that I found it necessary to scuttle it to carry the water off*. 

The chain-cables of the ship I rowsed out of the lockers at sea, 
examined the shackles, and found it necessary in two of the cables to 
have almost every shackle put in the forge. So completely had the 
bolts rusted in, that they could not be started until fire had done its 
work upon them, and even then some of them had to be cut entirely 
out. While thus making an overhaul below, I examined the pump- 
weil, and to my utter surprise and astonishment, found all the iron 
bands on the two after pumps, below the berth-deck, in the state of the 
one I now send to you for inspection ; and from the fact of one of 
them having entirely rusted off, and found lying in pieces at the 
bottom of the well-room, it may fairly be inferred they were not 
examined at all after the arrival of the ship at Norfolk. I had the 
two pumps, from which the bands had dropped off, well woulded at sea, 
and from the appearance of soft spots about them, am fearful when 
taken out, (which must be done at Rio,) we will find them rotten. 

I should have recommended taking them out here, but in consequence 
of having to raise up a portion of the spar-deek for that purpose, think 
we may venture to delay it until our arrival at that port. I have also 
to state that the bibbs of both the fore and main-masts have started and 
canted three-quarters of an inch forward, and work considerably 
while at sea. This we shall remedy by raising our lower rigging, 
tops, and trestle-trees, and endeavour to get them back in their places, 
and secure them with extra bolts. I have stated but a few of many 
defects, and can only say that I have, during my service, assisted in 
the fitting out of many vessels, and regret, under all the circumstances 
of the case, to be compelled to add, that, taken as a whole, the Peacock 
has been fitted out, (so far as the navy-yard was concerned,) with less 
regard to safety and convenience, than any vessel I have ever had 
any thing to do with. 

Respectfully, &c., 
(Signed) WM. L. HUDSON, 

CHARLES WILKES, Commanding U. S. Ship Peacock 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 



APPENDIX. 



373 



XVI. 

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS MADE ON BOARD THE UNITED STATES SHIP 
VINCENNES, UNDER THE EQUATOR. 

NOVEMBER 6TH, 1838. 



Mean Barometer, ..... 


29-99 


Lowest at 3 p. M. 
Mean Sympiesometer, ..... 


29-94 
29-68 


Lowest at 4 P. M. . . . . 

Mean temperature of air, .... 
Mean temperature of water .... 


29-62 

75-37 
76-10 



NOVEMBER ?TH. 



HOUR. 


BAROMETER. 


SYMPIESOMETER. 


REMARKS. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A.M. 


1 


29-98 


29-98 


29-66 


29-68 


Mean Barometer, 30-00 


2 


29-98 


29-98 


29-66 


29-67 


Highest at 9 A. M 30-05 


3 


29-96 


29-98 


29-63 


29-68 


Lowest at 3 p. M 29-96 


4 


29-97 


29-98 


29-63 


29-68 




5 


29-97 


30-01 


29-64 


29-70 


Mean Sympiesometer, . . . 29-68 


6 


29-98 


30-02 


29-65 


29-72 


Highest at 8 A. M 29-74 


7 


30-00 


30-02 


29-68 


29-70 


Lowest at 4 p. M 29-68 


8 


30-02 


30-03 


29-68 


29-74 




9 


30-03 


30-05 


29-70 


29-72 


Mean Temp, of air, .... 76-20 


10 


30-04 


30-02 


29-72 


29-69 


Mean Temp, of water, . . . 76-18 


11 


30-04 


30-00 


29-72 


29-68 




12 


29-98 


29-99 


29-68 


29-66 





2G 



374 



APPENDIX. 



X V I. CONTINUED. 



NOVEMBER 8TH. 



HOUR. 


BAROMETER. 


SYMPIESOMETER. 


REMARKS. 


P. M. 


A.M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 


1 


29-95 


29-99 


29-64 


29-68 


Mean Barometer, 29-95 


2 


29-94 


29-98 


29-63 


29-65 


Highest at 9 P. M 30-04 


3 


29-93 


29-98 


29-60 


29-68 


Lowest at 3 P. M 29-93 


4 


29-96 


29-98 


29-62 


29-68 




5 


30-00 


30-00 


29-64 


29-70 


Mean Sympiesometer, . . . 29-67 


6 


30-00 


30-00 


29-66 


29-72 


Highest at 9 p. M 29-74 


7 


30-03 


29-99 


29-70 


29-71 


Lowest at 3 P. M 29-60 


8 


30-04 


30-00 


29-72 


29-70 




9 


30-04 


30-01 


29-74 


29-73 


Mean Temp, of air, .... 76-18 


10 


30-04 


30-02 


29-74 


29-72 


Mean Temp, of water, . . . 76-26 


11 


30-02 


30-00 


29-72 


29-70 




12 


30-00 


29-98 


29-70 


29-68 





NOVEMBER 9TH. 



1 


29-98 


30-00 


29-62 


29-70 


Mean Barometer, 29-98 


2 


29-97 


29-98 


29-65 


29-70 


Highest at 10 P. M 30-05 


3 




29-94 




29-68 


Lowest at 3 A. M 29-94 


4 




29-95 




29-68 




5 


29-95 


29-95 


29-63 


29-68 


Mean Sympiesometer, . . . 29-68 


6 


29-97 


29-98 


29-64 


29-68 


Highest at 9 P. M 29-74 


7 


30-00 


30-00 


29-68 


29-70 


Lowest at 1 A. M 29-62 


8 


30.01 


30-01 


29-74 


29-72 




9 


30-02 


30-02 


29-74 


29-70 


Mean Temp, of air, .... 75-87 


10 


30-05 


30-02 


29-74 


29-69 


Mean Temp, of water, . . . 76-60 


11 


30-05 


30-00 


29-74 


29-68 




12 

[ 


30-02 


29-98 


29-72 


29-64 





o 
E 



G 
O 

2 



02 



I 



o 

s 



3 

gg 
is 



aovssva 



siassaA 



aovssva 



aovssvj 



saassaA 



aovssva 



CT3SS3A 



3OTSSYJ 



aoYssvj 



aoYssvj 



aovssvj 
aovnaAY 



saassaA 

ON 







COOOJOJOOOCO 



COCOtOrHOOtOOOC? 



3 



Ob-CCrHOO 



OOOOOO 



coMeo-^ 

OOQOOOCX) 



380 



APPENDIX. 



XVII I. C ONTINUED. 

AMERICAN ARRIVALS AT RIO DE JANEIRO. 





1839. 


1840. 


1841. 


From the United States, 


92 


97 


119 


From Europe, - 


31 


27 


39 


From Whaling 1 , - 


26 


13 


20 


Vessels of War, . . . 


]49 
10 


137 
14 


178 
18 


Total, .... 


159 


151 


196 



XIX. 

TO THE OFFICERS OF THE EXPLORING EXPEDITION. 

THE undersigned, in calling the attention of the officers of the 
squadron under his command, to their personal appearance, would 
observe, that in his opinion the example of some of them in this 
respect is not such as should indicate to the crews of the different 
vessels composing the squadron, the necessity which exists of the 
greatest attention being paid to their personal appearance and clean- 
liness, in conformity to the internal rules and regulations of the 
squadron. 

He has not been aware until recently of the extent to which the 
wearing of mustachios has been carried : they in most cases give a 
notoriety and appearance of want of attention to neatness, &c., which 
renders it impossible for the officer, with any degree of consistency, to 
carry the inspection of their men or divisions to that extent, which he 
considers absolutely necessary for the health and comfort of all. 

He believes it only necessary to appeal to the good sense of the 
officers in order to remedy their appearance, and feels assured that 
upon reflection they will see the like necessity and importance of pre- 
serving, in the first national expedition, the usual appearance, habits 
and customs of their own country. 

Very respectfully, 

CHARLES WILKES, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition, 
U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, October 8th, 1 838. 



APPENDIX. 381 



U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, November 1st, 1838. 
SIR, 

As some misapprehension may exist in relation to the use for which 
the reading-room, or forward cabin, is intended, I think it as well to 
briefly state my views respecting its uses, in which I have no doubt all 
will see the propriety of concurring. 

I view it then in the same light as the ship's library, or a place where 
every one may usefully employ himself, free from the usual interruption 
of the ship's duty, and not subject to other practices, which would cause 
interruption in the use of books. 

The accommodations, though not large, will with due respect and 
consideration for each other's views, be found to be ample, and will 
naturally prevent any one from appropriating exclusively its small 
conveniences to himself; or using its table for writing (intended for 
books and the facility of reference to them), as there no doubt exists 
sufficient room in the several apartments appropriated to the different 
officers for that purpose, without incommoding any one. 

You will therefore keep its use confined to these purposes, and not 
permit the issue of slops, &c., to take place in it. 

Respectfully, 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
LIEUT. THOMAS T. CRAVEN, 

U. S. Ship Vincennes. 



ORDERS FOR THE VINCENNES. 

THE following arrangements in regard to the scientific duties of the 
officers of this ship, will be adopted when in port. 

Lieutenant Craven will aid the scientific corps as Assistant Natu- 
ralist, when his duties on board can be dispensed with. 

Lieutenant Carr will be engaged with me in scientific duty at the 
observatory. 

Lieutenant Johnson will perform the duty of first-lieutenant during 
the absence of Lieutenant Craven, and will be excused from night 
watch when so engaged. The officers will be divided into watches 
for duty on board ship, at the observatory, and elsewhere, as follows : 

1st watch, Lieutenant Johnson and Passed Midshipman Totten. 

2d watch, Lieutenant Alden and Passed Midshipman Reynolds. 

3d watch, Lieutenant Maury and Passed Midshipman May. 

VOL. i. 48 



382 APPENDIX. 

4th watch, Acting-Master North and Passed Midshipman Sandford. 

A relief watch will at all times be on board ship for such duty as 
may be required. 

Mr. Elliott, chaplain, supernumerary for such duty as may be 
required. 

Midshipmen Clark and Elliott, will be excused from watch for boats 
and other duty. 

Acting-Surgeon Gilchrist will be associated with Mr. Rich, Botanist 
of the Expedition. 

Assistant-Surgeon Fox, as assistant to T. R. Peale, Naturalist, and 
Mr. Dana, Mineralogist. 

Assistant-Surgeon Whittle as assistant to Dr. Pickering. 

The officers attached to the tenders Sea-Gull and Flying-Fish, will 
be associated in scientific duties with the first and fourth watches of 
the Vincennes and Peacock. 

The arrangements heretofore made in regard to the duties of the 
medical officers will be complied with until further orders, which will 
enable them to devote much of their time to the scientific duties ; and 
it is desirable that they should receive from the scientific gentlemen 
with whom they are associated, every facility which can be afforded 
them, and every opportunity of being useful. 

As the object of this association of duty is to extend as far as 
possible the operations of the Expedition, it is earnestly requested that 
the gentlemen composing the scientific corps will on all occasions 
avail themselves of the services of those officers who by this order 
have been associated with them, and of all others who may (when 
their duties and time will permit) be desirous of aiding or advancing 
the interests of the Expedition, by making collections, drawings, &c., 
and that the utmost harmony, good feeling, and concert of action may 
exist at all times, as nothing will so much tend to promote the useful- 
ness, and be the means of extending the objects of the Expedition. 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

November 2'Oth, 1838. 



ORDERS FOR THE PEACOCK. 

THE officers to be divided into watches, the same as the Vincennes, 
and a relief watch to be always on board. 

Midshipmen Henry and Hudson excused from watch for boat 
duty, &c. 



APPENDIX. 383 

Dr. Sickles associated with Mr. Couthouy for scientific duty. Dr. 
Holmes also to aid in scientific duty. 

The orders in regard to the medical officers the same as the 

Vincennes. 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, November 21st, 1838. 



ORDERS FOR THE PORPOISE. 

THE following arrangements in regard to the scientific duties of the 
officers of the Porpoise when in port, will be adopted. 

The officers will be divided into watches, to perform duty on board, 
at the observatory, and elsewhere, as follows : 

1st watch, Lieutenant Claiborne and Passed Midshipman Blunt. 

2d watch, Lieutenant Hartstein and Acting Midshipman Baldwin. 

3d watch, Lieutenant Dale and Passed Midshipman Colvocoressis. 

Lieutenant Dale in sketching when his other duties will permit. 

Dr. Guillou on duty as Assistant Naturalist, and will make himself 
useful in all the departments. 

The order for medical officers the same as the Vincennes. 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, November 21st, 1838. 



ORDERS FOR THE RELIEF. 

THE watch officers to be divided the same as on board the Porpoise, 
as follows : 

1st watch, Lieutenant Pinkney and Passed Midshipman Davis. 

2d watch, Lieutenant Case and Passed Midshipman Cummings. 

3d watch, Lieutenant Underwood and Passed Midshipman Sinclair. 

Lieutenant Case, when his other duties will permit, will assist in the 
naturalist department. 

Dr. Palmer will be attached to the scientific department, as assistant 
to Dr. Pickering and Mr. Couthouy, Naturalist. 

Midshipman Blair will be excused from watch for boat duty. 

Lieutenant Underwood will be employed in sketching, &c. 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, November 21st, 1838. 



384 APPENDIX. 



XX. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Rio de Janeiro, December 15th, 1838. 
SIR, 

You will proceed and make a survey of a shoal said to exist off 
Cape St. Thomas, about sixty miles north of Cape Frio, with the 
Peacock, Porpoise,* Sea-Gull, and Flying-Fish, which are placed 
under your command for the duty. 

The shoal is supposed to be about twenty miles east-half-north from 
Cape St. Thomas. 

In surveying it, as far as I am able to judge of its locality, I would 
recommend the following mode to be pursued, viz. : 

On your arrival at or near its supposed locality, anchor your four 
vessels at convenient distances from each other, within a suitable 
distance for admeasurement by sound. Here ascertain your latitude 
and longitude accurately, measure your distance between all the vessels 
by sound, firing guns in succession, noting the elapse of time between 
the flash and report ; then, or before, measure the azimuth between 
each vessel and the sun, and proceed with your boats to sound, 
radiating from each vessel on the several points of bearings : the 
position of your boats may be accurately ascertained by the angles on 
any three of the vessels, and the soundings obtained can at once be 
inserted on the skeleton chart prepared for the occasion. 

You will, while at anchor, heave the current log every hour, and 
notice the direction by the head of your ship. After you have satis- 
factorily explored the ground that your vessel may have anchored on, 
you will then, in all probability, know the direction in which the 
shoalest water lies from you, and by shifting the anchorage of each 
vessel in succession toward that direction, you will occupy new 
ground, when the same operation of measuring bases by sound, and 
taking azimuths, will be gone through with, and then you may 
approach the position without any danger, as your chart will be 
constructed as you proceed. 

Lieutenant Johnson has been ordered to the Porpoise to superintend 
her movements in regard to this survey, and Lieutenant Alden to your 
ship, in whose information, as respects the above mode of proceeding, 
you may rely. 

Mr. Knox of the Flying-Fish, is also apt at this work. I have 

* The Porpoise was not on this duty ; these orders were countermanded, as she could not 
be prepared for sea in season. 



APPENDIX. 



385 



ordered Mr. May to assist him in this cruise, and Mr. Eld, of your 
ship, to assist in the duties on board the Sea-Gull. 

After you have obtained the necessary information in regard to 
this shoal, (should you be so fortunate as to find it,) you will return to 
Cape Frio, and from thence measure the distance from this harbour by 
sound. 

The most efficient mode of doing this, I conceive as follows, viz. 
After getting the light in sight, anchor the three vessels so as to form 
a triangle, and take their azimuthal bearings from the sun, measuring 
by sound the distance between the vessels, which will give you the 
bases of the triangle; then measure the angles from on board the 
vessels, with the light-house, and this will give you data to calculate 
its distance and bearing ; thence proceed west, keeping the vessels in 
range, and as soon as you get their distance and bearing, change their 
positions alternately. 

Very respectfully, 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM L. HUDSON, 

Commanding U. S. Ship Peacock. 

XXI. 

POPULATION OF BRAZIL, 

Estimated by the numbers of houses furnished by the returns of Elections for Deputies in 
1833, to the National Legislature, calculating each habitation as containing five free 
people, and the slaves as being two-fifths of the whole population. 



PROVINCES. 


NO. OF HOUSES. 


INHABITANTS. 




24,500 


102,500 




30 600 


153 000 




11 300 


56,500 




35900 


179 500 




12,400 


62,000 




24 700 


123 500 




59900 


299,500 




33300 


166500 




20 700 


103 500 




87 600 


438 000 




5600 


28,000 




13900 


69,500 


MINAS GERAES, (24,600) 
ESPIRITO SANTO ...... 
RIO DE JANEIRO, (117,600) .... 
ST PAULO, (94,166) 

ST. CATHERINE'S ...... 

RIO GRANDE DO SOL, (20,500) - ... 


120,800 
7,700 
58,800 
56,100 
9,800 
16,400 


604,000 
38,500 
294,000 
282,500 
47,000 
82,000 



211 



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APPENDIX. 391 

XXIV. 

SAILING INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE RELIEF, NOT TO BE OPENED UNTIL AT SEA. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Rio de Janeiro, December 18th, 1838. 

SIR, 

You will sail from this harbour, and follow strictly the following 
instructions, which are intended for your government. 

1st. You will proceed with all possible despatch with the Relief, 
under your command, to Orange Harbour, and there await my 
arrival. 

2d. Orange Harbour is situated in latitude 55 30' 50" S., and 
longitude 68 00' 23" W. 

3d. You will pursue such a course as will take you on soundings 
about latitude 45 S., and continue on them all the way to Terra del 
Fuego, as near as you can to the land, westerly winds prevailing most 
of the way. 

4th. You will pass through the Straits of Le Maire, and double close 
around the southeast point of Terra del Fuego, keeping in with the 
land until you are up with the Hermit Islands ; you will then have 
your port open to you clear of hidden dangers. 

5th. A plan of Orange Harbour is among your Book of Charts, No. 
1079. 

6th. On your arrival there, you will set up tide-staves, similar to 
those now in use by us on the Island of Enxados, and keep an hourly 
register of the rise and fall. 

7th. At Orange Harbour, you will employ your crew in cutting fifty 
cords of the best wood, and deposit the same at the most convenient 
landings, for the use of the squadron on its arrival. 

8th. You will fill up with water, and have your stores and provisions 
ready for any delivery. 

9th. Your anchorage will be within Burnt Island, where you will 
establish the light sent you, which you will place in charge of some 
careful person, to be kept lighted during the night. In the event of 
its failing, you will keep a bonfire on shore, as a night-signal for the 
squadron. 

10th. You will carefully preserve all the soundings brought up by 
your deep-sea lead, in papers, with the positions where they were had. 

llth. On your route you will make repeated trials of the current, 
and while on soundings you will anchor your boat with the deep-sea 



392 APPENDIX. 

lead, making use of the current-log. Your acting-master has been 
shown the one in use on board this ship. 

12th. You will expose two thermometers, one having its bulb 
covered with black wool, daily to the influence of the sun, and note 
the difference in your journal ; also that which is shown in the shade ; 
and you will continue all observations as heretofore. 

13th. It is believed that the Relief will not require any repairs; 
should, however, any be necessary, you will complete them at once. 

14th. You will avoid being blown off to the eastward by all the 
means in your power ; running with the coast, and anchoring during 
the continuance of westerly gales under the land, is recommended. I 
am not aware that you have any dangers to fear, except kelp, which 
you may run boldly towards, but avoid entering. 

15th. You will afford Mr. Rich, the Botanist, every facility in 
collecting specimens, &c., and, if possible, seek out places where a 
quantity of wild celery-grass may be collected for the crews on our 
arrival. 

16th. You will issue to such of the crew as may require the warm 
articles of clothing supplied for the Exploring Expedition, charging 
them at the usual slop prices, which will be remitted at the end of the 
cruise, on the good behaviour of the men. 

17th. You will give particular attention to the health and comfort 
of the officers and crew. 

Wishing you a safe and speedy passage to your port of destination, 

I am, &c., 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
LIEUT. COM. A. K. LONG, 

U. S. Ship Relief 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Off Rio de Janeiro, Jan. 5th, 1839. 

SIR, - 

In the event of our separating, which, however, you will avoid by 
all possible exertions, you will proceed with all despatch to Orange 
Harbour, which is situated in latitude 55 30' 50" S., longitude 68 00' 
23" W., taking such a course as will put you on soundings in about 
latitude 45 S. ; continue on them all the way to Terra del Fuego, 
keeping close in with the land, as westerly gales prevail. 

You will pass through the Straits of Le Maire, and double close 
round the southeast point of Terra del Fuego, until you are up with 
the Hermit Islands ; you will then have your port open to you, clear 
of hidden dangers. 



APPENDIX 

You will avoid being blown off to the eastward by all the means in 
your power, running in with the coast, and anchoring during the 
westerly gales. I am not aware that you have any dangers to fear 
except kelp, which you may run boldly for, but avoid entering. 

On your arrival at Orange Harbour, you will find me or instructions, 
or you will await my arrival there. 

You will issue to such of the crew as require them, the articles of 
warm clothing supplied for the Exploring Expedition, charging them 
at the usual slop prices, to be remitted them at the end of the cruise, 
on their good behaviour. 

You will give particular attention to the cleanliness of your ship, 
and the health of the officers and crew. 

A chart of Orange Harbour will be found in your Book of Charts, 
No. 1079. 

Lieutenant-Commandant Long, has been directed to keep the light 
burning during the night, on Burnt Island, as a signal to the squadron. 
I send you herewith the rates of your chronometers. 

Very respectfully, 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
To CAPTAIN WILLIAM L. HUDSON, 

Peacock. 
LIEUTENANT-COMMANDANT C. RINGGOLD, 

Porpoise. 
PASSED MIDSHIPMAN J. W. E. REID, 

Sea-Gull. 
PASSED MIDSHIPMAN S. R. KNOX, 

Flying-Fish. 



GENERAL ORDERS. 

As difficulties frequently occur in regard to the dates of the log- 
books and journals of the squadron under my command, owing to the 
difference between civil and nautical time ; hereafter, all the log-books 
and journals will be kept in civil time, commencing at twelve o'clock 
this day, being the meridian of the 20th of February, 1839. 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Orange Harbour, Feb. 20th, 1839. 



VOL. I. 2H 49 



394 APPENDIX. 

XXV. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 
Orange Harbour, Terra del Fuego, 

February 22d, 1839. 
Sm, 

Although I am aware of the lateness of the season, and the risk to 
be incurred in attempting to make any explorations within the Antarctic 
Circle ; yet I am of the opinion that there are many advantages to be 
derived from it, that will prove of incalculable benefit in any future 
attempts we may hereafter make at the proper season. 

You will, therefore, with the Peacock and tender Flying-Fish, make 
the attempt to carry out the following instructions. 

1st. On sailing from this anchorage, you will proceed as far as the 
Ne Plus Ultra of Captain Cook, in longitude 105 W., and from thence 
you will extend your researches as far to the southward and eastward 
as you can reach, without rendering yourself liable to be closed in by 
the ice. 

2d. You will carefully note your daily positions on the skeleton 
chart herewith, and trace upon it, by astronomical and tangent obser- 
vations, (not by compass,) all the ice you may fall in with during the 
cruise, whether island or field-ice. 

3d. You will navigate to the southward, and eastward until you 
reach the western side of Palmer's or Graham's Land. 

4th. It is believed that the latter part of the summer will afford you 
an opportunity of penetrating here farther south than has yet been 
done, and possibly meet an extension of Palmer's Land, more to the 
westward : if you should succeed, you will trace it to the eastward, 
and return by the southern and eastern side of it, to this anchorage, 
thus circumnavigating this land, unless you should receive further 
information from me. 

5th. Herewith you will receive a dipping and intensity needle, with 
which you will make observations on any floe of ice that may be 
accessible. 

6th. In your progress to the eastward from Cook's Ne Plus Ultra, 
105 W., you will endeavour to get more and more to the southward, 
and to pass to the southward of the two small islands called Peter I. 
and Alexander, (the farthest land south discovered by the Russians in 
1821,) and then fall in with what Briscoe denominated Graham's or 
Palmer's Land, (its proper American name.) I am of the opinion that 
it extends much farther to the southward and westward than where 
Briscoe saw the Adelaide Mountains, and that the land stretches or 



APPENDIX. 395 

trends to the west. This will be a very important discovery, and the 
lateness of the season is very advantageous for the exploration, if the 
summer should have proved an open one. My reason for believing 
in the extension of this land is, that such large quantities of ice-islands, 
which are frequently drifted to the north and west of Cape Horn, must 
have some land to form on, and we are aware that all the ice formed 
about the South Shetlands goes to the eastward. 

7th. You must endeavour to reach the southward of Peter I. and 
Alexander I. Islands, or south of the Russian track. 

8th. You will fill up the skeleton chart as you progress, and treat 
the main ice and ice-islands as if they were land, by inserting them on 
it, which will be an important addition to our knowledge, if we only 
obtain the line of ice in those seas ; it does not appear ever to have 
been done by southern navigators accurately ; had it been so, our task 
would have been more easy. 

9th. I should think the winds from the west to the east will be so as 
to enable you to choose positions to shield your ship under the lee of 
the icy shore (if I may be allowed the expression). 

10th. In the event of your reaching the main land, or a channel 
leading to it, if one offers, you will despatch the Flying-Fish, with 
such officers as you may think fit, to make the recognizance of it, if 
time should not allow a full survey. 

llth. It is desirable that the extent and circumference of any islands 
which you may fall in with be ascertained, with their general character 
and productions, if any ; specimens of rocks and sketches of their strati- 
fication will, if possible be taken. The islands of ice frequently show 
appearances of stratifications, with earth and rocks attached to them. 
Any thing gained from them will be interesting and valuable, with a 
particular notice whether the ice had been much worn away under 
them. 

12th. The aurora australis has not been often seen; it is said to 
have been seen by Captain Cook near his Ne Plus Ultra, where you 
will commence. You will notice the extent and height of the ice, &c., 
and sketch, if possible, any remarkable refraction, with a description 
which will render it clear. 

13th. You will note the observations of the thermometer in the sun 
and shade ; also the temperature of the sea at such depths as you may 
judge best, with the sounding apparatus sent you. 

14th. After having run to Palmer's Land, and not finding an opening 
or land, you will return to this harbour direct, where you will find this 
ship ; and you will despatch the Flying-Fish to the harbour of Decep- 
tion Island for information from me, which will, if possible, be left in a 



396 APPENDIX. 

bottle, enclosed in a heap of stones (a sailor's grave), on the right-hand 
side of that harbour, the entrance being at the east; and you will 
direct the officer in charge of the Flying-Fish to remain there, if he 
should hear nothing of me, as long as possible, even until the 1st of 
May, when she will proceed with all despatch to this port. 

15th. Should you be shut up or detained by ice, which of course 
you will avoid by all possible means, you will, if possible, communicate 
to me at Deception Island, as in case you are out of time, you may 
rely on my sending there to hear from you, and afford any aid, as soon 
as the season will permit, to which place your boats or the tender can 
be navigated. It is my present intention, after surveying the southeast 
shore of Palmer's Land, to touch at Deception Island on my return 
north, and obtain or leave information as to our progress, in a bottle, 
as above described. 

16th. You will, of course, give the most particular attention to the 
health and comfort of the officers and crews of your command, and 
the most economical expenditure of stores and provisions, of which 
you have as much as you can stow, including a large supply of anti- 
scorbutics, preserved meats, &c. 

17th. Should it in your opinion be found at any time during the 
cruise impracticable to carry into effect these orders, and you should 
be of opinion also that a further attempt south during the present 
season would be unavailing, owing to bad weather or obstructions, 
you will, on arriving at such conclusions, proceed direct to Valparaiso, 
and await further orders, making all necessary arrangements there in 
regard to a supply of provisions, &c., for the squadron. In such an 
event, you will immediately despatch the Flying-Fish to this anchorage 
for further orders, which, if we have left, will be found in a pile of 
stones on the summit of Burnt Island, near the tent and lighthouse ; in 
the absence of which, however, she will proceed to Valparaiso for 
further orders. 

In conclusion, I cannot express to you how much I feel for the safety 
of yourself, officers, and crews, on this first exploration you are about 
to make, and how deep an interest and anxiety I shall feel for you ; 
that you may meet with all the success I wish for, and that we may 
rendezvous again to carry out this great national enterprise, is the 
fervent prayer of your attached friend, 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
CAPTAIN WM. L. HUDSON, 

Peacock. 



APPENDIX. 307 



XXVI. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 
Orange Harbour, Terra del Fuego, 

February 22d, 1839. 
Sm, 

The Sea-Gull, placed under your charge, will be attached to the 
Porpoise. I cannot impress upon you too strongly the necessity of 
keeping company, as the safety of the crews of both vessels may 
otherwise be hazarded ; you will, therefore, use every means in your 
power to prevent a separation. 

1st. You will keep a strict daily journal of every occurrence relative 
to your co-operations with the Porpoise. 

2d. A skeleton chart will be furnished you, comprising the latitudes 
and longitudes in which you will cruise, upon which chart an accurate 
track will be laid down of her route ; also the position of all land, 
islands of ice, &c., which may be observed. Astronomical bearings, 
when the weather will permit, will be preferable for this purpose. 

3d. You will enter also in your journal, the variation of the compass, 
morning and evening ; sketches of refractions, and minute observations 
of all phenomena that may be seen ; also, sketches of stratifications of 
ice, temperature of the water on the weather and lee sides of ice- 
islands, &c. ; the form and direction of currents, and the apparent 
formation of the ice ; also the collection and preservation of any 
specimens of earth or stones that may be discovered on the ice, and 
the appearance of any halos, auroras australis, &c. 

4th. In the event of parting company, you will rendezvous, first, for 
the Porpoise, off Cape Melville, George's Island, in latitude 61 55' S., 
longitude 58 W., to remain two days ; and, secondly, at and near the 
coast of the east side of Palmer's Land. You will, in such a case of 
separation, avoid by all possible means being shut up in the ice, and 
will, on the probability of such an event, proceed at once to Deception 
Island, which harbour you will if possible enter, and deposit in a 
grave formed of stones, on the north side of the entrance of the 
harbour, information relative to your parting company, &c. ; and you 
will remain there for orders as long as your safety will allow, and 
while there you will hunt for and examine a self-registering thermo- 
meter, left there some time since on the point forming the cove. 

5th. You will give particular attention to the health and comfort of 
til 



398 APPENDIX. 

all on board, and you have an ample supply of provisions, clothing, 
preserved meats, antiscorbutics, &c. 

Wishing you a safe and successful cruise, 

I am, &c., 

CHARLES WILKES, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
LIEUTENANT R. E. JOHNSON, 

In charge of Tender Sea-GulL 



XXVII. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 
Orange Harbour, Terra del Fuego, 

February 22d, 1839. 
SIR, 

The tender Flying-Fish, placed under your charge, will be attached 
to the Peacock, and under the orders of Captain Hudson, during the 
present cruise. 

1st. I cannot impress too strongly on your mind the necessity of 
avoiding, under any circumstances, parting company with the Peacock, 
as the safety of all on board that vessel may be hazarded thereby; 
every means will be taken therefore to prevent a separation. 

2d. You will keep a strict daily journal of every occurrence relative 
to your co-operations with that vessel. 

3d. A skeleton chart is furnished you, comprising the latitudes and 
longitudes in which you will cruise, and on which chart an accurate 
track must be laid down of the route, daily; also, the positions of all 
land, islands of ice, &c., which may be observed. Astronomical bear- 
ings, when the weather will permit, are preferable for this purpose. 

4th. You will also enter on your journal, the variation of the 
compass, morning and evening; sketches of refractions, and minute 
observations of all phenomena that may be seen ; also, sketches of the 
stratification of ice, temperature of the water on the weather and lee 
sides of the islands, the form and direction of currents, and the 
apparent formation of the ice ; also, the collection and preservation of 
any stones, specimens of earth, &c., that may be discovered on the 
ice, and the appearance of any halos, auroras australis, &c. 

5th. If you should unfortunately be separated from the Peacock, the 
following rendezvous are fixed by Captain Hudson, for meeting again, 
if possible : 

1st Latitude 62 S., longitude 80 W., to wait half a day. 
2d. " 64 " 90 " one " 

3d. " 65 " 100 " " " 

4th. " 66 " 105 



APPENDIX. 399 

And you will seek the nearest to the above named, coasting along 
the ice as near as possible, and locating your position on your skeleton 
chart. 

6th. The Peacock will pursue the route laid down in the orders to 
Captain Hudson, of which the following is an extract, and will give 
you an idea of the intended cruise, viz. : 

" On sailing from here you will proceed to longitude 105 W. 
(Cook's Ne Plus Ultra) ; from thence extend your researches as far to 
the southward and eastward as you can reach, without rendering 
yourself liable to be closed in by the ice. 

"You will then navigate to the southward and eastward, until you 
reach the western side of Palmer's or Graham's Land, as it is called 
on the charts. 

" It is believed that the latter part of the season will afford you an 
opportunity of penetrating here further south than has yet been done, 
and possibly meet an extension of Palmer's Land, more to the west- 
ward ; if you should succeed, you will trace it to the eastward, and 
return by the southward and eastward side of it to this anchorage, 
(thus circumnavigating this land,) unless you should receive any infor- 
mation from me previously. 

" In your progress from Cook's Ne Plus Ultra, of longitude 105 W., 
you will endeavour to get more and more to the southward, if possible, 
and reach to the southward of the small islands of Peter I., and 
Alexander, the farthest land south discovered by the Russians in 1821, 
and fall in with what Briscoe has denominated Graham's or Palmer's 
Land, (its proper American name.) I am of the opinion that it 
extends much farther to the southward and westward than where 
Briscoe saw the Adelaide Mountains. 

" Your endeavours must be to get to the south of Peter I., and 
Alexander Islands, or south of the Russian track." 

7th. In the event of your separating from the Peacock, and not 
joining her again, which, however, is not probable, you will coast 
along the ice, agreeably to directions, as far as it may be prudent and 
safe, and proceed to Deception Island for information in regard to us, 
which if there, will be found in a sailor's grave, at the north of the 
entrance of the harbour, where you will deposit a communication; 
and in the absence of other orders, you will proceed to this anchorage, 
where you will find me, or orders on the summit of Burnt Island, at 
the flagstaff; in the absence of which, or any of the squadron, you 
will proceed direct to Valparaiso. 

8th. You will attend particularly to the health and comfort of all 
on board ; you have ten months' provisions on board for the crew, and 



400 APPENDIX. 

an ample supply of warm clothing, antiscorbutics, preserved meats, 
&c., in the event of detention, which will be expended in the most 
judicious manner. 

Wishing you a safe and successful cruise, 

I am, &c., 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

P. S. You will, if possible, obtain from Deception Island a self- 
registering thermometer, said to have been left some time since on the 
point of the cove. 

To LIEUT. WM. L. WALKER, 

In charge of Tender Flying-Fish. 



XXVIII. 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS, FOR BOAT DUTY, SURVEYING, ETC. 

IMMEDIATELY after anchoring in position, you will hoist your dis- 
tinguishing pennant, keeping it up till every thing is done, such as 
distance measured, astronomical bearings taken on one of the vessels, 
the angle between her and the others ; also, angles on any thing 
remarkable on shore, such as headlands, flag or signal staves, huts, 
trees, &c. When ready to change your position, haul down your dis- 
tinguishing pennant ; and when ready to measure the base or distance 
by sound, which is the first thing to be done after you are in position, 
hoist your ensign at the fore ; as soon as all the vessels have answered, 
you will dip it and fire in a few seconds ; run up the ensign again, and 
repeat firing three times. 

To communicate the elapsed time to this vessel, hoist the distin- 
guishing pennant of the vessel whose distance is to be shown, and 
with it the " number" indicating the number of seconds ; the quarter, 
half, or three-quarters, may be designated by hoisting the first, second, 
and third repeaters under all, thus the third repeater under No. 18, 
would signify eighteen and three-quarters seconds of time. It will be 
seen, therefore, that when it is necessary to repeat a number, one of a 
similar denomination must be used, as another signification is given to 
the repeaters. 

The astronomical bearings may be communicated in the following 
manner, with the distinguishing pennant of the vessel whose bearing 
is to be shown : hoist the " number" indicating the degrees with the 



APPENDIX. 401 

cornet above, if the bearing be from the north, but under, if from the 
south ; then the corresponding numbers for the minutes and seconds ; 
with the preparatory pennant, if to the east, or without it, if to the 
west, thus : the cornet under 56, would signify S. 56 ; then 04-26, 
would correspond, 04' and 26" W., or, the whole being put together, 
would stand, S. 56, 04' 26" W. 

Each officer, before leaving the ship, will see that his boat is fur- 
nished with water and provisions for three days for her crew ; that 
her oars, spars, and sails are in good order, compass, sextant, spy-glass, 
log-line and current-log, leads and lines, grapnel and lines for mooring, 
materials for striking a light, lantern, and field-book ; also, that their 
watches have been set to ship's time. 

The boats will be divided into parties or divisions ; each division 
will be under the orders of an officer appointed to take the charge, 
who will receive the general instructions for the day, and who will 
wear their boat ensigns as a distinguishing mark. 

The formula of the field-books will be understood as follows : 

At the head of each page the name of the boat and the date will be inserted. 
In column 1st. The time of taking the angles. 
2d. The soundings, and their nature. 
3d. The soundings reduced. 

4th. The name of the object and the angle to the left of the observer. 
5th. The name of the centre objects only, unless there be three angles 
measured ; then, the centre angle will be inserted with both the 
centre objects. 
6th. The name of the object and the angle to the right of the observer. 

Officers are expected to note any observations on the current, 
soundings, &c., that they may deem necessary to make the results 
less liable to misconstruction, and obviate explanation. 

When a line of soundings extends to, or commences at the shore, 
the point must be accurately fixed by at least three angles, and the 
shore sketched in on both sides for some hundred yards, or to some 
well-defined object. 

The daily orders must be carried into strict execution ; and if an 
officer does not clearly understand, or perceive any difficulty therein, 
he will so state before leaving the vessel. 

If a boat should require assistance, she will hoist the blue flag, or 
No. 5. 

After returning on board, each officer will furnish his commanding 
officer with a copy of his day's work, with the soundings reduced to 
the standard ; a diagram of his boat's track ; and, if co-operating with 
other boats, their relative positions at each anchorage ; it being under- 

VOL. i. 50 



402 APPENDIX. 

stood in the diagrams, that the top of the paper will always represent 
the north. 

In case of night coming on, the vessels will, if their boats have not 
joined them, fire a gun and then a rocket, the first to call attention, 
the latter to give the direction ; the rocket will be repeated every 
fifteen minutes, and the gun every half hour ; keeping up their night 
distinguishing signals till their respective boats have returned ; and 
when any boat joins them other than their own, to remain the night 
from stress of weather, fog, or any other cause, the vessel will fire two 
guns in quick succession. 

CHARLES WILKES, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

February 22d, 1839. 



XXIX. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE VINCENNES. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Orange Harbour, Feb. 23d, 1839. 

LIEUTENANT CRAVEN will enforce strictly the regulations of the ship. 

The following officers are left on board the ship for duty, viz. 
Lieutenant Carr ; Lieutenant Alden ; Purser Waldron ; Chaplain 
Elliott ; Acting-Master North ; Passed Midshipmen Totten, Reynolds, 
May, and Sandford ; Acting Midshipmen Clemson, Thompson, Clarke, 
and Elliott : and the four forward officers. 

1st. Lieutenant Craven will have the men who have been transferred 
temporarily to this ship, stationed and quartered at the guns, dividing 
the officers in such divisions that they may be regularly exercised 
agreeably to the rules and regulations. 

2d. Lieutenant Craven will have all the sails, boats, rigging, and 
equipments of every description, overhauled and repaired. 

3d. The comfort and health of the crew will claim his particular 
attention, the regularity of their meals, and the avoiding unnecessary 
exposure to the cold, &c. 

4th. The baking of bread, it is desirable should be carried into 
operation, in order that as small a quantity of ship's bread should be 
used as possible. For this purpose, the oven is to be erected on the 
gun-deck, and which it is anticipated by constant use will be sufficient 
for this purpose ; if, however, from any defect, it should prove other- 
wise, recourse must be had to serving out flour in lieu of ship's bread. 



APPENDIX. 403 

5th. Every opportunity must be taken advantage of to supply the 
crew with fish, wild celery, &c., and a proportion suffered to visit the 
shore when the work and weather will permit, who must return in 
proper season, (early in the afternoon, by supper-time,) on board. 

6th. The sheet cables will be kept constantly bent, and an anchor- 
watch duly observed, night and day ; the three passed midshipmen 
and Mr. North, will keep the watches regularly ; and the deck is never 
to be left without one of them, and a midshipman. 

7th. When his duties will permit, he will employ his time, and that 
of the crew, in dredging and fishing, and all specimens will be care- 
fully preserved, and drawings made of them. 

8th. He will give all the assistance and afford every facility in his 
power, to aid the duties confided to Lieutenants Carr and Alden. 

Lieutenant Carr will attend to the astronomical and other observa- 
tions (including tides) on shore, in which he will be assisted by Dr. 
Fox and Chaplain Elliott, so far as the former's duties will permit for 
this purpose. The observatory-house is to be set up on shore, and 
other arrangements made suitable for the accommodations of them 
and ten men, with a boat : this position will be in what is called Forge 
Cove, on the weather side, near the anchorage of this ship. 

Lieutenant Alden is charged with the survey and examination of the 
northern side of Hermit Islands, and the passages between them and 
Terra del Fuego, including Goree Road, and the two small islands 
between the two. All kelp that he may discover is to examined ; also 
the anchorage under Lenox and New Islands ; and to make a careful 
examination of all other places that may seem to offer security for ves- 
sels from the prevailing winds ; making notes and taking bearings that 
may serve for directions for vessels seeking shelter. Also the coast 
between False Cape Horn and Weddell Cape, which is to the west- 
ward of this harbour, being the parts of this coast that have not been 
sufficiently examined by Captain King. 

He will be accompanied by a passed midshipman on this duty : the 
launch is to be fitted with her deck, sails, &c., with a crew of ten men, 
and provisions, among which are included preserved meats, &c., for 
twenty days, and a small whale-boat (the Fox), or another, if deemed 
more suitable, a tent, and every other convenience that he may deem 
requisite to make the service efficient and comfortable to the party. 
He will proceed on this duty as soon after my departure as his prepa- 
rations and the weather will permit ; and great hopes are entertained 
that he will be enabled to complete these arduous and important duties 
before my return. This service is considered a hazardous one, and he 
will use every endeavour to avoid risking himself, men, and boats, as 



404 APPENDIX. 

in the event of any loss of the latter, much detention would result to 
the after operations of the Expedition. 

It is hoped that Lieutenant Alden will be enabled, prior to this duty 
being undertaken, to finish the chart of the Rio Negro. 

Acting-Master North will assist Lieutenant Carr in the care and 
attention to the chronometers, their rate, observations, &c. 

It is expected that all passed midshipmen, and midshipmen, will 
exert themselves in carrying out the various and important duties 
confided to them at this anchorage. 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition 



XXX. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 
Orange Harbour, Terra del Fuego, 

February 23d, 1839. 
SIR, 

You will receive on board the U. S. Ship Relief, under your com- 
mand, the scientific gentlemen, who have been transferred from this ship 
and the Peacock, to the Relief, for scientific duty during the present 
cruise, and you will afford them every possible facility and accommo- 
dation to enable them to make such observations and collections as 
may be in their power. 

1st. You will proceed without delay to the Straits of Magellan, 
entering by the west through Brecknock Passage, Cockburn's Channel, 
and Magdalene Sound. 

2d. Captain King's chart of the Straits of Magellan may be depended 
on for all requisite information ; his book of directions will also give 
you a full knowledge of the tides, currents, anchorages, &c. ; I would 
recommend its attentive examination. 

3d. You will keep full and complete journals of all your observations 
as heretofore, in regard to the soundings, temperature, &c. 

4th. You will on anchoring set up tide-staves, and enter all observa- 
tions agreeably to our formula ; and you will continue your meteoro- 
logical journal hourly. 

5th. Should you experience any gales or storms, you will note their 
progress, from the commencement to the end, with their appearance, 
&c. ; and any occurrence of interest will be immediately noted in 
your journal. 

6th. You will also explore and survey Useless Bay in the Straits of 
Magellan, and connect your observations, &c., with Captain King's 



APPENDIX. 405 

chart; and you will stop at Port Famine, on your way there and 
back, and such other safe harbours as may appear to offer advantages 
for scientific observations and collections ; and you will return to this 
anchorage by the Straits of Le Maire, on or before the 15th of April 
next, if possible, where you will find me, or orders on the summit of 
Burnt Island ; in the absence of which, you will proceed direct to 
Valparaiso. 

7th. The north side of the Straits of Magellan affords at all times 
good anchorage ; you will keep it close on board. 

8th. The period of your absence must not exceed fifty days, if it 
can be avoided ; during which time I have no doubt all on board will 
exert themselves in making the best possible use of the short space of 
time allowed. 

9th. You will avoid being blown off to the eastward, as in such 
event the Expedition will suffer. 

10th. Should any accident happen to the Relief, you will despatch 
without delay a boat to this anchorage, under charge of an officer, 
through the route you are to enter, pursuing thence Whale-Boat and 
Darwin Sounds, through the Beagle Channel, as far as the passage 
of Host and Navarin Islands, thence into Nassau Bay to Orange 
Harbour. 

llth. Mr. Percival has been ordered to the Relief as pilot; he has 
been in the Straits of Magellan, and will afford you all the aid in his 
power. 

You will give particular attention to the health and comfort of all 
under your command. 

Wishing you a safe and successful cruise, 

I am, &c., 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

LIEUT. COM. A. K. LONG, 

U. S. Ship Relief: 



XXXI. 

U. S. Ship Peacock, 
At Sea, lat. 60 S., long. 84 W., 

April 1st, 1839. 
SIR, 

After separating from you in Orange Bay on the 25th of February, 
I proceeded with the tender Flying-Fish, under the command of 
Lieutenant Walker, to carry out your instructions, in making a recog- 
nizance south. On the afternoon of the 26th, a few miles to the west- 
si 



406 APPENDIX. 

ward of the islands of Diego Ramieres, we encountered a gale, in 
which we lay-to forty hours, in the course of which we parted from 
our little consort, although we had observed all the precautions of 
firing guns, burning blue-lights, &c. ; after waiting in vain fourteen 
hours, with the hope of again meeting her, we resumed our course for 
the first rendezvous I had appointed with Lieutenant Walker, in the 
event of separation ; that, as well as some of the others, we were 
unable to reach, from a succession of westerly gales and boisterous 
weather. To have persevered in working up for them would have 
consumed the little time we could yet hope for in the advanced state 
of the season, for our further progress south. 

Without troubling you with a more minute detail of occurrences, 
suffice it to say, that on the llth of March, we fell in with the first 
icebergs, in the latitude of 63 30' S., and longitude of 80 W., after 
which time they were our constant companions (and on more than one 
occasion very troublesome ones) until we reached the latitude of 68 08' 
S., and longitude of 95 44' W., where to my great joy, we fell in with 
the Flying-Fish, and learned from Lieutenant Walker that he had 
passed near most of the appointed rendezvous, and worked down from 
105 W., until he reached about 70 S.; that the whole surface of the 
ocean in the direction of south and west presented a perfect and im- 
passable barrier of ice ; that he had been completely frozen in for a 
short time on the 23d, and the ice forming rapidly around him, when, 
fortunately, a breeze of wind rescued him from his perilous situation. 
When we fell in with him, he was endeavouring to push his way north. 

From the time of our first falling in with icebergs, we had been 
daily passing great numbers (as will be shown by the chart), and 
encountered on the 17th and part of the 18th, the heaviest gale and 
eea we have experienced since we left the United States ; the thermo- 
meter in the air at that time standing at 21 of Fahrenheit, and the 
water at 28 ; the ship completely coated with ice, every spray thrown 
over her freezing, and about her bows and head fairly packed with 
it. From the 19th to the 25th, we were without a sight of the sun 
or sky, surrounded by ice and icebergs, within the most neighbourly 
distance. During a lift of the fog, for a few moments only, on the 
morning of the 22d, and by the aid of an ice-blink, we discovered an 
extended range of icebergs and field-ice in mass, presenting a perfect 
barrier to our further progress south in that direction ; and so com- 
pletely were we hemmed in by icebergs on that occasion, that I was 
compelled to carry all the canvass on the ship that she would bear, 
and work her out into some more open position, through a fog so 
dense as to limit our view to two or three times the length of the ship. 



APPENDIX. 407 

In doing this, we of course kept well prepared, as the different icebergs 
popped upon us, to tack, ware, or perform such other evolutions as 
were found necessary to avoid them. 

On the evening of the 25th of March, having reached the latitude 
of 68 08' S., and then in longitude 95 44' W., (we had been as far 
west as 97 58',) with the air at 29, and the water 30 of Fahrenheit, 
having had it much lower, as far back as the 17th, and to the north- 
ward of us, where the ship was covered with ice, as well as some 
parts of her gun-deck, the sun having crossed the equator, and made 
some northern declination; the shortness of the days here, and the 
little time allowed for running the ship amongst icebergs, without 
much hazard, in consequence of fogs and snow-storms ; the miserable 
condition of the Peacock for a winter's campaign, in the event of 
being frozen in ; the masses of ice we had yet to pass through on our 
return, and the nature of my instructions : these circumstances, com- 
bined with the report of Lieutenant Walker, premonished me of the 
necessity of turning the ship's head towards a more temperate climate. 

It required more moral courage to bring my mind to this decision 
than I can well describe, for we had at that moment less ice about us 
than at any time since we had entered its neighbourhood ; and had I 
followed my own inclinations merely, and allowed the promptings of 
ambition, or love of praise, to have governed my decisions, regardless 
of the future operations of the Expedition, the lives of my officers and 
men, and the trust reposed in me by the government, I should indeed 
have been unworthy of the trust I hold, and ever felt a consciousness, 
that whatever more might have been achieved, by any further attempt 
south, at that late season, would have been acquired only by recklessly 
hazarding, what an honest conviction of duty to my country, and the 
lives intrusted to my care, most decidedly forbade. 

We observed the aurora australis for the first time on the night of 
the 15th of March, in the latitude of 65 24' S., and again on the 16th, 
18th, and 26th. On the night of the 18th, an arc of pale twilight was 
described in the southern quarter, reaching an altitude of twelve 
degrees, and extending from southwest to southeast ; both above and 
below the arc were horizontal sheets of dark stratus clouds, and 
between the lower strata and the horizon, a suspended bank of mist or 
vapour, having all the appearance of a shadow cast on the sky ; rays 
of light were continually being thrown out along the whole extent of 
the arc, assuming various hues, of pale red, light blue, violet, and 
straw-coloured tints ; radiating towards the zenith, and reaching alti- 
tudes of from twenty-five to forty-five degrees. These exhibitions 
were confined to that particular portion of the horizon, and continued 



408 APPENDIX. 

through the greater part of the night, which was of the clearest star- 
light, the Southern Cross garnishing the zenith, and the Magellan 
clouds showing more distinctly than I had ever before seen them. 
The weather, during our cruise south, was very unfavourable for 
witnessing any very splendid exhibitions of the aurora ; for, with few 
exceptions, during our stay in the Antarctic Circle, we were enveloped 
in dense fogs, or found only occasional relief from such falls of snow, 
as may fairly be classed with any one of our old-fashioned snow- 
storms at home. 

The greatest dip obtained, from the experiments with Dolland's 
needle, was 78 ; and in the latitude of 68 S., we found nearly four 
points easterly variation. 

Mr. Peale has been fortunate enough to obtain as specimens, some 
new and rare Antarctic birds. 

The officers and crew have enjoyed excellent health, been prompt 
and efficient in the performance of their respective duties ; and for 
their cordial co-operation and aid in carrying out my views, deserve 
my warmest thanks ; and I beg you will officially say so in your report 
to the Honourable Secretary of the Navy. I herewith enclose you 
Lieutenant Walker's report, who certainly deserves, with his officers 
and men, great credit for his perseverance. 

I have drawn up this report in great haste, for the purpose of 
despatching the Flying-Fish to you, with the earliest intelligence, and 
shall proceed direct to Valparaiso, to carry out your instructions there. 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed) WM. L. HUDSON, 

Commanding U. S. Ship Peacock. 
CAPTAIN CHARLES WILKES, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 



U. S. Schooner Flying-Fish, 

At Sea, March 26th, 1839. 
SIR, 

In obedience to your order of to-day, I have the honour to report, 
that after separating from you on the evening of the 26th ultimo, we 
hove-to under a reefed foresail until near meridian the next day, when, 
the gale moderating, we kept off the wind, with the hope of again 
falling in with you; and on the evening of the next day made a large 
sail to the northward of us, standing to the westward ; we imme- 
diately gave chase, but on coming up, made her out to be a British 
merchantman. 

We then stood to the westward for our first rendezvous, with strong 



APPENDIX. 409 

gales from about south-southwest to west-by-north, accompanied by a 
very large sea, vessel labouring much, decks and ways becoming 
leaky, but sustained no material damage until the 5th March, when 
our jib was badly split. 

On the 7th, we reached our first rendezvous, and whilst lying-to 
there in a heavy gale, our decks were frequently swept by the sea, 
and boats crushed. On the night of the same, the sea boarded us, 
ripped off the companion-slide, washed the larboard binnacle from its 
cleats and lashings overboard, injured the helmsman and look-out, and 
half filled the cabin. 

On the evening of the next day, the wind moderating, set the 
reefed mainsail, but the vessel sending violently in the old sea, parted 
the reef-pendant, and tore the sail badly ; took in the second reef and 
set it. 

On the 9th, the leakage increasing from stress of weather, were 
obliged to move aft all the bread, replacing its weight in the bread- 
room by less perishable stores. 

On the llth, in the morning, found our new jib nearly gone from the 
stay, but one or two hanks remaining ; got it in, and afterwards bent 
it with a lacing ; set the reefed mainsail, and lowered the foresail for 
repairs ; parted again the reef-pendant of the mainsail ; took the third 
reef in it ; finished the repairs of the foresail, set it, and furled the 
mainsail. 

We were now up with our second rendezvous ; but the wind growing 
fresh and the sea rising, the weather thick, with a heavy fall of snow, 
and feeling confident I should only lose time by heaving-to, stood on 
for the third rendezvous. 

I have been particular in stating our losses in sails, as it was one of 
the heavy causes of our not reaching the rendezvous sooner. I had 
determined on making the old sails last, if possible, for the passage 
south, reserving the better suit for our return, when, from the lateness 
of the season, I believed we should encounter, if possible, more tem- 
pestuous weather ; and owing to the close stowage of the hold, it 
would have been no trifling labour under the circumstances to have 
broken out for them ; and, furthermore, the old suit would necessarily 
have gone below wet, to increase the discomfort of the already com- 
fortless condition of the 'tween decks. 

The weather continuing much the same, with the addition of rain, 
hail, and snow, in almost every watch on the 14th and 15th, we 
reached the third rendezvous, where we hove-to for nearly twenty- 
four-hours. 

I now despaired of again joining you, but nevertheless felt it my 
VOL. i. 212 51 



410 APPENDIX. 

duty to run over the track laid down for me, and on the 18th reached 
the fourth and last rendezvous, having passed the 17th in the vicinity. 
We turned our head south for Cook's Ne Plus Ultra, the longitude 
alone being specified in the instructions we continued our course to 
the southward, the weather at times very thick, ice-islands becoming 
numerous, and occasionally passing a little floating ice, until half-past 
11 P.M., of the 19th, when it became so abundant and in such large 
masses around us, that we hove-to until daylight, frequently filling to 
avoid damage from it. 

At four o'clock A. M., we again stood on, but were soon again from 
the same causes obliged to heave-to. At this time the water was much 
discoloured, and much of the ice also having the appearance of being 
but lately detached from land. 1 1 got a cast of the lead in one hundred 
fathoms, no bottom. The same discoloration of the water I after- 
wards observed always in the vicinity of extensive masses of ice ; and 
thought it might possibly be produced by refraction. At eight o'clock 
the fog suddenly lifted, and to the amazement of all on deck, disclosed 
to us a wall of ice, from fifteen to twenty feet high, extending east and 
west as far as the eye could reach, and spreading out into a vast and 
seemingly boundless field to the southward, and so close under the lee 
that I did not venture to ware, but after getting the foresail on her, 
stood on to the westward, luffing and bearing away alternately to avoid 
a dangerous contact with large detached masses, with which the sea 
was filled in all directions. At length finding a place sufficiently clear 
to put the helm down, we worked out, with the same risk, to the east- 
ward, and at nine o'clock had reached a comparatively smooth sea. 
Our latitude at this time about 67 20' S., longitude 105 W. ; extre- 
mities of the field, as far as visible, bearing per compass east-by-north 
and southwest-half-west. 

It was formed of various sized masses, of all shapes, and shapeless, 
and of several colours, a dingy white (if I may say so) prevailing. 
Continued to coast along the ice until meridian, when, seeing large ice 
ahead, and weather thick, hauled to the northward, and soon ran into 
blue water. At 2 p. M., weather clearing a little and sea tolerably 
clear, stood to the southward and eastward, and at 3 h 20 m , saw the ice 
in unbroken ranks, bearing from west-by-south to southeast-by-south. 
At four, the weather very thick, stood to the northward and eastward ; 
water discoloured : at the time of taking the above last bearings, our 
view not extending beyond a few miles. 

At six o'clock, weather lighting up, discovered field-ice distant 
about four miles, bearing from southeast to east per compass, passing 
through floating ice. At eight, lowered the foresail, and hove-to head 



APPENDIX. 411 

to the northward, winds moderate, with thick rainy weather, but finding 
her drifting upon the ice seen before dark, filled and stood to the north- 
ward and eastward. At ten, the ice thickening around us, tacked to 
the westward. From eleven to midnight saw no ice, but hearing a 
crashing sound to the northward, were for some time apprehensive 
that we might be embayed ; however, having nothing to direct us in 
the gloom, we continued under easy sail our course to the westward. 

March 21st, latitude at meridian observed, 68 41' S., longitude, 
chronometer, 103 34' W. At four o'clock this morning was on deck, 
and as soon as the weather cleared a little, hauled up to the north- 
ward, to get clear of the field, which we had every reason to suppose 
extended far to the eastward and westward of us. After attaining the 
position which we felt confident would at least give us an open sea to 
the westward, we kept off, gradually feeling our way to the eastward. 
At seven, saw the ice extending in broken ranges from south-by-east 
to northeast, and the whitish glare on the horizon, (which our expe- 
rience had already informed us was an unfailing indication of its 
presence,) extending far round to the westward. At eight o'clock, 
water discoloured, and many immense ice-islands around us, which 
accounted for the broken appearance that had, been presented at 
seven. The wind being fair, and being able to see a safe distance, 
(two or three miles,) I ventured to give her southing, running through 
the islands, and at 4 p. M. were making south true, eight knots: this we 
continued until eight, when we reefed the mainsail, and lowered the 
foresail, with the intention of standing on during the night, flattering 
ourselves we should get beyond Cook, before noon; but, alas, our 
hopes were blasted in the bud : it soon became so thick we could not 
see at all. Having some floating ice around us, and having seen the 
unfailing indication of ice to leeward, before dark, we most reluctantly 
hauled over the jib-sheet and hove-to ; the wind soon freshened to a 
gale, with a rising sea. 

March 22d, latitude, at meridian, about 70 S., longitude 101 16' 
W. From meridian to four, fresh northwesterly winds, with rain, the 
weather lighting up at intervals, showing us to be in the midst of 
innumerable ice-islands, so closely packed as scarce affording us a 
passage between them ; though still lying-to, we were obliged to luff 
and bear away for thirteen of them. At four, making short tacks to 
the northward and westward, islands, field, and drift-ice, in every 
direction, and close around us. 

From four to eight, I was on deck, and after looking round upon the 
goodly company, selected the icebergs as my " compagnons du voyage ;" 
the wind was still fresh, and the weather misty. I stood to the north- 



412 APPENDIX. 

ward and eastward, and when in doubt, hove-to, to windward of an 
island, and drifted down in its wake ; when finding a passage clear, 
would again fall back on our own resources, flat sails and a pilot- 
boat's bottom. 

The weather grew thicker and intensely cold, though the thermo- 
meter did not fall below 30 ; I attributed these changes to the ice to 
windward, and, believing we were getting into a clear sea, I stepped 
below to stick my toes in the stove. I had not been below certainly 
five minutes, when the look-out called to me that the fog had lifted, 
and that we were surrounded. I jumped on deck, and such was too 
truly the case : narrow fields of ice, with narrow passages of water 
between, and extending longitudinally in a direction perpendicular to 
the wind, formed a complete circle round us, stretching in all direc- 
tions as far as the eye could reach, and beyond, icebergs, packed and 
floating ice. I did not know at first how I should proceed ; but, after 
a careful look round, I ran over to the weather shore of the pond, and 
stood along it in search of a passage, that I could not find ; but, 
observing at intervals " sutures" in the ice, where it did not appear 
firmly formed, I resolved to take advantage of this, and, if possible, 
force a passage, feeling it necessary at all hazards, to extricate our- 
selves as soon as possible. Having the wind free, I gave her the main- 
sheet, and manned it well, and having got about six knots way on her, 
kept close to the ice, and when at the proper distance, put the helm 
down, hauled the main-sheet forcibly to windward, and let fly the 
head-sheets ; this brought her round suddenly, before she had passed 
through sufficient water to deaden her way ; the ice cracked, we 
slipped over, or brushed through, and before eight o'clock I had got 
into a tolerably clear sea. The weather again growing thick, the 
wind freshening, and sea getting up, fatigued with labour and anxiety, 
we hove-to, under the foresail with the bonnet ofF; and I believe all 
must have returned thanks to Heaven for their deliverance. 

From eight to meridian, fresh gales and weather very thick, with 
innumerable ice-islands, which we frequently passed at a dangerous 
proximity, owing to their number, and our limited vision, the sea 
breaking on them with the roar of thunder, and to the height of eighty 
to one hundred feet ; I do not believe a ship could have passed these 
dangers ; frequently we felt cramped in stays or in waring. At ten, 
the sea tolerably clear, again stood to the southward and westward. 
At meridian, obliged to haul to the westward, many icebergs, and 
floating ice in large masses around us. At 4 p. M., weather clearing a 
little, discovered a field ahead ; wore to the southward and westward. 
Until midnight, working to the northward and westward, many islands, 



APPENDIX. 413 

loose tracts, and floating ice passing ; weather generally so thick as not 
to be able to see two hundred feet. From eight to midnight, passed 
twenty-five islands. At 10 h 45 m , weather clear for a short time ; saw 
the ice extending from southwest to northeast. At midnight, sea 
clearer ; sails and rigging stiff with ice. 

March 23d, latitude, at meridian, about 69 17' S., longitude 100 30' 
W. This day the weather has been clearer than for some time past. 
At daylight, intended keeping away to fix position of field-ice, but 
about that time the weather became very thick ; hove-to until seven 
o'clock, when, no prospect of the weather clearing, stood to the north- 
ward and eastward. The sea now became tolerably clear, yet the 
passage of floating ice and icebergs still devolved the necessity of a 
bright look-out. In the afternoon, stood to the southward and east- 
ward, and for three hours observed appearances of land; but at 
3 h 30 m , discovered large masses of ice, and numerous icebergs. At 
six, the ice bore from south to east, standing to the northward and 
eastward ; water much discoloured. At midnight, the southern horizon 
brilliantly illuminated by the aurora australis. 

March 24th, latitude, at meridian, about 69 06' S., longitude 96 50' 
W. From four to eight had moderate northwesterly winds, with 
snow ; weather hazy. From eight to meridian, moderate breezes, 
with a heavy fall of snow ; first part passed many icebergs, and large 
quantities of floating ice. At 10 h 30 m , got suddenly into large fields 
of packed and broken ice, extending as far as the eye could reach, in 
all directions, and which, by the assistance of the snow, (which, in the 
clearer spots, laid, undisturbed on the surface,) appeared to be rapidly 
becoming solid; the sea was cut off by the larger masses to windward, 
and to add to our anxiety the wind appeared declining : we lost no 
time in forcing out to windward, as on the former occasion. The 
vessel seeming ill-constructed for such rough contusions, and very 
fearful that her copper would be cut through, we cut up the boards in 
the spare-cabin berths to preserve it ; but after getting into clearer 
water, the sea became too heavy, and while within the field I did not 
think we could spare the time to get them on. I am well convinced, 
and such was the general opinion on board, that within a short time 
after we cleared it, it became a firm field of ice. Having on two 
distinct occasions narrowly escaped being closed in by the ice, our 
want of fuel, the general unfitness of the vessel, and want of prepara- 
tions for such an emergency, my " Instructions" called upon me most 
imperiously to return; and I put our head to the northward, deter- 
mined to keep it so until we should change our temperature ; which, 
with a proper ambition to get beyond previous navigators, I did the 



414 APPENDIX. 

less reluctantly, as I felt confident the season for operations in these 
latitudes had already passed, the sun being already in northern 
declination, and little assistance to be expected from the moon and 
stars. 

On the 25th of March I fell in with you again, sir. It had been my 
intention that day at noon to stand to the eastward, and, if I found the 
sea sufficiently clear, to pass to the southward and eastward of the 
island of Peter L, in quest of the western extremity of Palmer's Land, 
and thence to execute what should remain unexecuted of my " Instruc- 
tions," with which you are well acquainted. 

Fearful of an early separation from you, in the thick weather now 
so prevalent in these latitudes, I have hurriedly drawn up this report, 
which I trust will excuse its deficiency in minute details, for which I 
beg leave to refer you to my journal (which I shall lose no time in 
submitting to you), and to the log-book, and other journals of the 
schooner. 

I cannot close, sir, without expressing my entire satisfaction with 
the conduct of the crew of the schooner ; they have now been wet for 
thirty days, suffering from cold, and frequently covered with ice and 
snow ; indeed, in my experience, I have never known men subjected 
to equal hardships. From such causes, from two to three of the 
number have generally been unfit for duty ; nevertheless, the remainder 
have displayed an enthusiasm for the service in which they have been 
engaged, and have performed their duties with a cheerfulness and 
alacrity that, if equalled, I have never seen surpassed. I confidently 
trust that you will so represent their conduct to the commander-in- 
chief, that it may be distinguished by a public expression of his appro- 
bation. 

In conclusion, sir, I must acknowledge my indebtedness to the skill 
and experience of Mr. Knox, and the ready attention of Mr. Ham- 
mersly, from whom I have received the most hearty co-operation. 

Very respectfully, yours, &c., 

(Signed) WILLIAM M. WALKER, 

Commanding U. S. Schooner Flying-Fish. 

WILLIAM L. HUDSON, ESQ., 

Commanding U. S. Ship Peacock, and Schooner Flying-Fish. 

In looking over this communication, I believe it better to state that 
the appearance noticed in the ice, and of which I have made mention 
on the third page, amounted to a deep earthy stain. I cannot pretend 
to account for it. 



APPENDIX. 415 



XXXII. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Orange Harbour, April 17th, 1839. 
SIR, 

You will await here, until the 23d instant, for the arrival of the 
Relief; and when she arrives, you will immediately receive on board 
the gentlemen whom Lieutenant-Commandant Long may transfer to 
the Sea-Gull. You will afford them the best possible accommodation, 
and proceed with all despatch to Valparaiso, where you will find me 
or orders. 

Should the Relief not arrive here on or before the 23d instant, you 
will proceed on the 24th, without delay, to Valparaiso. 

You will report to Lieutenant-Commandant Long, on his arrival, 
and show him this order, after which your detention must not exceed 
six hours, as it is important you should reach Valparaiso. 

If you should discover the Relief off, you will run out to take the 
passengers on board, with as little delay as possible. 

Should she not arrive on or before the 23d, you will deposit the 
orders for Lieutenant-Commandant Long on the summit of Burnt 
Island. 

I am, respectfully, 

CHARLES WILKES, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
PASSED MID. J. W. E. REID, 

Commanding Sea-Gull. 

XXXIII. 

GENERAL ORDER. 

THE officers of the Exploring Expedition will transmit to me, on 
the receipt of this order, such collections of shells, specimens, &c., as 
they may have made since leaving the United States, with lists of the 
same, for the purpose of having them placed in a proper state for 
preservation and safe keeping. 

It is presumed that each officer has availed himself of every oppor- 
tunity of aiding, by individual collections, this most important depart- 
ment of the Expedition. 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
U. S. Ship Vineennes, 

Orange Harbour, Terra del Fuego, 
April 16th, 1839. 



416 APPENDIX. 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS IN RELATION TO THE COLLECTION AND PRESERVATION 
OF SPECIMENS, SHELLS, ETC. 

THE undersigned, commanding the Exploring Expedition, has 
examined the collections called for by him, and finds, with much 
regret and mortification, that few or none have been made. 

The object of this communication is to avoid any misapprehension 
hereafter, in regard to the orders heretofore given by the Navy Depart- 
ment and myself, requiring the collection and preservation of all shells, 
specimens, &c. 

To the country belong all our labours, and it being the earnest wish 
of the government, that as large and extensive collections as possible 
be introduced into the United States by the Exploring Expedition, it is 
the duty, and should be the wish of every officer, to afford all the aid 
in his power in effecting this object. 

Any selfish ideas of accumulating for ourselves, I trust are laid aside, 
particularly when it is considered that the opportunity of effecting this 
object will be much greater by united and general collections and 
preservations, as all which are left, after the government are supplied, 
would undoubtedly be returned to those who had collected them, if 
desired, in preference to others. 

It is believed, that with proper exertions and attention, a sufficient 
number can be obtained during the cruise, to supply every one who 
may desire it, from the general collection. 

No expense or means will be spared by me on the part of the 
government, to place every article in the most secure state of preser- 
vation and safe keeping ; this could not be done, if all specimens are 
retained by the persons collecting them. 

1st. Hereafter, each officer will avail himself of every opportunity 
of making collections, on shore and afloat, and transmit them to the 
commander, or such person as he may designate, who will cause them 
to be cleaned or arranged for safe keeping, and lists will accompany 
them, with the name of the person who collected them. 

2d. All specimens, shells, &c., (in no case exceeding one hundred,) 
will be required if they can be obtained. 

3d. The cost of any article purchased will be refunded, should it be 
wanted by the government. Valuable and rare shells, seldom met with, 
will of course be retained by the government. 

4th. The Naturalists will have every opportunity afforded them, of 
examining and describing any fish, shells, &c., as soon as taken. 

These arrangements will, it is hoped, produce the desired co-opera- 
tion, and will insure success; not only meeting the view of the 



APPENDIX. 417 

country, but also holding out to individuals the only way in which 
they can be sure of procuring so desirable an end, as a complete 
collection of all those obtained by the different vessels. 

(Signed) CHARLES WILKES, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Orange Harbour, Terra del Fuego, 
April 18th, 1839. 



U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Valparaiso, May 17th, 1839. 
SIR, 

I enclose herewith the general instructions relative to the collection 
and preservation of specimens, shells, &c., for the information and 
government of the officers of the Peacock, under your command. 

Some suitable person on board will be selected to preserve all articles 
that may hereafter be obtained. 

I wish to call the attention of the officers of the squadron to the 
duties required of them at every port we may visit, in relation to 
making and noting observations, &c. 

To each and all of us attaches the obligation, not only of making 
collections, but furnishing descriptions of foreign countries, and people, 
their manners, customs, and inhabitants, their climate, soil, and pro- 
ductions, with the many instructive and interesting incidents which 
are afforded us. 

The government expects and requires this of all officers attached to 
the Exploring Expedition, in addition to their other duties ; and I 
trust that no opportunity will be omitted in complying with all that is 
required or expected. 

I am, &c., 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
CAPTAIN WM. L. HUDSON, 

U. S. Ship Peacock. 
LIEUT. COM. C. RINGGOLD, 

U. S. Brig Porpoise. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

May 25th, 1839. 
SIR, 

You will proceed to the port of Callao, with all possible despatch. 
The Bouqueron Passage is recommended to you to enter by, as it will 
save you much time. You will anchor at the island of San Lorenzo, 
near the wharf usually occupied by the Pacific Squadron. You have 

VOL. 1. 2K 52 



418 APPENDIX. 

permission to lift the bowsprit of the brig, and endeavour to discover 
and stop the leak ; this must be done with all possible expedition, as 
you must be ready to sail in five days after my arrival there. 

You will deliver the enclosed orders to Lieutenant-Commandant 
Long, of the Relief. 

Every exertion is expected from yourself and officers to effect this 
object, in the speedy accomplishment of your repairs, whilst laying at 
the island of San Lorenzo. You will be very particular in noting the 
hourly observations of the temperature of the air and water. 

Two boats of the squadron will tow you to sea to-morrow morning 

at daylight. 

Yours, very respectfully, 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
LIEUT. COM. C. RINGGOLD, 

Commanding Porpoise. 



XXXIV. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Valparaiso, May 31st, 1839. 

SIR, 

In consequence of the contemplated changes which have become 
necessary, you are hereby appointed commander of the United States 
Schooner Sea-Gull, one of the vessels attached to the Exploring 
Squadron (under my command), until further orders. 

Your compensation will be the same as the lieutenants commanding 
brigs and schooners on the coast survey, when the Exploring Expedi- 
tion left the United States, which will include all expenses while on 
shore or afloat. 

I have directed Passed Midshipman Reid to report to you. 

I am, &c., 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
LIEUT. COM. T. T. CRAVEN, 

Valparaiso. 



U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Valparaiso, June 1st, 1839. 

SIR, 

You will remain at Valparaiso until the arrival of the schooner 
Sea-Gull, one of the vessels of the Exploring Squadron, expected here 
hourly. 



APPENDIX. 419 

On her arrival, you will supply her with all possible despatch by 
requisitions on the navy agent, with all the outfits, rigging, stores, and 
provisions, (which you cannot more conveniently obtain at Callao,) 
when you will proceed direct to Callao ; where you will find me, or 
orders with the navy agent, directing your further movements. 

You will also procure any funds you may require from the navy 
agent on requisition and receipts, and will furnish me with a statement 
of the amount received and disbursed during your separation. 

It is necessary you should join me at Callao, as soon as practicable. 
I trust, therefore, you will have every article ready to be put on board 
the Sea-Gull the first day after her arrival, and sail the succeeding 
day. 

I have requested our consul, G. G. Hobson, Esq., to afford you every 
facility. 

I am, &c., 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition 
LIEUT. COM. T. T. CRAVEN, 

Valparaiso. 



Navy Department, 

December 9th, 1839. 

Sm, 

The Department has observed in the newspapers a notice of your 
gallant and successful efforts in rescuing a portion of the crew of the 
Chilian sloop-of-war Monteguedo, which, it appears, was wrecked in 
the harbour of Valparaiso, during the gale of the 24th and 25th of 
July last. 

Although you have already enjoyed the highest reward of your 
exertions, in the success which crowned them, it would not do justice 
to its own feelings, did it refrain from expressing to you its admiration 
of the fearless self-devotion displayed by you on that occasion, and 
which is alike honourable to yourself, to the service, and to your 

country. 

I am, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) J. K. PAULDING. 

LIEUTENANT T. T. CRAVEN, 

United States Exploring Expedition. 



420 APPENDIX. 

XXXV. 

GENERAL ORDER. 

THE undersigned, commanding the Exploring Expedition, has de- 
ferred acknowledging the great gratification he has received from the 
reports of the commanders of the different vessels respecting the 
officers and crews, during their late arduous cruise, and takes this 
opportunity, not only to offer them his thanks, but to assure them that 
he has duly represented the same to the government ; and feels great 
confidence that in the coming service they will show an equal alacrity 
and obedience to their officers, and a determination to carry out the 
views of the government and the country. 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

June 15th, 1839. 



XXXVI. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Harbour of Callao, June 20th, 1839. 
SIR, 

In consequence of the changes which have become necessary in the 
Exploring Squadron (under my command), you are hereby appointed 
commander of the United States Schooner Flying-Fish, one of the 
vessels attached to the same, until further orders. 

Your compensation will be the same as the lieutenants commanding 
schooners on the coast survey, when the Exploring Squadron left the 
United States, which will include all expenses while on shore and 
afloat. 

I have appointed Passed Midshipman Knox an Acting-Master, with 
orders to report to you for duty on board the Flying-Fish. 

I am, &c., 

CHARLES WILKES, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
LIEUT. COM. R. F. PINKNEY, 

U. S. Schooner Flying-Fish. 



APPENDIX. 421 

XXXVII. 

GENERAL ORDERS. 

THE undersigned, commanding the Exploring Expedition, has atten- 
tively examined the proceedings of the Naval Court of Inquiry, relative 
to the detention of the boat at Good Success Bay, in March last, and 
the conduct of Lieutenant Dale, who was in charge of her. 

In the opinion of the court he concurs ; having been an eye-witness 
to the principal transactions, and believes that the whole difficulty and 
detention of the boat arose and was occasioned by the inexperience of 
Lieutenant Dale in managing a boat in the surf: the mode of using 
the ample means he had; a want of determined perseverance to 
execute his orders ; and some procrastination in effecting his progress 
through the surf; being influenced by the timidity of some of those with 
him, arising from the novelty of the situation they were placed in. 

In consideration of the remarkably long confinement of Lieutenant 
Dale under suspension, and being fully impressed with the opinion of 
the court relative to his good conduct and attention to the men during 
his detention on shore ; he is restored to duty, and will resume his 
duties accordingly. 

The undersigned takes this opportunity to impress upon all under his 
command, the great necessity of adhering strictly to and carrying 
orders into execution, and of obtaining information relative to the 
best modes of surmounting difficulties before encountering them ; also, 
to provide themselves fully with the means necessary to execute 
orders ; and all those who may be passengers in boats to abstain from 
interfering or giving advice, unless it is asked, as many delays and 
difficulties may thus be avoided. 

He cannot refrain from expressing the high opinion he has of the 
conduct of Lieutenant Hartstein ; also, of John Moore (quarter-master), 
Francis Williams (boatswain's mate), and Samuel Stretch (quarter- 
master), who volunteered in the attempt to afford assistance to the 
party on shore, and he desires to return them his thanks for their 
conduct. 

The Naval Court of Inquiry, of which Captain William L. Hudson 
is President, is hereby dissolved. 

CHARLES WILKES, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition 
U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Callao, June 20th, 1839. 

2K2 



422 APPENDIX. 



XXXVIII. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Harbour of Callao, June 22d, 1839. 
SIR, 

We, the undersigned officers of the Exploring Expedition, under 
your command, respectfully take the liberty of addressing you on the 
subject of those officers who have incurred your displeasure in conse- 
quence of having been engaged in a duel; and whom, it is understood, 
you intend sending to the United States, with a recommendation to the 
proper authority that they may be dismissed the service. 

We are very far from arrogating to ourselves the right of discussing 
the propriety of any course you may think proper to adopt, with regard 
to those gentlemen ; but, when we consider the youth and inexperience 
of the parties, we are convinced that the affair was entered into with- 
out proper reflection upon the ill effect that such conduct would have 
upon the reputation and efficiency of the service upon which we are 
engaged, and that the decided expression of your displeasure will be 
sufficient to deter others from the commission of a similar error ; and 
we respectfully assure you that it would be the source of great grati- 
fication to all of us if you could render it consistent with your duties 
and responsibilities, as the commander of the Expedition, to overlook 
the offence against the discipline of the service, of which those of